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3  1833  01746  2836 









O  F 



JOHN     Or.    SHEA, 






The  Historical  Magazine,  established  originally  in  Boston,  and  edited  during  the 
first  year  by  John  Ward  Dean,  Esq.,  whose  agency  in  establishing  a  work  of  such  real 
value,  and  launching  it  fairly  into  the  American  public,  deserves  the  grateful  remem- 
brance of  scholars  of  the  historic  past  of  our  country,  has  now  passed  entirely  into 
the  hands  of  the  present  editor,  who  has  directed  its  columns  since  its  advent 
to  New  York,  except  for  the  first  year,  when  it  was  under  the  direction  of  the  Hon. 
George  Folsom. 

Appreciating  its  value  as  a  contribution  to  American  history,  a  record  and 
auxiliary  to  the  constantly  increasing  and  laboring  Historical  Societies,  a  stimulus 
and  helper  to  all  students  in  the  science  to  which  it  is  devoted,  and  all  conscious 
of  my  few  qualifications  for  the  task,  I  have  grown  to  regard  the  Historical  Magazine 
as  part  and  parcel  of  myself.  When  the  publisher  who  had  so  ably  commenced 
and  conducted  it  found  it  necessary  to  relinquish  its  management,  I  felt  reluctant 
to  see  it  pass  to   other  hands  or  cease. 

Its  condition  has  not  been  too  prosperous.  A  large  southern  subscription,  lost  by 
the  war,  has  not  been  replaced  by  an  increased  northern  list ;  but  I  felt  assured 
that,  properly  brought  to  the  notice  of  societies  and  students,  this  would  soon  be 
remedied ;  and  that  its  friends  will,  each  in  his  own  sphere,  exert  themselves  to 
increase  its  list. 

With  the  January  number  will  begin   the  series  of  promised   papers  on  American 

historians.      These  will,  in  many  instances,  be  accompanied  by  portraits;  and  I  shall 

y/     endeavor    to    give,    also,    other    illustrations    not    unbecoming    the    character    of   the 

™         Magazine.      Endeavor    shall    be    made    to     render    the    General    Department    mure 


attractive    by    giving    it    a     popular    character,    without    impairing    its    general    and 
recognized  form. 

Hoping  to  continue  for  years  the  connection  so  long  and  pleasantly  made  as  editor, 
the    proprietor  ushers  in  the  ninth  volume  of  the  Historical  Magazine. 


New  York,  December,  1864. 


Abercrombie.  Major.  110. 
Adams  and  Cunningham  Correspond- 
ence, 101. 
Adams,  John,  address  of.  Grand  Jury 

of  Dutchess  Co.  to,  231. 
Adams.  John  Q..  32.  40.  101,  117. 
Alden  Family,  42  ;  David,  345. 
Alexandria  Lodge,  Portrait  of  Wash- 
ington at,  49. 
Allan,  John.  Library,  223;  Memorial 

of,  352. 
Allen.  Col.  William.  359. 
Also]),  John,  185,  250. 
American  Admiral  in  Russia.  248,  315. 
Americanisms,  345 ;  in  German  Eng- 
lish Dictionaries,  37. 
Ancient  clock,  239  ;  Landmark,  38. 
Andre.  Major,  Report  on  Exchange  of 

Prisoners,  230. 
Andros,  Sir  E..  230,  246. 
Annals  of  Iowa,  88,  381. 
Androscoggin,  tribes  on,  150;   Indian 

names  on,  236. 
A  Political  lesson,  154. 
Armstrong.  Gen.  John,  Letter  to  Gen. 

Irwine.  16. 
Arnold,  Benedict,  letter  of,  178. 
Attewaren,  67. 
Aubrid,  Nicholas,  176. 
Autographs.  Authenticity  of,  116. 
Barclay,  Major  Thos.  367. 
Barnsley,  Thos.,  358,  &c. 
Battery,  statue  on  the,  154,  185,  249. 
Beardsley,  Rev.  John,  357. 
Bears  oil",  34. 

Bee,  Introduction  of  the,  78. 
Bellingham,  Gov..  3:34. 
Bellomont,  Earl  of,  name  of  misspelt, 

38.  | 

Beltrami,  179. 

Benjamin,  John,  Will  of,  333. 
Bibliographical  anecdote,  38. 
Bibliography  of  Thomas  a  Kempis, 
Following  or   Imitation  of  Christ, 
279,  346-8. 
Bishop  of  London's  jurisdiction  in 

America,  37. 
Black  River,  175. 
Blue  Hen's  Chickens,  244. 
Boerum,  Simon,  185. 
Boodle,  245,  317. 
Book  collectors,  277. 
Boquet  river,  37. 
Borrowing  names  of  places,  72. 
Boston,    prison    walls    in,    154;    old 
house  in,  182;  siege  of,   326;  old 
Province  House  in,  393. 
Braddock's  Defeat,  letter  of  Robert 

Orme.  353. 
Bradford  Club,  161,  352. 
Bradford,  Gov.,  Bible  of,  343. 
Bradford,  William,  Zenger's  Inden- 
tures to.  35  :  first  book  printed  by, 

Breeds  Historical  sketch  of  Conth,,  // 

tal  paper  money,  47. 
Brodheid,  Hon.  J.  R.,  Discourse  of, 

Bromfield,  Ed..  335. 
Bronck,  Jonas,  hie  library,  244. 
Brothers,  German,  70. 
Browne,  Lt.  Col.  Thos.,  389. 
Buchan,  Earl  of,  letter  of  Jefferson  to, 

Buffalo,  last  in  Ohio,  71 ;  on  the  Ohio. 

Buffalo,  Historical  reminiscences  of, 

69 ;  question  as  to  name,  278. 
Bunker  Hil,   Dearborn's  account  of 

the  Battle  of,  266. 
Burnes,  Gov.,  Funeral  Sermon,  398. 
Burr,  Aaron,  reminiscences   of    his 

latter  days.  113. 
Burrill's  Ferry,  106. 
Buskirk,  Col.  Abraham,  355. 
Butler,  Richard,  journal  of  the  siege 

of  Yorktown,  102. 
Butricke,  Geo.,  letters  of,  258. 
Butternuts,  79. 
Cadwalader,  John,  41. 
Calcott's  Disquisition.  311. 
Caldwell.  Capt.  244. 
Camenuck.  6T. 
Camp  life  in,  1776,  326. 
Campbell,   John,    publisher  of    first 

newspaper,  30. 
Canada,  Dark  Days  and  Earthquakes 

in,  60. 
Canal,  Early,  114,  184. 
Canarsie,  Indian  deed  for,  67. 
Canajoharie,  373. 
Capucins  in  Maine,  176,  301. 
Caricature  of  an  early  fracas  in  Con- 
gress, 9. 
Carondelet,  Metrical  account  of  origin 

of,  68. 
Cartier,  Jacques,  297. 
Cartridge  paper  in  1778,  150. 
Cary  John,  399. 
Caughnawaga,  373. 
"  Cease  Rude  Boreas,"  41. 
Centenarian  in  Maine,   176,  24T,   in 

Massachusetts.  346. 
Chapultepec,  fortress  built,  141. 
Chippeway,  179. 
Chippewyans,  167. 
Christian    names,  curious  origin  of 

some,  71. 
Christina,  founding  of,  387. 
Clams,  248. 

Clinton,  Gov.  Letter  to,  806. 
Clockville,  Madison  Co.  N.  Y.  B8, 
Cobb,  Lt.  Col.,  106. 
Cobham  Point.  108. 
Cochran,  Maj.  108. 
Coffin.  Gen.  John,  323:  Joshua,  Ml, 

Medal,  277,  346. 
Colden,  Cadwallader.  114. 

I    Colonial  Policv  of  France  in  N.  Ame- 
rica in  the  18th  Cent  in 
Columbus.  Statue  of,   266;   tomb  of 

273 ;  Letter,  289. 
Common  Prayer.  Book  of.  for  the  Con- 
federate States,  174. 
Condy.  Jonathan  W.  9. 
Confederacy,  116. 

Confederate  States.  Name  for  the,  310 ; 
Book  of  Common   Prayer  for  the. 
Continental  Money,  375.  17. 
Conyant  Chiefs  of,  34. 
Cookquago,  373. 

Copley  Gallery,  345:  Copley  and  Pel- 
ham,  397. 
Copperhead,  40,  118. 
Corlear*s  Hook,  Hessian  Camp  t,a  58. 
Cornplanter,  Letter  of,  34. 
Cosart  familv.  116. 
Cotton  Mill,  398. 

Cowdry's  Journal,  query  as  to,  78. 
Cox  familv,  279  :  Richard,  154. 
Crawford,  Archibald.  17!). 
Cruger  Lt.  Col.  291,  323. 
Curious  Hexameter--.  99. 
Curwen's  Journal.  882. 
Daly  C.  P.  The  first  Theatre  in  New 

York,  232. 
Damas,  Count  de.  106. 
Danforth,  Thos.  331. 
Da  Vinci.  Mapley.  256. 
Davis.  William  J.  161  ;  Mrs.  233:  Capt. 

Isaac.  396. 
Daviess,  Joe. 
Dawson's  Ft  tltralist.  47  .•  Stomj  Point 

Dayton,  Jonathan,  9. 
Dearborn's  account  of  the  Battle  of 

Bunker  Hill.  267. 
DeBarras.  Kit;. 
de  Dillon.  Count.  296. 
deQrasse.i  ount,  102, 106 :  op<  rations 

of  flu.  fleet  ><<,>/.  r, 
de'Kalb,  Gen.  17. 
dela  Qaussonniere,  Goi 
De  Lancev,  Lt  Col.  Stephan,  824. 
de  la  Touche.  110. 
de  Lauzun,  107. 
Delaware.  Suowden  on  the  early  his 

tory  of.  .'is."). 
Delaware^.  21. 

Delaware,    Col.  J.  H.   Snowdon'l  ad- 
dress on  early  history  of 
d'Estaing,  Count,  attach  on  Savan- 
nah, 12-16.  290-7. 
de  Xoaille.  ViSCOU  it,  996. 

De  Peytter,  Capt.  A 

de  sr.  Gaspin.  874. 

Deux  Ponts.  Count.  Viscount,  114 

de  Yioiue-nil.  109. 
Dexter.  Lord  Timothy.  238. 
Dogs,  879. 

Donkiu.  Robt..  390 



Draw  a  prize,  147. 

Dudley,  Paul,  193. 

Duke's  Laws,  116. 

Domes,  Couut,  106. 

Dundas,  Col.  110. 

Du  Portail,  Gen.  103. 

"During  Men,"  38. 

Dutchess  Co.  N.  Y.,  Grand  jury  of, 

Dityckinck' '$  National  Portrait  Gal- 
lery, 255,  383  ;  War  for  the  Union, 
255,  382. 

D'Witt,  John,  231. 

"Dying  in  the  last  Ditch,"  38. 

Early  Congressional  Customs,  31. 

Earthquakes  in  Canada,  64 :  at  Jama- 
ica, 345. 

Eliot's  Indian  Bible,  244. 

Elma,  a  Christian  name,  312. 

Endicott,  John,  334. 

Epishemo,  40. 

Esquemaux  and  Loucheux,  paper  on, 

Estaragoha,  373. 

Etting  s  History  of  Pennsylvania  Pa- 
per money,  128. 

Exchange  of  Prisoners,  200. 

Facts  which  are  not  facts,  112. 

Fanning,  Col.  Ed,  325. 

Farmer,  Major  R.  257. 

Fashionable  Lady,  107,  years  ago,  39. 

Father  of  English  Lexicography,  116. 

Federalist,  Authorship  of  the  Disput- 
ed numbers  of  the,  305. 

Fenwicke,  John,  154,  249,  400. 

Fiat  justitia,  mat  ccelum,  374. 

Fire  Lands  Pioneer,  254. 

First  book  printed  in  Philadelphia, 

First  Slave  in  Canada,  278. 

First  Theatre  in  New  York,  232. 

Fleche;  Jesse,  176. 

Flag,  American,  395. 

Folk  Lore— The  Bible  and  Key,  395. 

Fort  Chartres,  affairs  at,  257  ;  Descrip- 
tion of  260. 

Fort  Niagara,  History  of,  367. 

Fort  St.  George,  (N.  Y.  City)  58. 

Fort  St.  Philip,  278. 

Fort  Stevens,  114. 

Fourth  of  July,  first  celebration  of  in 
Boston,  312. 

Francisco,  Henry,  78,  185. 

Franklin,  Celebrated  Latin  line  on, 
113,  Parton's  Life  of,  127,  Portrait 
of,  147,  House  of,  at  Passy,  176. 

Fraser,  Major,  294. 

F  reemantW  s  Three  Months  on  the 
Southern  States,  126. 

Gaines'  Universal  Register,  Extracts 
from,  321,  354. 

Gardiner,  Sir  C,  75. 

Gates,  General,  17. 

Gauvin,  Michael,  77. 

German,  Lord  George,  162,  Letter  to, 

Gibson,  pretended  member  of  Wash- 
ington's Life  Guard,  36.     . 

Gidimfs  History  of  the  Rebellion,  254. 

Gilmartin,  &c,  210. 

Gloucester,  French  marines  land  at, 
107,  Dundas  at,  110. 

Godwyn,  Morgan,  193. 

Going  through  the  Motions,  343. 

Golden  Wedding,  373. 

Graham,  Major,  292. 

Green,  Rev.  Ashbel,  9. 

Greenbacks,  118. 

Greene,  Gen.,  16. 

Griswold,  Roger,  9. 

Hackensack,  plundered  by  Hessians, 

Hall,  A.  O.  on  N.  Y.  Court  of  Ses- 
sions, 359. 

Hallam,  William,  Actor,  236, 

Hamblen,  Isaac,  on  Death  of  Tecum- 
seh,  183. 

Hamilton,  Alexander,  House  where 
he  died,  184 ;  Numbers  of  Federal- 
ist written  by,  305. 

Hand,  Gen.,  106,  129. 

Hankev,  Journal  of  the  Voyage  of  the, 

Harberdinck,  Arms  of,  154. 

Haring,  John,  185. 

Harman  Johnson,  177. 

Harper's  Pictorial  History  of  the 
Great  Rebellion,  126. 

Hasbrouck  House,  Newburgh,  36. 

Headleifs  Chaplains  and  Clergy  of 
the  Revolution,  192. 

Hempstead  Plains,  94. 

Henry,  Commodore,  12. 

Henry  Plot,  The,  374. 

Hero,  Captain,  104. 

Hessians  in  the  Revolution,  53. 

Historical  Gossip  about  the  New 
York  Court  of  Sessions,  359. 

Historical  Notes  on  Slavery  in  the 
Northern  Colonies  and  States,  21, 
169,  193. 

Hooding,  316. 

Hooghland  family,  116. 

Horseheads,  78. 

Houghton,  Mrs.,  centenarian,  346. 

Hughes,  Archbishop,  Tracts  by,  317 ; 
Complete  works  of,  383. 

Hunter,  journal  found  on  the,  51. 

Hunt's  Life  of  Edward  Livingston, 

Hyde,  West,  Report  on  exchange  of 
prisoners,  200. 

Illinois,  first  English  occupation  of, 

Indian  burial  places,  116:  Treaties 
in  Wisconsin,  178;  names  on  the 
Androscoggin,  237 ;  in  New  York, 
373  ;  Works  by  Mother  Mary  of  the 
Incarnation,  279 ;  Vocabularies,  68. 

Indians,  on  the  Androscoggin,  150: 
in  Orange  Co.  N.  Y.,  152,  208:  Pa- 
per on  the  Loucheux  and  Esqui- 
maux, 165  ;  in  Illinois,  264. 

Iroquois  names  of  places,  373. 

Irvine,  Gen.,  letters  of  Gen.  Read  to, 

Jackson,  Gen.,  letter  to  Col.  Pipkin, 

Jaques,  Lieut.  Benj.,  177. 

Jay,  John,  Numbers  of  the  Federalist 
written  by,  305. 

Jefferson,  letter  to  Earl  of  Buchan, 

Jenne,  374. 

Jesuit  well,  73. 

John  Brown's  tract,  73. 

Johnson,  Gov.  Henry,  351. 

Johnson,  Samuel,  Library  of,  249,  346. 

Jones,  John  Paul,  was  he  allowed  to 
receive  a  title  ?  40. 

Kean,  Thomas,  232. 

Kearsarge,  374. 

Keith,  George,  193. 

Kennebec,  238. 

Kentaienton,  79,  250. 

Kewley  on  Methodism,  116. 

Kickapooe,  264. 

Killick,  Kellock,  78,  280. 

Kilwell,  Capt,,  245. 

Kirkby,  Wm.,  letter  of,  165. 

Klock,  John,  33. 

Knapp,  Usual,  last  survivor  of  Wash- 
ington's Life  Guard.  .'i(i. 

Knight  of  the  Golden  Melice,  76. 

Knox,  H.,  letter  of  Lafayette,  73. 

Kootchin  Indians.  167. 

Lafayette,  letter  to  Gen.  Knox,  73, 

Lake  Manicouagan.  63-4. 

Lamb,  108. 

Lathrop,  Rev.  John,  33. 

Laurens,  Henry,  16. 

Laval,  Count,  111. 

Lee,  Henry,  Proclamation  against 
rebels,  115. 

Leisler,  Jacob,  230 ;  Seal  of,  385. 

Leo  of  Pai'is,  176. 

Leington  Monument,  128. 

Lincoln,  Gen.  attacks  Savannah,  13. 

Lock.  Lieut.  12, 

Little  Compton,  335. 

Long  Island,  paper  bv  W.  A.  Jones, 

Long  Island,  first  Lawyer,  95 ;  Physi- 
cians, 96  ;  Clergy.  97,  Artists,  ib. 

Loosley  Ch.  Advertisment,  112. 

Loskiel,  Bishop  George  H.  372. 

Loucheux  and  Esquimaux  paper  on, 

Lousiana  in  1818,  241. 

Low,  Isaac,  185,  280. 

Loyalists,  Loss  at  Savannah,  297  ;  Sa- 
bine's, 320. 

Lyon  Matthew,  affray  in  Congress,  9. 

Machen,  Capt.  Thos.  208. 

Madison  James,  Numbers  of  Federal- 
ist by,  305. 

Madoc's  Discovery  of  America.  249. 

Magaw,  Col.  129. 

Magebogiduce,  51. 

Maine,  operations  in,  1779,  51;  Centen- 
arian in,  176  ;  Capucins  in,  176,  301; 
Military  history  of,  288. 

Maitland,  Col.  271. 

Margil,  F.  Antonio,  Life  of,  42. 

Marriage,  Singular,  312  ;  in  New  Eng- 
land, 279,  348. 

Martin,  F.  X.  Letter  of,  241. 

Maryland  4th,  107. 

Massachusetts,  Slavery  in,  24,  169, 
193.  . 

Mastodon,  Discovery  of  a,  245. 

Mather  Increase,  Early  History  of 
Neto  England,  191. 

Mather  Cotton,  116  ;  Indian  work  bv, 

Matsebigwadoussek,  374. 

McArthur,  Major,  292. 

McPherson,  Lieut,  13. 

Meigs  Journal,  47. 

Menard,  Rene,  place  of  death  of,  175. 

Menomonees,  179. 

Mfcndham,  N.  J.,  399. 

Milbome,  Jacob,  230. 

Mind  your  own  business,  249. 

Miniature  of  a  Revolutionary  officer, 

Minneguahum,  67. 

Moncnef,  Capt,  271. 

Monseys,  21. 

Moody,  Lt.  James,  354. 

Morrice,  Thaddeus,  181. 

Morris,  Lt,  Geo.  R.  H.  Letter  to,  353. 

Morris,  Miss,  on  Washington,  98. 

Morris,  Robert,  Letter  of,  231. 

Morristown  Ghost,  79,  117  ;  News  pa- 
per in,  249. 

Mules,  origin  of  in  the  United  States. 
342,  375. 

Muscovy  Duck,  an  American  bird, 

Mutsun  Language,  68. 

My  Care  life  in^Vicksburgh.  192. 

Nantaeket,  51. 

Nasquapees,  63. 

Negro  Burying  Ground,  40. 

Negroes  ordered  out  of  Massachu- 
setts, 72,  400. 



New  Bedford  Centennial,  352. 
New  England  Society,  HT. 
New  Hampshire  Grants,  117. 

New  Jersey,  Centenarian  in.  247. 
Newiin.  Nicholas.  41. 
New  Orleans,  314. 
"News.  Letter,"  The,  30. 
Newspaper    in    Hometown,    N.    J., 

First.  21!). 
New  Ctretcht,  896! 
New    York   Names,    12,    Freedom  of 

the  City  conferred  on  Washington, 

().").  NewEngland,  Emigration  to.  73; 

Accounts  of  the    Yellow    Fever  in. 

76;  Publishing  In   17 "i  1.  st) :   Statue 

on  the   Battery,  L54,  18Jl  249$  First 

School   in.    3SPi  :   First   Theatre    in. 
••>:;•» :  Oyster  beds  in,  244;    John  Sr. 

M.  E.  Church,  896. 
Nicholson.  John,  231. 
Nicola.  Col..  12!). 
Nicols,  Mathias,  230. 
Norn  de  Plume.  398. 
Northern  Whig,  79. 
Numismatics,  384,  397,  399. 
O'Bail,   John.    (Cornplanter),    Letter 

of.  31. 
O'Brien   and   Diefendorf's    General 

Orders,  382 
01  Ccdlaghan's    Brief  Narrative   of 

Indian  War,  47;  New  Netherland, 

Odiorne,  Thomas,  155. 
O'Dunn,  Count,  293. 
Oghquago,  373. 
Ohio,  Buffalo  on  the,  259;  Navigation 

in  17(58,  of  Armed  boats  on. 
"  Old  Hoss,"  80. 
Old  sheep  pastures,  398. 
Orange  Co.,   N.   Y.,  Indians  in.  152, 

O'Reilly  at  Algiers,  40. 
Orme,  Robert  Letters  of,  353. 
Ossibaw  Bar,  291. 
Ottawas,  179. 
Pamunkey,  105. 
Papinachois,  62. 
Papers  relating  to  the  allied  attack 

on  Savannah,  290. 
Paroling  private  Soldiers,  345. 
Pater  Yaer,  78. 
Patrick  Henry,   Who    wrote    letters 

signed?  240. 
Patrons  of  Literature  in  New  York 

in  1774,  80. 
Pauwangum,  <;;. 
Peabody,  George,  236. 
Peck  on  Universalism,  79 
Pendleton.  Rebecca,  176. 
Pennsylvania,   Origin  of   the  name, 

180:  Governors,   of,   266,  316;  Act 

prohibiting  Slavery,   278;  Manoeu- 
vres of  the  City  Battalions  in  1775, 

Perry's   History    of    the   Episcopal 

Church  in  Portland,  48. 
Philadelphia,  First  book  printed  in, 

274;    Reminiscences    of,   340:    Old 

tombstone,  309. 
Philip,  King,  26. 
Philips  and  Davis,  147. 
Phillips.  Deacon  .J..  408. 
Phip*s.  Wm.  Proclamation,  336. 
Pickering,  Col.,  208. 
Pipkin,  Col..  Jackson's  letter  to,  209. 
PittstiieldEim,  313. 
Plymouth    Anniversary    discourses, 

Polk.  President.  32. 
Portland,  Episcopal  church  in,  48. 
Pottawattomies.  179. 
Poughkeepsie,  original  deed  of,  69. 
Powell,  Mr.,  103. 

Predeath  Coffins  and  Monuments.  310, 

Presidential  election  of  1800,  840,  818, 
Prevost.   .Maj.   Qen.,    Letter  to   Lord 
Geo.  Germain,  290;  to  de  Estaing, 

Prisoners,  exchange  of,  200. 

Prock  and  Gyascufus,  814 
Prugge,  Johannes,  230. 

Pseudonyms,  ■'•'>  I. 

Pulaski  at  Savannah,  13. 

Punishment  for  Blasphemy.  897. 

I'm  nam  at  Bunker  Hill.  369,  827. 

Quebec,  monument  to  commemorate 
second  battle  of.  18:  Quebec  in  1701, 
74:  English  officers  and  men  killed 
at,  375. 

Quincy,  Josiah  Jr.,  (of  1775),  207. 
|  Quincy,  Josiah,  R.  C.  Winthrop  on, 
i      281. 

j  Rale,  Father,  177. 
i  Range  of  animals  in  N.  America,  278. 

Rankin,  Capt.,  12. 

Raymond' 8  Administration  of  Abra- 
ham Lincoln,  255. 

"Redeemed  Captive,1'  41,  71. 

Redemptors,  235. 

Revilla  Gigido,  Count  of,  140. 

Revised  Statutes  of  New  York,  errors 
in,  37,  38. 

Revolutionary  Army  pay,  130. 

Revohitionary  journals,  Siege  of  Sav- 
annah, 12,  290 ;  one  found  on  the 
Hunter,  1779,  51 ;  Butler's  Siege  of 
Yorktown,  102;  Siege  of  Boston, 

Revolutionary  officer,  miniature  of  an 
unknown,  341. 

Revolutionary  Pensioners,  148,  399. 

Reynards,  264. 

Rhode  Island  rebellion  against  Mass- 
achusetts, 333. 
!  Robinson  Beverly,  357. 
|  Rogers,  Robert,  390. 

Rochambeau,  Gen.,  Seal  ring  of,  48; 
at  Yorktown,  106. 
!  Sabine's  American  Loyalists,  320,  321. 
j  Sabino,  237. 

Sacs,  264. 
j  Saffin,  John,  198. 
|  Safford's  Blennerhassett  Papers,  320. 

Sagadahoc,  237. 

Salisbury,  Capt.,'2M;  Sanitary,  309. 

Santa  Clara  Mission,  339. 

Santa  Cruz  Indians,  vocabulary  of, 

Santangel,  Luis  de,  Columbus'  letter 
to,  289. 

Sarel,  M.,  16. 

Savannah,  Siege  of,  12,  296. 

Sawed  cannon,  374. 

Scammel,  Col.,  death  of,  107. 

Schneck's  Burning  of  Chambersburg, 

Sealsfield,  Chas.,  342. 

Seamen,  Valentine,  75,  96. 

Semmes,  R.,  on  Privateering,  76. 

Be  wall's  Joseph,  a  memorial,  194-7. 

Shane's  (Rev,  Mr.),  Library,  383. 

Shank.  General.  :i-2-2. 

Albany,  51. 
Bonetta,  104,  111. 
Charon,  104,  109. 
Chimere,  293. 
Comet,  12. 
Crawford,  12. 
Defiance,  104. 
Experiment,  103. 
Formidable,  101. 
Fourey.  12.  24,  293. 
Germain,  291. 
Guadaloupe,  104. 

Hampden,  53. 
Hermione,  no. 

Hunter.  51. 

Iris.  106. 

KeppeL  \->.  201. 

King  Charles,  880 

La  Trinite.  898. 

Nautilus,  61. 

North,  51. 

Rambler,  104. 

Pichmond,  106. 

Romulus,  106. 

Rose,  12,  18,  299. 

Savannah.  12,  18,  292. 

Skyrocket.  53. 

Spitfire,  104. 

Susannah,  104. 

Tarleton.  104 

Thunderer,  13. 

Venus,  13. 

Vengence.  53. 

Yille  de  Paris.  107. 
Shulz,  John.  247. 
Signers,  Lineage  of  the,  209. 
Silvester.  243. 
Simcoe,  Col.  108,  322. 
Simcock,  John,  41. 
Slavery  in  the  Northern  Colonies ;  in 

New  England,  400;    in  Massachu- 

cbusetts.  21,  169  ;  in  New  York,  77 ; 

in  Canada,  278. 
Smith,  Lt.  Col.,  106. 


Albany  Institute,  Officers,  122. 

American  Antiquarian  Society,  212 : 
Oct.,  405. 

American  Numismatic  Society,  158. 

American  Baptist  Historical'  Soci- 
ety Officers,  46. 
■•^American    Statistical  Association, 
Jany.  15,  1864,  Officers,  85:  Oct. 
404,  251 :  July  7,  319. 

Boston  Numismatic  Societv,  Jan. 
7,  1864.  Officers,  83 ;  June,  251  ; 
Jidy,m;  Oct.,  404. 

Buffalo    Historical    Society,   Nov., 

1863,  Proceedings,  85 ;  Dec,  Red 
Jacket  Historical  Society,  86, 
Jany..  122;  Officers,  123;  Mch., 
215 ;  April,  216. 

Chicago  Historical  Society.  Nor.  17, 
1863:  Annual  Meeting,  Officers. 
43:  Jany.  19,  1864.82:  Mar.,  133: 
April,  211  ;May,  17,  250;  June  21. 

American  Antiquarian  Society, 

Connecticut  Historical  Society, 
May,  Officers,  250. 

Dakota  Historical  Society.  88. 

Delaware  Historical  Society.  May 
31,  Preliminary.  402:  Oct.  Annal, 
403:  Snowdon's  Address,  -'^:->. 

Dorchester  Antiquarian  Society, 
Jany.  22.  Officers,  83. 

Essex  Institute,  Annals,  255,  381. 

Fire  Lands  Historical  Societv.  Dec, 
9.  1868,   Proceedings,  45 ;  June  8, 

1864,  Proceedings,  252:  Pioneer. 

Iowa  Historical  Society,  Annals, 
88,  381. 

Long  island  Historical  Society, 
Sketch  of,  187;  Jany.  7.  1864: 
Officers.  87,  188;  Paper  by  W.  A. 
Jones,  89;  Feb.-Mch.,  Proceed- 
ings, 190;  May-OcL,  379,  Nov,  3. 

Massachusetts  Historical  Society, 
Feb.  11:  The  late  Frederick  Tu- 
dor, 119.  156.:  July  14,  Josiah 
Quincy,  Jr..  281. 

Maine  Historical  Society,  Jany., 
1864,  Baxter's  Journal,  "Cushman 



on  Clam  shell  deposit,  119 ;  Col- 
lections, 128 ;  Mch.,  156 ;  April,  15. 
Shakespeare,  185 ;  Officers,  187 ; 
Aug.  4,  Popham  Celebration,  317 ; 
Officers,  318. 

Navajo  Indians,  280 ;  Sept.  20,  348: 
Oct.  18,  405 ;  Nov.  15,  406. 

New  England  Historical  Genealog- 
ical Society,  Dec.  2,  Proceedings, 
44;  Jan]/.  6,  1864,  Reports,  83: 
Officers,  84;  Feb.  3,  Librarian's 
Report,  &c,  120;  Shakespeare 
Anniversary,  153 ;  Mar.  2,  Stone 
or  Jonathan  Edwards,  157; 
April  6,  Barstow,  212;  Shakes- 
peare Association,  213;  June,  1, 
251 ;  July  6,  Vinton  on  Deborah 
Sampson,  318 ;  Sept.  7,  349  ;  Oct. 
5,  380. 

New  Hampshire  Historical  Society, 
June  8,  Officers,  251. 

New  Haven  Historical  Society, 
Nov.  30,  1863,  Annual  meeting, 
43 ;  Officers,  ib. 

New  Jersey  Historical  Society, 
Jany.  21, 1864,  Reports,  120 ;  Offi- 
cers, 121;  May  19,  Rev.  John 
Proudfoot,  223. 

New  York  Historical  Society,  Bee, 
1863,  Proceedings,  443 ;  Bradford 
Celebration,  47 ;  Jany.  5,  Reports, 
Officers,  87;  Feb.  2,  Hoppin  on 
Portraits,  123;  Mch.  124;  April, 
214 ;  May,  Proceedings,  215 ; 
June  7,  252;  Oct.  12,  Bicentennial 
Celebration,  375. 

Old  Colony  Historical  Society, 
Jany.  4,  1864,  Officers,  85. 

Philadelphia  Numismatic  Society, 
Oct.  22,  407. 

Onondaga  Historical  Association, 
Bee.  1863,  Proceedings,  44. 

Pennsylvania,  Historical  Society  of 
Feb.  8th,  Officers,  124 ;  Mar.  158  ; 
April,  Penn.  Mansion,  191 ;  May, 
Bradford  Celebration,  217 ; 
June,  13.  253 :  Oct.  10.  379. 

Rhode  Island  Numismatic  Society 
Officers,  160. 

Rhode  Island  Historical  Society,  87, 
Officers,  88. 

Vermont  Historical  Society  Oct.  20. 
1863,  Officers,  46  ;  Gen.  De  Peyster 
on  Secession  in  Switzerland,  ib  ; 
Jan.  28.  Proceedings,  125. 

Wisconsin  State  Historical  Society 
Report,    218 :   Newspapers,   219  : 
Officers,  220  ;  April,  2.  222. 
Soldier's  Pocket  Bible,  160. 
Sonora  Barbasts,  account  of,  78. 
Southern  Currency,  67. 

Spanish  Priests  in  New  York,  317, 

Star  Spangled  Banner,  347. 

Staten  Island,  a  Hessian  view  of,  56. 

Steam  Navigation,  374. 

Steenwyck  Cornelius,  230, 

Sternhold  A.  Hopkins,  247. 

Steuben,  Baron,  105,  106. 

Stevenson 's  Indiana 's Roll  of  Honor, 

Stewart,  Col.,  103,  106. 

Stone's  Rhode  Island  in  the  Rebellion. 

Stony  Point,  129. 

Strange  superstition,  44. 

Stray  Leaves  from  an  Autograph  Col- 
lection, 230,  333. 

Streeter,  S.  F.,  380. 

St.  Simon,  Marquis  102,  105,  106. 

Stuyvesent,  Memorials  of  Gov.,  228. 

Substitutes,  Price  of,  113. 

Suffolk  Co.  N.  Y.,  92. 

Sullivan's  Expedition  to  the  Genesee 
Country,  40 :  at  Boston,  327, 

Syracuse,  73. 

Tarleton,  107,  358. 

Tate  Armand,  248,  315. 

Tarves,  Capt.,  14. 

Taylor,  Daniel,  148. 

Tecumseh,  Death  of,  183. 

Temple,  Newburg,  66. 

Ten  Orators  of  Athens,  278,  317,  348. 

Texas,  Early  Spanish  Missionaries  in, 

The  Irrepressible  Negro,  398. 

The  Selling  of  Joseph,  a  memorial, 

Throg's  Neck,  origin  of  name,  38. 

Thariolin,  78. 

Tortoises,  trial  of,  210. 

Tory  Regiments,  list  of  officers  of, 
321,  354,  389 :  New  York  volunteers, 
12 ;  loss  at  Savannah,  297. 

Townsend,  51. 

Trecothick,  278. 

Throop,  Lt.  Col.  Josiah,  305. 

Tomes'  War  with  the  South,  383. 

Treaties  with  Indians  in  Wisconsin, 

Trumbull,  Col.,  106. 

Umbagog,  208. 

Upton,  Mr.,  235. 

Valentine's  Manual  of  the  Corpora- 
tion, 381. 

Valley  Forge,  44,  100. 

Vanderhorst,  Capt.,  18. 

Van  Renselaer,  Jeremies,  229,  230. 

Variorum,  Diversorum,  374. 

Venerable  Voters,  398. 

Vide  Poche,  68. 

Vincennes,  263. 

Virginia  Blue  Laws,  308. 

Vocabulary  of  the  Santa  Crnz  Indi- 
ans, 68. 

Von  Eelking's  German  Auxiliary 
Troops,  54. 

Voting  Mills,  344. 

Waldo,  Rev.  Daniel,  347. 

Waldren,  Resolved,  will  of,  38,  73. 

Wallace,  J.  W.,  Letter  of,  274. 

Wametappack,  Sachem  of  Canarya- 
sen,  67. 

Warren,  Hooper,  350. 

Washington,  Geo.,  how  he  asked  the 
advice  and  eonsent  of  the  Senate  32 : 
Life  guard,  36 :  notice  on  some  por- 
traits of,  49,  100 ;  Letter  accepting 
the  freedom  of  the  City  of  New 
York,  65;  at  Newburgh.  86;  at  Mt. 
Vernon,  105 ;  Miss  Morris'  descrip- 
tion of  98 ;  Latin  ode  on,  154,  209  ; 
remarkable  statement  of  Jefferson 
concerning,  247;  first  watch,  342; 
at  Braddock's  defeat,  353 :  his  lands, 
366 ;  Washington  Cents,  397. 

Washington,  John,  345. 

Washingtons  of  England,  138. 

Wax  medallions  of  Washington,  50. 

Wawayanda,  208. 

Wayne,  Gen.  accidentlv  wounded, 
163-5  ;  at  Stony  Point,  254. 

Webster,  Noah,  78. 

West  Point,  38. 

What  was  this  Book  ?  399. 

Wheatley,  Phillis,  Sketch  of,  32  ;  Let- 
ters of. 

Wheeler,  Bennet  H.  Books  printed 
by,  248,  317. 

Whim  whams.  Authors  of,  79,  155. 

Whistler,  Major  John,  185,  280. 

Whitmore's  Cavalier  Bismounted, 

Whitworth,  Lieut.  12. 

Why  are  the  rebels  called  Johnnies, 

Walke,  John,  249. 

Wilkins,  Lt.  Col.  J.,  257,  288. 

Williamsburg,  105. 

Wingtield,  Thos.  Maria,  400. 

Winiiebagoes,  179. 

Winslow,  Edward,  321 ;  family.  192  : 
Rev.  Hubbard,  319. 

Woodbridge,  John,  253. 

Woolen  Show,  116. 

Wright,  Sir  James,  15  :  Mrs.  Patience, 

Wyandots,  21. 

Yellow  Fever  in  New  York,  Biblio- 
graphy of,  75. 

Yorktown,  Journal  of  Siege  of,  102  ; 
Storming  of  redoubts  at,  109. 

Zenger,  John  P.,  Indenture  of,  35. 

Zubly's  Perry,  293. 



Vol.  VIII.]. 

JANUARY,    1864. 

[No.  1. 

<§mral  g*prinunt. 


lis"  presenting  to  our  readers  a  copy  of 
an  early  caricature  of  what  unfortunately 
has  been  a  precedent  too  often  followed,  we 
are  happy  to  give  the  following  account  of 
the  scene  from  the  pen  of  one  of  our  kind 

"  The  disgraceful  scene  which  the  accom- 
panying engraving  presents  occurred  in  the 
United  States  House  of  Representatives, 
then  sitting  in  Philadelphia,  on  the  15th  of 
February,  1798.  The  building  in  which 
Congress  then  met  is  that  at  the  S.  E.  cor- 
ner of  Sixth  and  Chestnut  streets.  The 
Senate  sat  in  the  back  room,  second  story, 
now  occupied  by  a  branch  of  the  District 
Court  for  the  City  and  County  of  Phila- 
delphia. In  the  room  below,  near  the 
Court  of  Quarter  Sessions,  sat  the  House 
of  Representatives. 

"  The  combatant  with  the  uplifted  cane 
is  the  Hon.  Roger  Griswold 
cut ;  he  with  the  brandished  tongs 

of  Connecti- 
is  the 
Hon.  Matthew  Lyon  of  Vermont.  The 
Speaker,  the  Hon.  Jonathan  Dayton,  of 
New  Jersey,  is  in  his  chair ;  beneath  him 
sits  the  Clerk  of  the  House,  Jonathan  W. 
Condy,  Esq.,  of  Pennsylvania.  In  the  left 
hand  corner,  leaning  his  elbow  on  his  knee, 
is  the  Rev.  Ashbel  Green,  an  eminent  Cler- 
gyman in  the  Presbyterian  church,  who 
died  only  a  few  years  ago. 

"Of  the  two  prominent   actors  in  the 
scene  we  have  the  following  account  in  Mr. 
Charles  Lanman's  *  Dictionary  of  the  Uni- 
ted States  Congress.'   (Philadelphia,  1859.) 
"  '  Roger  Griswold,   born   in    Lyme, 

HIST.  MAG.      YOU  VIII.  1 

Connecticut,  May  21,  1762;  graduated  at 
Yale  College  in  1780,  and  studied  law. 
From  1795  to  1805  he  was  a  Represent- 
ative in  Congress  from  Connecticut.  In 
1801  he  declined  the  appointment  of  Secre- 
tary of  War,  offered  him  by  President 
Adams,  a  few  days  before  the  accession  of 
President  Jefferson.  In  1807  he  was  cho- 
sen a  Judge  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  the 
State  ;  was  Lieutenant-Governor  from  1809 
to  1811,  and  then  elected  Governor;  while 
holding  that  office  he  refused  to  place  four 
companies  under  General  Dearborn  at  the 
requisition  of  the  President,  for  garrison 
purposes,  deeming  the  requisition  uncon- 
stitutional, as  they  were  not  wanted  to 
"  repel  invasion,"  etc.     He  died  in  1812.' 

"'Matthew  Lyon.     He   was  bom   in 
Wicklow  County,  Ireland,  in    1746,   and 
having   emigrated   to   this   country  when 
thirteen  years  of  age,  participated  to  some 
extent  in  the  revolutionary  struggle,  hav- 
ing,   in    1777,  been  appointed  temporary 
Paymaster  of  the  Northern  army,  and  in 
1778  Deputy  Secretary  of  the  Governor  of 
Vermont,  and  at  the  same  time  Clerk  of 
the  Court  of  Confiscation.     He  settled  in 
Vermont  after  the  war,  and  was  elected  a 
member  of  the  State  Legislature  in  1789 
and  the  three  following  years.     In  1783  he 
founded  the  town  of  Fair  Haven,  where  he 
built   saw-mills,   grist-mills,    established  a 
forge  or  iron-foundry,  manufactured  paper 
from  bass-wood  and  established   a  news- 
paper called  The  Farmers'  Library.    He 
served  that  town  in   the   legislature   ten 
years.     In  1786  he  was  Assistant  Judge  of 
Rutland  County.    He  was  a  Representative 
in  Congress  from  Vermont,  from  1799  to 
1801,  and  it  was  during  his  first  term  that 
he  had  a  personal  difficulty  on  the  floor  of 
Congress  with  Roger  Griswold  of  Connec- 




ticut,  when  an  unsuccessful  effort  was  made 
to  have   him   expelled.     The   fact    of  his 
giving  the  vote  that  made  Jefferson  Pre- 
sident is  well  known.     At  the  end  of  his 
second  term  as  a  Representative  from  Ver- 
mont he  removed  to  Kentucky,  served  two 
years  in  the  Legislature  of  that  State,  and 
was  a  Representative  in  Congress  from  that 
state  from  1803  to  1811.     After  his  final 
retirement  from  Congress,  and  on  Novem- 
ber 13,  1811,  the  Speaker  of  the  House  of 
Representatives  presented  a  petition  from 
him,  setting  forth  that  he  had,  many  years 
before,  been  prosecuted  and  convicted  un- 
der the  sedition  law  (see  "  State  Trials  of 
the  United  States")  that  he  had  suffered 
imprisonment  and  been  made  to  pay  the 
sum  of  $1060.90,  and  that  he  wished  to 
have  the  money  refunded  to  him.     On  July 
4,  1840,  a  law  was  passed  paying  to  his 
heirs  the  specified  sum,  with  interest  from 
February,  1799.     It  was  while  in  prison  at 
Vergennes  that  he  was  elected  to  Congress 
from  Vermont,  and  at  the  close  of  his  ser- 
vices in  Congress  from  Kentucky  he  was 
employed  to  bnild  gun-boats  for  the  war, 
but  became  bankrupt  from  the  operation. 
In  1820  he  was  appointed  a  Factor  among 
the  Cherokee  Indians  in  Arkansas ;  when 
that  Territory  was  organized  he  was  elected 
the  first  delegate  to  Congress,  but  did  not 
live  to  take  his  seat,  having  died  at  Spadra 
Bluff,  Arkansas,  August  1,  1822.' 

"  The  encounter  represented  in  the  curi- 
ous engraving  herewith  reproduced  was  not 
the  first  which  had  occurred  between 
Messrs.  Lyon  and  Griswold.  On  the  31st 
of  January,  in  the  same  year  (1*798),  a  dif- 
ficulty occurred  between  them,  of  which 
the  following  account  has  been  abridged 
from  The  Aurora  newspaper  (Republi- 

"  i  The  House  of  Representatives  was 
engaged  in  balloting  for  managers  to  con- 
duct the  impeachment  before  the  Senate  of 
Senator  Blount  of  North  Carolina,  the 
Speaker  being  out  of  the  chair.  Just  be- 
fore the  adjournment,  Mr.  Griswold  and 
Mr.  Lyon  being  outside  of  the  bar,  the 
former  made  some  allusion  to  a  story  cir- 
culated in  some  of  the  eastern  states  that 

wooden  sword  for  cowardice  in  the  field. 
Upon  this  Mr.  Lyon  spit  in  Mr.  Griswold' s 

"  '  Mr.  Sewall  desired  that  the  galleries 
might  be  cleared,  and  when  the  doors  were 
closed  he  moved  that  Mr.  Lyon  be  expelled. 
The  House  ordered  the  doors  to  be  opened 
and  the  subject  was  then  referred  to  the 
Committee  on  Privileges.  The  committee 
soon  reported  to  the  effect  that,  if  either 
of  the  members  offered  any  violence  to  the 
other  before  a  final  decision  of  the  House, 
he  should  be  considered  guilty  of  a  high 
breach  of  privilege. 

"  '  On  the  1st  of  February  a  letter  from. 
Mr.  Lyon  to  the  Speaker  was  read,  in 
which  he  disclaimed  any  intentional  dis- 
respect to  the  House. 

"  '  On  the  following  day  the  Committee 
of  Privileges  reported  the  facts  of  the  case 
to  the  House  and  recommended  the  passage 
of  a  resolution  for  Mr.  Lyon's  expulsion. 
The  debate  upon  this  report  continued 
until  the  12th  of  February,  when  the  vote 
upon  the  question  of  expulsion  was  taken 
and  stood — ayes  52,  nays  44.  A  vote  of 
two-thirds  being  constitutionally  required 
to  effect  an  expulsion  the  motion  was  lost. 
'"Of  the  affair  of  January  31st,  a  cari- 
cature is  in  existence  representing  Mr. 
Lyon  as  a  lion  standing  on  its  hind  legs 
and  having  a  man's  head  in  profile.  A 
wooden  sword  is  hanging  by  his  side. 
Griswold,  whose  name  admitted  of  no  pun, 
is  holding  a  handkerchief  in  his  hand  and 
exclaiming,  "  what  a  beastly  action."  ' 

The  Aurora  of  February  16  th,  1798, 
gives  the  following  anecdote  of  the  battle 
represented  in  the  engraving. 

"  '  Yesterday,  after  prayers,  nearly  half 
an  hour  after  the  time  to  which  the  House 
had  adjourned,  and  after  the  Speaker  had 
taken  the  chair,  Mr.  Lyon  was  sitting  in  his 
seat  (which  is  the  centre  of  a  row  of  desks) 
with  his  hat  off  and  inclining  forward  with 
his  eyes  on  a  paper  before  him.  Mr.  Gris- 
wold left  his  seat  with  a  stout  hickory  club, 
came  up  to  Mr.  Lyon  on  his  right  front,  and 
without  warning  struck  him  once  and  again 
over  the  head  and  shoulders  before  he  could 
rise,    and  repeated  his  blows,   which  Mr. 

Mr.   Lyon   had   been   obliged'  to   wear  a  Lyon  endeavored  to  ward  off  with  his  arm 




while  extricating  himself  from  the  sur- 
rounding desks  and  chairs.  Mr.  L.  at- 
tempting to  close  in,  in  order  to  avoid  the 
blows,  pushed  forward  towards  the  Speak- 
er's chair;  Mr.  G.  endeavoring  to  preserve 
the  distance  and  repeating  his  blows.  Mr. 
,  L.  at  length  got  hold  of  the  tongs ;  but 
after  one  stroke  with  them,  his  antagonist 
closing  in,  both  the  tongs  and  the  club 
were  dropt  and  the  two  members  fell,  Mr. 
G.  having  Mr.  L.  partly  under  him.  There 
was  no  call  of  order  from  the  Speaker  all 
this  time.  Two  members  endeavored  to 
take  Mr.  G.  off  by  pulling  him  by  the  legs. 
The  Speaker  alleged  he  should  be  taken 
off  by  the  shoulders ;  they  wrere,  however, 

"  '  A  few  minutes  afterwards  Mr.  G.  was 
standing  in  that  part  of  the  house  where 
water  is  placed  for  the  use  of  the  members. 
Mr.  L.  came  up  to  the  same  place,  with  a 
cane  in  his  hand  ;  as  soon  as  he  recognized 
Mr.  G.  he  struck  him  with  his  cane ;  on 
which  Mr.  Sitgreaves  brought  Mr.  G.  a 
hickory  club  ;  but  the  members  interfered, 
the  Speaker  then  called  to  order  and 
Messrs.  L.  and  G.  separated. 

"  '  We  are  happy  to  add  that  Mr.  L.  is 
not  so  much  hurt  as  might  have  been  ex- 
pected from  the  violence  and  manner  of  the 

"  So  far  from  the  organ  of  the  Republi- 
can party.  The  following  account,  copied 
from  a  newspaper  slip,  appears  to  be  from 
some  paper  of  the  Federal  party : 

"'Philadelphia,  February  16. — Ano- 
ther Fracas  in  Congress. — Yesterday 
morning,  immediately  after  prayers  were 
over,  and  while  the  Speaker  was  in  the 
chair,  but  before  the  house  was  called  to 
order,  Mr.  Griswold,  a  member  from  Con- 
necticut, observing  Mr.  Lyon,  of  Vermont, 
in  his  seat,  left  the  chair  in  which  he  usually 
sat  and  moved  diagonally  towards  the  table 
occupied  by  the  sergeant  at  arms.  He 
made  a  momentary  halt,  assumed  a  fierce- 
ness of  countenance  to  which  he  is  unac- 
customed, grasping  at  the  same  time  with 
firmer  nerve  the  hickory  stick  he  had  in  his 
hand,  passed  on  with  three  or  four  quick 
steps  till  he  came  near  to  Mr.  Lyon,  when 
lie    raised    his    stick   and    draw    a   violent 

stroke  across  Mr.  Lyon's  head,  who  was 
sitting  uncovered  and  looking  down  upon 
some  papers  upon   the  desk,   which  stood 
between    him    and    Mr.    Griswold.       The 
stroke  was  so  sudden  and  unexpected  that 
Mr.  L.   did  not   even  make   an    effort  by 
raising  up  his  arms  to  ward  off  the  danger. 
Mr.  G.  repeated  his  stroke  before  Mr.  Lyon 
could   rise  from  his  seat.     Mr.  L.  put  his 
cane  between  his  legs  when   he  first    sat 
down  but  seemed  to  have   lost  it,  as  he 
pressed  forward  unarmed  to  extricate  him- 
self from  the  chairs  and  desks  with  which 
he  was  surrounded.     Mr.  G.  continued  his 
assault  during  the  favorable  opportunity 
furnished  by  Mr.  L.'s  embarrassed  situation, 
gave  several  severe  strokes,  one  of  which 
visibly  staggered  him.     As  soon  as  Mr.  L. 
had    got   into    the    open    area  before   the 
Speaker's  chair  he  attempted  to  close  with 
Mr.  G.,  but  finding  this  not  easily  effected, 
by  the  wariness  of  his  antagonist,  he  seemed 
compelled  to  seek  for  arms  that  should  put 
him  more  on  a  level  with  Mr.  G.     With 
this  view  he  passed  on  to  the  nearest  fire- 
place, followed  by  Mr.  G.,  Avho  continued 
striking.     At  length  Mr.  L.  seized  the  fire- 
tongs  and  proceeded  to  repel  Mr.  G.'s  at- 
tack, but  in  this  he  was  prevented  by  Mr. 
G.,  who  quickly  caught  hold  of  the  tongs 
also  and  made  a  thrust  with  his  cane  at  Mr. 
L.'s  face.     The  combatants  now  closed  aud 
abandoned  their  weapons ;    after  a   short 
struggle  they  fell  side  by  side  on  the  floor, 
when    several    other   members   interposed 
and  separated  the  combatants.     Mr.  L.  im-- 
mediately  expressed  a  wish  that  they  had 
been  left  alone  to  settle  the  matter  in  the 
way  Mr.  G.  had  proposed. 

"'A  few  minutes  only  had  intervened 
when,  by  accident,  Mr.  Lyon  and  Mr. 
Griswold  met  at  the  water-table  near  the 
south-east  door;  Mr.  Griswold  was  now 
without  any  stick  and  Mr.  Lyon  had  a  cane 
in  his  hand  ;  their  eyes  no  sooner  met  than 
Mr.  Lyon  sprang  to'  attack  Mr.  Griswold, 
who,  'stepping    back,    in    some   measure 

avoided  the  blow.  Mr.  G.  continued  to 
retreat  until  another  cudgel  was  put  into 
his  hand  by  Mr.  Sitgreaves,  but  on  the 
Speaker  and  some  of  the  members  calling  to 
order  the  business  terminated  for  the  present. 




"  c  Mr.  Lyon  suffered  considerable  per- 
sonal injury  from  the  blows  he  received  in 
the  first  attack.  Mr.  Griswold  appears  to 
have  sustained  little  or  no  bodily  hurt  dur- 
ing the  whole  affray.' " 

OF  SAVANNAH  IN  1779. 
November  3,  1779.  Saw  from  Tybee 
Light  house  four  large  ships  in  the  offing ; 
sent  Lieut.  Lock  in  the  pilot-boat  to  recon- 
noitre them. 

4th.  The  Lieutenant  returned  and  re- 
ported the  strange  ships  in  the  offing  to  be 
two  French  ships  of  the  line,  two  frigates, 
and  a  sloop. 

5th.  They  stood  off  this  day  and  appeared 

6th.  Lieut.  Whitworth  was  dispatched 
with  advice  to  New-York  of  the  enemy 
being  on  the  coast,  but  was  chased  in  by 
the  French. 

7th.  Lieut.  Whitworth  sailed  again  and 
we  hope  escaped  the  enemy  ;  employed  in 
sounding  the  North  Channel  and  bringing 
the  Rose,  Keppel  and  Germain  men  of  war 
into  it  and  mooring  them. 

8th.  The  signal  was  made  from  the 
Light-house  of  seeing  18  sail,  at  sun-set 
counted  41  sail,  32  of  which  appeared  large 
ships ;  an  officer  and  reinforcement  came  to 
Tybee  fort,  which  had  only  one  24  pounder 
and  one  8-J-  inch  howitz.  Came  down  from 
Cockspur  and  anchored  in  the  North 
Channel ;  his  Majesty's  ship  Fowey,  the 
Savannah  armed  ship  transports  and  prison 
ships  ready  to  go  up  Savannah  river, 
started  all  the  water  except  the  ground 

9th.  At  day-light  saw  the  French  fleet, 
some  of  them  in  chase  of  a  schooner  with 
English  colours  which  they  took. 

10th.  Four  of  the  enemy's  ships  got  un- 
der way  at  high  water  and  stood  for  Tybee, 
the  Fowey  made  the  signal  to  weigh, 
weighed  with  the  Fowey,  Keppel  and 
Comet  galley  and  run  up  Savannah  river  as 
far  as  Long  Reach ;  the  Fowey  got  aground 
on  White  Vester  Bank,  ordered  the  Kep- 
pel and  Comet  to  her  assistance  with  boats, 
anchors,  &c.  the  fort  was  abandoned  and 

burnt,  the  French  ships  anchored  off  Ty- 
bee, the  Fowey  got  off  at  high  water. 

11.  Employed  sounding  and  laying  off  the 
channel  leading  to  Savannah,  the  Fowey, 
Keppel  and  Comet  galley  anchored  there. 

12th.  At  sun-set  a  French  ship  anchored 
off  Tybee,  two  moreanchor'd  in  the  South 
Channel  and  one  in  the  north,  perceived 
she  was  a-gronnd. 

13th.  At  2  p.m.  a  sloop,  the  Crawford, 
came  alongside,  sent  8  nine  pounders,  400 
shot  and  eight  barrels  powder,  &c.  to  the 
army ;  the  Comet  galley  moved  to  Cock- 


and   exchanged  some  shot   with  the 

French  ship  a-ground,  the  French  fleet  at 
anchor  without  the  bar  ;  at  7  a.m.  weighed, 
as  did  the  Fowey,  Keppel  and  Comet  gal- 
ley, at  half  past,  the  ship  took  the  grooncl, 
but  soon  floated,  anchored  with  the  small 
bower,  at  8  weighed  and  came  up  the 
river,  at  11,  anchored  at  Five  FathomHole. 
14th.  Sent  Lieut.  Lock,  26  seamen,  Capt. 
Rankin  and  all  the  marines  to  reinforce  the 
army  per  order  from  Commodore  Henry. 

15th,  at  2  the  Keppel  and  Comet  went 
down  the  harbour  to  cover  and  protect  the 
troops  expected  from  Beaufort ;  this  day  I 
joined  the  army  with  the  remaining  part  of 
the  officers  and  ship's  company,  leaving 
only  enough  to  keep  the  ship  free  ;  posted 
the  officers  and  seamen  to  the  different  bat- 
teries in  the  line  ;  the  General  received  a 
summons  from  Count  d'Estaing  to  sur- 
render, &c.  &c.  to  The  Arms  of  the 
French  King  ;  a  council  of  war  was  called 
on  the  occasion,  and  an  answer  was  sent ;  a 
trooper  of  Pulaski's  was  brought  in  this 

16th.  The  remainder  of  the  Rose  and 
Fowey's  guns  were  landed,  the  guns  were 
immediately  mounted  on  the  different  bat- 
teries ;  Colonel  Maitland  and  the  troops 
from  Beaufort  arrived,  71st  and  New  York 
Volunteers,  brave  fellows  ;  Savannah  in  the 
highest  spirits. 

17th.  A  truce  agreed  on  for  24  hours, 
viz.  till  gun  fire  p.m. 
18th.  Continued  truce. 
19th.  Hands  sent  down  to  bring  the 
ships  up  near  the  town  ;  all  the  ships 
moved;  the  pickets  firing  most  part  of  the 




20th.  New  works  thrown  up,  the  French 
ship,  rebel  galleys  moving  up  the  river, 
orders  from  Capt.  Henry  to  scuttle  and 
sink  the  Rose  man  of  war  in  the  channel, 
which  was  immediately  done,  after  getting 
out  as  many  of  her  stores,  cv;c.  as  the  time 
would  admit.  The  Savannah  armed  ship 
and  Venus  transport  were  burnt  with  their 
guns  and  provisions,  ammunition,  &c.  two 
or  three  transports  sunk  at  Five  Fathom 
Hole  or  thereabouts  with  all  their  sails 
burnt,  &c.  &c. 

21st.  Two  Negroes  deserted  from  the 
enemy  report  them  strong,  Gen.  Lincoln 
with  the  rebel  army  having  joined  the 
French,  and  that  they  are  preparing  for  the 
attack ;  strengthening  our  works,  firing 
occasionally  on  the  enemy  to  disturb  them. 

2 2d.  The  enemy  still  opening  works  to 
the  left  fired  on  them  occasionally  from  the 

23d.  Strengthening  the  "works  and 
throwing  up  intrenchments  in  front  of  the 
different  corps  in  the  line. 

24th.  At  seven  in  the  morning  saw  the 
enemy  very  busy  intrenching  themselves  to 
the  left  of  the  barracks,  three  companies  of 
light  infantry  made  a  sortie  with  great 
spirit,  the  enemy  being  too  numerous 
obliged  them  to  retreat  under  the  fire  of 
our  batteries  with  the  loss  of  21  killed  and 
wounded  ;  Lieut.  McPherson  of  the  71st 
was  killed,  it  is  supposed  the  enemy  suf- 
fered considerably ;  the  enemy  fired  seve- 
ral cannon  in  our  line  from  2  eighteen 
pounders  and  some  4  pounders,  a  flag  was 
sent  to  bury  the  dead  on  both  sides,  in  the 
afternoon  the  enemy's  gallies  advanced  near 
the  works,  our  galleys  exchanged  several 
shot  with  them  and  returned  under  the  sea 
battery;  the  new  battery  behind  the  bar- 
racks finished  this  day,  mounted  with  two 
1 8  pounders,  two  9  pounders  and  field  pie- 
ces, throwing  up  intrenchments  in  front  of 
the  different  corps  in  the  French  lines, 
about  half  a  musket  shot  from  our  abbatis  ; 
the  pickets  exchanged  shots  the  greatest 
part  of  the  night,  we  throwing  shells  into 
their  works  and  firing  on  them  fror  our 
batteries  every  fifteen  minutes. 

25th.  The  French  throw  up  new  wo.  ks 
on  the  left  of  the  barracks,  in  which  they 

mounted  two  18  pounders  en  barbette,  but 
were  driven  from  them  by  our  batteries,  in 
the  evening  the  rebel  gallies  advanced  up 
to  the  Rose,  but  were  obliged  to  retire  by 
the  fire  from  the  Comet  and  Thunderer 
gallies ; — continue  throwing  shells  and 
firing  on  their  works  during  the  night. 

26th.  At  11  a.m.  the  enemies'  gallies  fired 
a  few  shot  at  the  Fort  on  the  left  of  the 
encampment  without  effect,  a  French  fri- 
gate advanced  to  Five  Fathom  Hole. 

27th,  at  3  a.m.  a  small  fire  of  musketry 
from  the  pickets ;  8  a.m.  a  flag  from  the 
French  with  private  letters  from  the  Bri- 
tish prisoners  :  destroyed  the  barracks  and 
carried  off* the  wood,  &c.  leaving  the  lower 
part  as  a  breastwork,  to  prevent  it  being 
fired  from  the  enemy,  continue  throwing 
shells  and  cannonading  the  enemys  works 
during  the  night. 

28th.  at  1  in  the  morning  a  small  firing 
between  the  picquets,  a  rebel  taken  close  to 
our  abattis,  about  2  another  firing  from  our 
picquets  ;  at  9  a.m.  a  French  frigate  moved 
up  the  Back  River  and  moored  her  stern 
and  head — every  thing  quiet  this  day,  the 
enemy  are  carrying  on  their  works.  8  p.m. 
the  Thunderer  galley  moved  near  the 
French  frigate  and  began  to  cannonade 
her,  the  frigate  did  not  return  her  fire. 

29th.  At  daylight  this  morning  saw  a 
new  entrenchment  on  the  left,  raised 
during  the  night  by  the  enemy,  within  half 
musket  shot  of  our  lines  ;  employed  throw- 
ing up  breastworks  to  the  right  and  left  of 
the  barracks,  fired  on  the  enemy's  works 
every  15  minutes  from  the  batteries  and 
howitzers  during  the  night. 

30th.  At  daylight  perceived  the  enemy 
working  and  extending  their  entrench- 
ments ;  at  7  a.m.  the  Thunder  galley  ad- 
vanced toward  the  French  frigate  on  the 
Back  River  and  fired  at  her,  she  did  not 
return  a  shot — the  Thunderer  returned, 
having  broke  the  platform  of  her  gun.  At 
10  a.m.  a  brig  came  up  to  Five  Fathom 
Hole,  the  rebel  gallies  on  their  former  sta- 
tion near  the  works  below;  the  Rose,  a 
boat  with  a  small  gun,  fired  at  the  Thun- 
derer without  effect,  a  launch  and  another 
boat  went  up  the  Back  River  ;  a  man  came 
I  in  from  the  enemy,  gives  no  satisfactory 




intelligence  ;  some  firing  from  the  battery 
on  the  right,  and  the  armed  vessels  on  the 
enemy  at  Yamacraw,  as  well  as  from  the 
batteries  in  the  front  and  the  left  on  the 
French  intrenchments.  This  night  an  offi- 
cer of  Polaskie's  was  wounded  and  brought 
into  the  line  by  the  picquets. 

October  1st.  At  7  a.m.  the  French  fri- 
gate in  the  Back  River  fired  some  shot  to- 
wards the  town  and  at  the  negroes  on 
Hutchinson's  Island  ;  perceived  the  enemy 
in  front  and  on  the  left  busy  in  their  works, 
embrasures,  &c.  a  flag  from  us  to  the 
French  with  letters  from  the  wounded 
officer  taken  last  night,  still  employed  in 
strengthening  our  lines,  particularly  in 
front  ;  sent  out  of  the  lines  two  dragoons 
of  Polaskie's  legion  by  a  flag,  who  had 
been  detained  some  time  here,  and  received 
an  officer  of  the  same  legion  with  a  flag, 
Mons.  JBentoloso,  who  came  to  see  the  offi- 
cer that  was  wounded  and  brought  in  last 
night ;  employed  in  strongly  throwing  up 
a  new  battery  on  our  left,  to  be  mounted 
with  8  nine-pounders,  to  act  on'the  enemy's 
batteries ;  in  hourly  expectation  of  the 
attack;  this  afternoon  fresh  breezes  from 
E.N.E.  and  rain;  fired  during  the  night 
from  the  batteries  in  front,  and  threw  some 
shells  into  the  French  intrenchments. . 

2d.  Rainy  weather,  wind  E.N.E.  the 
enemy  still  working  in  their  intrenchments 
and  preparing  the  batteries ;  at  noon  the 
enemy's  gallies  advanced  near  the  sea  bat- 
tery and  began  to  cannonade,  as  did  the 
frigate  in  the  Back  River,  several  of  their 
shot  came  into  the  rear  of  the  camp  without 
doing  execution ;  the  Thunderer  returned 
a  few  shot,  the  sea  battery  did  not ;  a  de- 
serter from  Polaskie's  legion  reports  the 
enemy's  batteries  to  be  near  ready,  a  de- 
serter from  the  French  likewise,  with  the 
same  account ;  the  frigate  in  the  Back  Ri- 
ver fired  again  in  the  afternoon  without 
effect ;  threw  shells  and  fired  from  the  bat- 
teries into  the  French  intrenchments  to 
disturb  them  during  the  night. 

3d.  Rainy  weather,  wind  E.N.E,  the 
enemy  still  working  in  the  intrenchment 
and  compleating  their  batteries,  the  French 
frigate  firing  on  the  rear  of  the  camp  with- 
out  effect;    at  12  o'clock   this  night  the 

enemy  opened  the  bomb  batteries  and 
threw  several  shells  into  the  town  and 
camp,  at  day  break  they  opened  their  bat- 
teries and  fired  warmly  into  the  town,  but 
none  into  the  field. 

4th.  The  enemy  still  continue  their  fire 
from  the  bomb  and  other  batteries,  it  was 
returned  by  us. 

5th.  The  enemy  still  cannonading  the 
camp  and  town,  at  night  a  house  took  fire, 
but  it  went  out  without  communicating  to 
any  other  building,  the  frigate  and  gallies 
firing  as  usual ;  heard  a  cannonade  at  sea. 

6th.  The  enemy  still  firing  on  the  works, 
camp,  and  town ;  the  line  turned  out  at 
dawn  on  an  alarm  that  the  enemy  were 
approaching;  the  cannonade  and  bombard- 
ment continued  all  night. 

7th.  Still  continue  cannonading  and 
throwing  shells  on  both  sides,  the  enemy 
throwing  most  of  their  fire  towards  the 
town,  which  suffers  considerably ;  a  9 
pounder  in  our  battery  to  the  right  of  our 
barracks  burst  and  wounded  a  seaman  ; 
carpenter  employed  in  repairing  the  plat- 
form in  the  Ebenezer  battery,  which  had 
been  broke  by  the  shells.  At  7  at  night  the 
enemy  threw  several  carcases  into  the  town, 
and  burnt  one  house. 

8th.  The  enemy  fired  little  this  morning, 
but  during  the  night  cannonaded  and  bom- 
barded the  town  furiously. 

9th.  At  drum-beating  in  the  morning  the 
French  attacked  us  warmly  on  the  right 
and  endeavoured  to  storm  the  redoubt  and 
Ebenezer  battery,  the  grenadiers  of  the 
60th  regiment  advanced  to  support  them, 
and  after  an  obstinate  resistance  by  the 
French,  they  drove  them  back  with  great 
slaughter :  their  loss  is  reported  to  be  6  or 
700  killed,  wounded  and  prisoners;  our 
loss  Captain  Tarves  of  the  dragoons,  who 
died  nobly  fighting  on  the  parapet  of  the 
redoubt,  7  of  the  60th  killed  and  wounded, 
and  two  marines  killed  and  four  wounded. 
A  flag  from  the  French  to  bury  their  dead, 
which  was  granted ;  at  8  at  night  the 
French  beat  a  parley,  but  were  refused  by 
us  ;  they  fired  cannon  and  shells  during 
the  night  without  any  other  effect  than 
destroying  the  houses. 

10th.  This  morning  sent  a  flag  to  bury 




from   either  side  during  the 

their  dead,  the  Rebels  sent  one  for  the  same 
purpose  ;  the  truce  lasted  from  tea  till  four 
p.  m.,  the  French  fired  several  cannon  when 
it  expired.  Between  8  and  9  P.  M.  our 
picquets  fired  on  the  right  several  shots  ; 
the  lines  lay  on  their  arms  all  night,  and 
the  seamen  stood  to  their  cannon.  No 
other  n'rin 

11th.  This  morning  very  foggy,  no  alarm 
from  the  enemy,  our  line  very  alert  and  in 
high  spirits  ;  the  French  and  Rebels  sent 
in  liags  of  truce  during  the  greatest  part  of 
the  day ;  the  enemy  employed  burying 
their  dead,  carrying  off  their  wounded,  and 
searching  for  their  missing.  The  French 
take  off  all  their  cannon  and  mortars  in  the 
night,  leaving  only  some  small  field  pieces 
to  amuse  us,  our  whole  lines  in  spirits, 
ready  for  another  attack.  Several  deserters, 
French  and  Rebel,  come  in,  and  all  report 
that  the  enemy  are  moving,  and  that  their 
loss  in  the  attack  is  much  more  than  we 
imagined,  the  Rebels  miss  1300,  the  French 
loss  uncertain,  but  greater  than  the  Rebels, 
as  they  fought  like  soldiers,  and  were  killed 
and  wounded,  but  the  Rebels  loss  is  from 
desertion  immediately  after  the  defeat. 

12th.  The  French  amused  us  with  four 
cannon  shot  at  day  break,  more  deserters 
come  in, — say  they  are  retreating,  Count 
d'Estaing  was  at  the  attack  and  was  dan- 
gerously wounded  in  two  places,  and 
the  flower  of  the  French  army  killed  or 
wounded — Count  Polaskie  mortally  wound- 
ed. The  enemy  very  quiet  all  night,  open'd 
a  new  battery  on  the  right  of  three  4 

13th.  We  fired  a  gun  at  three  in  the 
morning,  the  French  returned  two  shot, 
the  whole  line  very  alert,  and  under  arms, 
a  flag  out  at  nine  to  return  the  wounded 
French  officers  and  soldiers — the  frigate  in 
the  Back  River  moved  down  at  high 
wTater — hear'd  several  guns  from  the  sea, 
which  we  suppose  signals  ;  more  deserters 
come  in,  wrho  reported  the  enemy's  loss  to 
be  great,  the  Rebel  militia  are  mostly  gone 
off,  and  the  rest  dispirited  and  ready  to 
march  to  Charles  Town  ;  our  batteries  in 
front  fired  on  the  enemy's  works  at  in- 
tervals during  the  night,  the  enemy  returned 

the  fire,  which  seemed 
gun  ;    nothing   more 


come  from  one 

material  during 

14th.  More  deserters  from  the  French 
'  and  Rebels  who  make  the  same  report  as 
the  former — at  nine  this  morning  a  flag  out 
to  settle  an  exchange  of  prisoners ;  some 
information  gives  us  reason  to  suspect  a 
vigorous  attack  from  the  French,  as  soon 
as  they  have  got  off  their  heavy  baggage 
cannon,  sick  and  wounded — we  fired  at 
times  during  the  night  on  the  enemy's 
works,  they  returned  two  shot  only,  from 
two  small  pieces,  supposed  to  be  six 

15th.  The  enemy  very  quiet  this  morn- 
ing, we  could  not  hear  the  Rebels  revallie 
— the  French  beat  the  drums,  but  fired  no 
morning  gun  ;  a  light  ship  came  to  Five 
Fathom  Hole,  suppose  to  water.  Two 
gallies  joined  the  two  former  ones — more 
deserters  come  in  and  report  the  enemy  to 
be  on  the  retreat,  that  their  loss  the  morn- 
ing of  the  engagement  was  very  great, 
particularly  in  their  best  officers,  they  are 
very  sickly,  and  discontented  with  the 
Rebels  ;  the  regiment  Darmagnac  are  on 
their  march  to  Bewis,  with  baggage,  sick 
and  wounded,  the  night  quiet,  firing 
occasionally  from  the  grand  battery  on' the 
enemy's  entrenchment,  they  returned  3  or 
4  shot. 

16th.  The  French  beat  the  revallie,  the 
rebels  did  not ;  more  deserters  from  the 
French  confirming  the  former  reports  of 
their  great  loss  and  retreat,  we  are  how- 
ever on  our  guard.  The  frigates  in  the 
river  loose  their  topsails,  as  we  suppose,  to 
drop  down  and  cover  the  retreat  of  the 
French.  An  alarm  at  sunset,  that  the 
enemy  was  forming  in  our  front,  the  lines 
under  arms;  the  rebels  set  fire  to  some 
houses  on  our  right,  as  well  as  in  our 
front — our  armed  negroes  skirmishing  with 
the  Rebels  the  whole  afternoon,  we  fired 
occasionally  during  the  night  on  the 
enemy's  works  and  camp;  they  returned 
two  shot. 

17th.  The  French  beat  the  revallie,  the 
Rebels  did  not ;  heard  the  report  of  several 
cannon  ;  a  manager  of  Sir  James  Wright's 
from  Ogeeche,  reports  that  the  enemy  were 




preparing  for  a  retreat,  that  they  lost  the 
day  of  the  attack  1500  men,  killed  and 
wounded,  and  the  desertion  very  great; 
fire  as  usual  at  the  enemy's  works,  they 
returned  three  shot. 

18th.  The  French  beat  the  revallie,  the 
Rebels  did  not,  but  were  heard  working  in 
the  woods,  the  armed  negroes  brought  in 
two  Rebel  Dragoons  and  eight  horses,  and 
kiiled  two  rebels  who  were  in  a  foraging 
party ;  only  one  deserter  this  day  from 
the  French,  who  gives  the  same  account 
as  the  former  ones ;  many  boats  observed 
passing  from  the  enemy's  vessels  and 
their  army — nothing  material  during  the 
night,  we  fired  as  usual  on  their  works,  and 
they  returned  three  shot  from  a  six  pounder, 
our  lines  very  alert  and  generally  on  their 
arms  ready  to  receive  the  enemy. 

19th.  The  French  beat  the  revallie,  the 
Rebels  not,  but  were  heard  cutting  in  the 
woods  ;  the  ship  that  came  to  Five  Fathom 
Hole  moved  down  the  river,  as  we  sup- 
posed, full  of  water  and  the  French  baggage. 

20th.  The  French  beat  the  revallie,  but 
did  not  fire  the  morning  gun ;  two  de- 
serters that  came  in  this  day,  say  the 
Rebels  marched  off  yesterday  evening, 
after  having  fired  their  camp  ;  the  frigate 
fell  down  lower,  but  the  wind  being  against 
her,  she  could  go  no  further. 


Armstrong  made  himself  famous  by  his 
aifair  at  Kittaning,  and  was  a  man  of  parts. 
He  was  a  personal  friend  of  Washington, 
having  served  with  him  in  the  French 

His  correspondence  with  General  Irvine 
(for  which  our  readers  are  indebted  to  a 
descendant  of  the  latter,  who  obligingly 
favors  us  with  contributions  from  General 
Irvine's  papers)  possesses  an  interest  as  a 
portraiture  of  the  men  and  times,  indepen- 
dent of  the  historical  value  of  the  facts 

Philadelphia,  8rd  August,  1780. 

Dear  General, 

I  cannot  pass   so   favourable   an  oppor- 

tunity of  answering  your  kind  letter  as  that 
of  Coll  Johnston,  altho'  an  interview  would 
much  better  serve  to  disclose  or  unburthen 
the  mind  which  cannot  so  properly  be  done 
by  Pen  and  ink. 

Your  soldiers  shirts  are  by  this  time  I  hope 
gone  forward,  with  Overalls,  and  as  much 
dispatch  in  procuring  Shoes  as  can  well  be 
made.  As  you  are  now  to  have  but  a  fewe 
hints,  the  great  concern  ofanJEmpty  Trea- 
sury with  a  thousand  daily  demands,  forms 
the  front  line  of  my  highest  fears  and  deepest 
distress — we  want  at  this  moment  to  draw 
money,  produce,  transpor  ation,  &c.  from 
these  States  to  whom  we  are  already  deeply 
indebted,  and  whom  our  delinquency  in  pay- 
ment disenables  from  advancing  those  Taxes 
whereon  at  present  we  depend. — How  the 
scheme  of  business  and  Finance  contained 
in  the  resolution  of  the  18th  of  March  last 
will  operate  for  our  relief  is  yet  uncertain 
but  doubted  by  too  many,  for  altho'  it  is 
considered  by  many  good  judges  to  be 
at  once  just  and  wise  respecting  the  pub- 
lick  at  large,  yet  various  individuals  sup- 
pose themselves  injured  or  disappointed  by 
fixing  the  money  at  forty  to  one,  and  there- 
fore decry  the  measure.  Mr.  Laurens  by 
our  reverse  of  fortune  in  South  Carolina  has 
been  retarded  in  his  voiage  to  Holand  for 
which  place  he  sets  out  from  hence  in  a  few 
days  for  the  purpose  of  borrowing  money 
for  the  United  States.  Mr.  Sarel  was  set 
out  (before  yr.  letter  came  to  hand)'  for 
Holland  also,  in  order  to  procure  Cloathing 
for  the  Pennsylvania  line  of  our  army,  with 
some  other  necessaries  for  the  State,  which 
if  he  is  successful,  I  hope  may  be  of  some 
use  to  us.  Genl.  Greens  peremptory  resig- 
nation in  the  business  of  Qr.  M.  Gl or 

refusal  to  act  under  the  new  regulation 
for  that  department,  at  this  very  critical 
moment,  has  at  once  disappointed  and 
thrown  Congress  into  a  degree  of  vexatious 
distress  greater  than  can  well  be  expressed, 
or  has  yet  happened  in  regard  of  any  in- 
dividual, nine  tenths  of  the  difficulty  arises 
from  the  importance  of  the  present  moment. 
The  Committee  of  Congress  at  Camp  ap- 
pears to  make  Genl.  Greens  continuance  of 
absolute  necessity — so  that  if  he  is  retained 
the  measures  of  Congress  for   reforming 




that  department  must  be  rescinded,  &  the 
censures  of  the  publick  must  remain  agst. 
Congress,  as  deaf  to  their  remonstrances 
for  the  reformation  of  abuses.  The  remon- 
strance of  the  Genl.  Officers  was  this  morn- 
ing read  &  committed  to  a  respectable 
Committee,  the  greater  part  whereof  will  in 
my  opinion  meet  the  cordial  attention  of 
Congress,  who  are  as  well  disposed  to  do 
anything  in  their  power  that  is  in  itself 
right,  as  men  can  be. 

The  controversy  betwixt  you  &  Genl. 
Hand  gives  some  pain  to  all  your  friends 
that  I  have  heard  speak  of  it,  as  tending  to 
derange  many  things  now  established  & 
introduce  a  new  field  of  dispute  which 
cou'd  not  be  well  settled  again — these  and 
sundry  such  sentiments  prevail  at  the  Board 
of  war,  whom  it  is  said  are  possessed  of 
written  opinions  of  high  authority  which 
clearly  conclude  agst.  the  utility,  if  not  also 
agst.  the  right  of  your  claim  ;  for  they  will 
not  allow  that  the  Resolution  of  Congress 
for  securing  the  rank  of  Prisoners  extends 
to  your  case,  or  at  least  that  this  is  doubt- 
ful.— That  the  first  appointment  of  Genl. 
Officers  being  wholly  wTith  Congress,  be- 
longs not  to  the  ordinary  line  of  rank 
secured  by  the  resolution  to  which  we 
have  alluded.  I  cou'd,  especially  with  the 
consent  of  my  colleagues,  bring  this  matter 
before  Congress,  but  whether  brought  on 
in  this  way,  or  by  a  plain  &  dispassionate 
memorial  from  yourself,  the  immediate 
consequence  wou'd  be  a  reference  to  the 
Board  of  War,  and  from  thence  (as  far 
as  I  can  learn)  to  the  Commander-in-Chief 
and  a  Board  of  Officers  at  Camp.  I  have 
thought  it  necessary  to  write  you  thus 
plainly,  having  strong  apprehensions  that 
if  carried  to  the  uttermost,  it  will  ulti- 
mately go  agst.  you.  I  therefore  wish  you 
cou'd  either  reconcile  it  to  yourself  from 
what  you  may  have  learned  of  the  sense  ot 
others,  to  give  it  up,  or  to  write  me  soon, 
that  it  may  be  brought  to  a  period — be 
assured  that  sentiments  from  Camp,  and 
also  sentiments  formed  here  promise  no 
success  to  yr.  claim  in  the  present  ques- 
tion. I  hope  you  will  judge  right — and 
am  most  sincerely  yours. 

John  Armstrong, 
hist.  mag.     vol.  viii.         2 

The  present  state  of  our  Southern  De- 
partment is  very  forbiding,  the  letters  of 
Genl.  Gates  &  Baron  De  Calb,  draw 
the  picture  of  universal  want,  more  par- 
ticularly in  the  articles  of  money  &  pro- 
visions. Genl.  Green  having  so  peremptorily 
refused  the  necessary  service,  is  likely  to 
be  discharged  from  all  other — to-day  must 
end  this  disagreeable  matter.  I  beg  you 
will  present  my  best  wishes  to  the  gents, 
of  our  line.  I  intend  this  by  Coll  John- 
stone, together  with  a  conference  before 
he  sets  out.  j.  a. 

Carlisle,  80th  October,  1779. 

Dear  General, 

A  cold  joined  to  a  late  hour  disen- 
ables me  to  say  more  at  present  than 
that  I  reached  home  about  a  week  ago 
— and  found  Mrs.  Irwin  &  children,  with 
my  own  Family  also  in  usual  health — 
and  that  I  beg  you  will  favour  me  with  a 
line  on  the  prospects  of  an  investiture  of 
New  Yorke  which  by  the  way  I  consider 
through  the  unexpected  stay  of  the  Count 
&  many  other  circumstances,  as  abortive 
for  this  season. 

Before  this  time  I  hope  farther  provision 
is  made  for  the  subsistance  of  the  General 
Officers  of  the  Army,  which  at  leaving 
Congress  I  impressed  on  the  minds  of  some 
members  who  promised  suddenly  to  have 
it  on  the  carpet,  and  to  which  I  think 
there  wou'd  be  no  opposition.  If  auy 
uneasiness  shou'd  arise  to  you,  my  advice 
still  is  that  you  write  either  to  Congress 
directing  to  the  President  or  to  the  Board 
of  War — mentioning  only  the  facts  & 
your  confidence  that  justice  will  be  done 
you.  My  compliments  to  Coll  Hay — I 
am,  dear  General,  sincerely  yours, 

John  Armstrong. 

Wheat  £15  per  Bushel,  Indian  corn  9 
pounds  &c. 

I  suppose  Doctor  Shiell,  lately  from 
Dublin,  will  visit  the  Camp,  give  me  leave 
to  recommend  him  to  your  particular  no- 
tice— He  is  a  gentleman — a  genuine  Whig 
and  a  man  of  very  good  sense  and  breeding. 

Philada.,  17th  August,  17S0. 

Dear  Gbneral, 

By  Coll.  Johnston  I  had  the  pleasure 
of  writing   you   at   some   length  which  I 



hope  you  received — the  hearer  Captain 
Vanderhorst — otherwise  Vanross,  I  beg 
leave  to  recommend  to  your  civilities  & 
those  of  the  gentlemen  of  the  Pennsyl- 
vania line. — He  is  a  gentn.  who  lately 
possessed  a  very  pretty  Fortune  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Charleston  from  whence 
he  has  been  obliged  to  ilee  with  great  loss, 
whoes  hospitallity  hath  often  been  wit- 
nessed by  Coll.  Coner  &  myself— he 
designs  only  a  visit  to  Camp,  wishes  the 
pleasure  &  curiosity  of  seeing  Our  Com- 
mander-in-Chief, then    returns    to    South 

Carolina 1  am  grieved  to  hear  of  the 

agitation  at  Camp  of  a  certain  point  of  de- 
licacy and  honr.  wherein  the  Officers  of 
the  Army,  but  more  particularly  those  of 
our  line  are  deeply  interested — having 
heard  this  matter  but  imperfectly,  shall 
only  take  the  liberty  of  making  two  short 
observations — I  hope  the  young  gentn. 
will  have  prudence  and  address  enough  to 
decline  the  honr.  of  that  particular  com- 
mand.* But  if  our  officers  must  make  a 
sacrifice,  please  to  remember,  it  is  not  to  an 
individual  only,  but  to  the  weal  &  safety  of 
many,  to  the  publick  good  of  these  Com- 
monwealths at  large — a  sacrifice  this,  which 
if  I  mistake  not,  is  second,  only  to  that 
which  we  owe  to  God  Himself.  My  Health 
has  been  in  jeopardy  of  late  by  excessive 
heat  business  and  confinement,  in  this  city 
where  many  of  late  hath  made  a  sudden 
exit  from  the  present  world — but  if  my 
health  is  spared  until  the  memorial  of  the 
General  Officers  is  carried  through,  Mr. 
McClane  being  now  come,  I  intend  to  re- 
tire, before  which  you  will  hear  from  me 
in  a  future  letter.  I  begin  to  doubt 
whether  the  2d  Division  of  the  F.  Fleet 
will  arrive  in  time,  but  still  hope  that  this 
Campaign  will  not  pass  over  without  some 
happy  event  to  these  States  &  laurels  to 
the  arms  of  America. 

I  am,  Dear  General, 

affectionately  yours, 

John  Armstrong. 
GenL  Irwin. 

*  Referring  to  the  appointment  of  Major  MePherson 
to  a  command  in  the  Light  Infantry  over  the  heads 
of  others. 

Carlisle,  16th  August,  1787. 

Dear  General, 

The  design  of  the  following  lines  as  you 
may  readily  conceive,  is  only  to  shew  that 
we  have  you  in  remembrance,  and  perhaps 
at  a  leisure  moment  to  draw  something 
better  from  you. 

There  are  no  less  than  ten  new  houses  of 
Stone  or  Brick  going  on  in  this  town  ;  and 
yet  money  is  almost  invisible — what  shall 
we  think  of  a  late  estimation  of  25,000£s 
due  on  the  Storekeepers  Books  of  this  town, 
distinct  from  all  other  debts  either  to  the 
publick  or  to  individuals !  is  it  not  high 
time  that  all  ranks  should  change  their 
gates,  two  years  more  in  our  present 
course,  must  sell  plantations  and  change 
property  very  fast  &  very  cheap — Some 
Storekeepers  —  Lawyers  &  Speculators, 
must  be  the  nabobs  of  this  country — we 
cry  out  against  an  aristocracy,  but  are 
practically  laying  the  foundation  of  it  with 
both  hands  I 

Our  country  thro'  the  favour  of  God, 
have  had  a  tolerable  good  crop,  and  a 
favourable  season  fore  securing  it ;  what 
quantity  thereof  will  go  to  the  payment  of 
publick  dues,  is  yet  unknown. 

I  had  a  late  visit  from  a  sensible  but 
rigid  Constitutionist — he  said  if  the  As- 
sembly altered  the  funding  law,  or  made 
any  discrimination  respecting  the  alienated 
certificates,  it  was  but  a  forerunner  of,  a 
previous  step  to  throwing  off  the  whole 
debt  I  I  asked  if  he  thought  the  State  able 
to  pay  the  whole  of  the  interest  agreeable 
to  the  law  ?  he  acknowledged  it  is  not  able, 
but  altho'  we  had  taken  too  much  debt 
upon  us,  it  is  only  owing  to  the  bad 
management  of  the  republicans,  whom  he 
thinks  has  opposed  the  best  measures  for 
a  discharge  of  the  debt.  I  thought  there 
was  powerfull  reasons  for  making  a  dis- 
tinction in  the  payment  of  interest,  due  on 
these  securities  at  least  in  point  of  time, 
and  perhaps  in  the  manner  of  doing  it  too, 
but  that  none  of  them  should  be  disavowed 
or  rejected — and  that  it  is  hard  to  suppose 
we  have  any  set  of  men  in  the  rank  of  legis- 
latures, capable  of  such  an  atrocious  de- 
gree of  robery  &  villany,  as  to  discard  the 
whole!  and   thereby  injure  a  great  many 




of  their  own  political  friends-  as  well 
as  others.  He  said  aristocracy  was  their 
object,  and  that  no  wreck  nor  ruin  would 
by  some  be  regarded  (if  like  Sampson  they 
themselves  should  even  die  with  the  Philis- 
tines) in  order  to  get  clear  of  the  humiliating 

Carlisle,  5th  January,  1793. 

Dear  Gexekal, 

I  now  acknowledge  &  thank  you  for 
your  favour  of  Nov r.  last.  The  point  res- 
pecting the  time  or  call  of  new  members  to 
a  seat  in  Congress  I  see  is  very  plain,  and 

line  of  republicanism  &c.  These  are  afflict- 1  most  probably  will  not  happen  before  the 
ing  considerations,  but  depraved  as  man-  time  you  mention — if  it  should,  no  doubt 
kind  are,  I  hope  they  would  not  go  these  the  President  will  some  way  notify  distant 
lengths,  but  if  any  of  our  citizens  are  so  |  members  before  hand.  I  have  shown  your 
totally  lost  to  reason  &  conscience,  there  is  letter  to  the  Doctor  with  which  he  is  Very 
a  farther  hope  that  they  will  not  be  per-  well  satisfied. 

mitted.  From  the  prevalence  of  these  kind  I  You  will  scarcely  be  able  to  recollect 
of  jealousies  amongst  ourselves  there  is  i  whether  you  franked  a  letter  for  Johnny 
much  to  fear.  Amongst  other  things,  howl  some  short  time  before  Mrs.  Irwin  went  to 
hard  may  we  suppose  it  to  be,  for  the  Con-  town  ?  I  sent  it  by  some  person  who  said 
vention  to  throw  out  any  thing  that  will  \  he  would  see  you,  I  remember  telling  him, 
give  general  satisfaction,  impossible,  but  if  he  found  you  at  leisure  to  give  my  coin- 
however,  or  rather  whatever  their  system  pliments  &  ask  you  to  throw  a  over  it — but 
may  be,  altho'  it  must  be  examined  both  by  ,  if  he  found  you  busie,  to  leave  it  in  the  post 
Congress  &  the  different  States,  and  per-  office  as  it  was,  but  cannot  recollect  who 
haps  may  either  require  or  endure  amend- 1  this  person  was — the  reason  I  mention  this 
ments ;  but  in  my  private  opinion,  it  trivial  matter  is,  that  by  a  late  letter  from 
ought  not  to  be  scaneel  with  an  eye  too  |  him,  he  complains  as  having  heard  nothing 
critical,  but  with  great  candour  and  many  j  from  me  since  my  last,  only  a  few  lines  I 
allowances,  nor  should  cold  water  be  pour-  had  wrote  to  his  wife, 
ed  upon  it,  because  such  opposition  might  j  We  are  much  elated  with  the  late  good 
naturally  produce  bad  consequences  among  news  from  France — and  happier  would  it 
the  people — because  it  is  apparent  enough  be  both  for  them  and  us,  did  our  expres- 
that  we  are  not  at  present  fit,  or  in  a  capa-  sions  of  joy  still  rise  higher  &  shew  them- 
city  to  adopt  the  most  perfect  system  of  selves  thro'  different  mediums  from  those 
Government — and  because,  an  indifferent  j  of  ringing  Bells,  lighting  tapers  <fc  washing- 
one  is  better  than  none — i  wish  how  many 'down  an  Oyster  Supper;  not  that  I  object 
ofyr.  body  may  be  thus  mild  in  yr.  an-|to  these  indue  measure,  but  we  should 
imadversions.  |  send  them  bread  to  eat,  and   gratefully  <fc 

We  expect  to  hear  from  you  soon — Mrs  J  publickly  acknowledge  the  real  author  of 

Irvine  &  the  Children  are  in  good  health 
I  wish  you  to  talk  farther  with  Genl.  Ver- 
non on  the  sale  of  our  College  land — the 
soil  I  believe  is  strong  &  well  watered. 
AVhat  have  you  done  with  yr.  Nagg,  or 
have  you  obtained  some  decent  old  pacer 
for  him — I  have  two  good  mares,  yet 
nothing  to  ride.     If  you  come  shortly  to 

their  mercys  and  our  own — this  check*ot 
these  combined  tyrants  (tho'  we  cannot 
call  it  more)  is  evidently  from  the  supreme 
lord  of  the  universe,  who  has  thrown  his 
hook  into  their  noses  and  turned  them 
back  by  the  May  they  came,  not  with 
laurels,  that  disdain  to  grow  in  such  a 
soil,  but    covered    with  a   double    coat    of 

Philadelphia  you  will  probably  come  home  shame !  the  policy  and  arms  of  France  has 

for  two  or  three  days. 

I  am  dear  General, 

affectionately  yours, 

Johx  Armstrong. 

no  doubt  been  a  mean  of  impeding  the 
diabolical  career  of  these  haughty  invaders, 
but  the  mortifying  blood  descended  from 
another  quarter;  and  if  the  -whole  scene 
end  well,  the  event  will  call  for  the  general 
adoration  &  thanks  of  this  nation.  Two 
things  however  have  a  tendency    to  dash 




the  hopes  we  have  conceived  for  these  our 
distressed  friends — I  mean  the  gross  ignor- 
ance of  divine  revelation  expressed  in  some 
of  the  speeches  of  that  people  &  their  abuse 
of  Old  King  David,  once  a  greater  General 
than  any  in  France — also  the  report  of  the 
Prussians  marching  against  them — as  to 
the  former  (and  the  latter  may  not  be  true) 
altho'  infidellity  which  must  produce  bad 
morals  also  (if  this  be  the  prevailing  charac- 
ter of  the  nation)  is  indeed  the  very  worst 
system  that  can  attend  them,  yet  their 
cause  is  a  good  one,  and  not  the  cause  of 
France  only,  but  of  humanity  in  general 
therefore  there  is  ground  of  hope  from  a 
Sovereign  God  who  hates  oppression  and 

I  hope  your  family  are  all  well,  the  child- 
ren recovered  of  their  complaint  in   their 
eyes  &  particularly  our  Grandson,  whom 
with  his  Mama,  my  wife  is  frequently  wish- 
ing back  again — all  is  quiet  at  your  house, 
Callender   keeps  his  College  hours  punc- 
tually, and  has  taken  a  part  in  a  wondrous 
play  lately  acted  here,  I  saw  it  not,  but  if 
report  may  be  credited,  no  part  nor  person 
failed,  and  in  point  of  dress  it  could  scarce 
be  surpassed — I  must  not  therefore  shade 
it's  beauty  by  an  awkward  attempt  to  de- 
scribe it,  nor  would  this  sheet  admit  the 
half — so  much  for  vanity — but  apropos — 
is  it  possible   that   the  new  playhouse  in 
Philadelphia  is  considered  of  so  much  im- 
portance as  to  justify  labour  on  the  Sab- 
bath day  ?  this  report  true  or  false,  origin- 
ated in  the  city — It  is  too  glaring  &  at- 
trocious  to  gain  credit  here ;  on  the  other 
hand,  the  report,  or  strong  suspicion  having 
been  brought  by  so  many  different  persons 
<fc  to  various  of  the  back  towns,  that  at 
best  it  is  but  a  disagreeable  story,  and  so 
improbable  that  I  have  hesitated  on   the 
bare  mentioning  of  it  even  to  you — as  the 
present  is  supposed  to  be  the  favourable 
season  of  application  on  behalf  of  our  Col- 
lege, and  as  I  know  you  are  wrote  to   on 
that  subject,  I  need  only  add,  that  a  suf- 
ficient  degree   of   dependance    is    placed 
upon     your     generalship    in    the    several 
branches    of    the     business — Mrs.     Arm- 
strong joines    in  our  best  wishes  to  your 
self    Mrs.    Irvine   &   the   Children — with 

dear  General  your  sincere  friend  &  hum- 
ble servant, 

John  Armstrong. 
There  are  two  young  lads  of  the  name 
of  Irvine  lately  from  the  Lurgg  in  Ire- 
land, of  whom  Mrs.  Irvine  can  tell  you 
somewhat — they  are  pretty  good  English 
scollars  decenter  than  common  from  that 
country  &  fit  to  write  either  in  an  office  or 
store — the  Elder  brother  is  lame  of  one  Leg 
the  younger  about  20  years  old  they  are 
grandsons  of  Ned  Armstrongs  of  Lisnaban 
&  appear  to  be  proper  objects  of  some  notice. 
I  have  mentioned  them  to  you  merely  at 
a  venture  in  case  any  little  opening  shou'd 
present  itself.  The  father  is  far  from  being  a 
mean  or  despicable  man,  but  has  not  that 
command  of  himself  that  is  sufficient  to 
resist  company  &  strong  drink.  I  pitty  him 
much  for  this — perhaps  he  may  reform,  he  is 
recommended  by  my  Br.  Andrew. 

-r^,  ^  Carlisle. 

Dear  General, 

Your  knowledge  of  Military  men  & 
things,  together  with  the  place  of  your 
present  residence,  will  undoubtedly  sub- 
ject you  to  some  trouble  in  presenting  the 
applications  for  Military  Commissions,  of 
various  candidates  of  your  acquaintance — 
but  this  trouble  is  now  to  be  expected  & 
ifbyityou  can  render  your  country  any 
real  service  I'm  persuaded  you  will  have 
pleasure  in  doing  it.  On  this  principle  it 
is,  I  now  take  the  liberty  of  recommending 
to  your  notice  &  assistance,  Mr.  John 
Steel  of  this  Town,  as  a  person  aparently 
well  formed  for  military  service. 

He  is  personable,  very  active,  has  some 
acquaintance  with  military  movements  & 
exercise,  a  genteel  appearance  &  possesses 
a  fine  constitution,  whereby  I  should  con- 
sider him  well  suited  to  the  Western  Ser- 
vice. With  respect  to  rank,  I  need  not 
tell  you,  that  all  men  look  as  high  as  they 
can  at  setting  out,  but  as  in  that  respect  all 
cannot  be  gratified,  they  must  be  content 
with  their  lot.  Mr.  Steel  has  been  very 
desirous  that  I  should  recommend  him  to 
you,  as  I  now  do  with  full  freedom — and 
am  dear  General 

Very  respectfully  yours, 

John  Armstrong. 




Carlisle,  1793. 

Dear  General, 

The  design  of  this  is  only  to  prevent  an 
entire  forgetfulness ;  for  altho'  at  present 
if  I  count  right  you  are  a  few  lines  in 
arrears  with  me  I  mean  in  respect  of  num- 
ber, but  as  to  wright,  having  so  little  to 
say,  and  so  long  unable  to  say  that  little, 
my  claim  of  compensation  is  but  very  light. 

We  have  however  the  pleasure  of  hear- 
ing frequently  of  the  health  of  your  family, 
and  that  Armstrong  continues  his  progress 
in  length  and  breadth — indeed  he  has  been 
so  much  the  subject  of  enquiry,  that  poor 
Bill  and  his  little  Sisters  have  been  almost 
forgotten  ;  as  has  been  the  case  with  John 
&  Horatio  also,  in  preference  to  the  other 
poor  things  who  may  happen  to  be  favoured  I  ward  more  gradually,  with  others  of  more 

our  old  friend  the  president  &  think 
he  is  inevitably  puzzled,  whatever  may 
have  been  the  causes  thereof — The  report 
said  to  be  bro't  down  by  Coll.  Proctor  of 
the  ill  temper  of  the  Senecas  has  a  bad 
aspect.  I  hope  they  will  not  be  permitted 
to  strike,  if  they  should,  they  probably 
draw  Monseys,  Wyandotes  and  Delawares 
against  Pennsylvania. 

Is  there  any  efforts  for  the  College,  or 
any  openings  of  this  session  beyond  the 
report  of  a  committee  you  sent  Mr  Mont- 
gomery? I  heard  it  once  read  &  it  had 
to  me  the  same  appearance  as  that  of  the 
opening  of  roads  and  waters,  taking  up  too 
many  objects  at  once  ;  blending  things  of 
lesser  importance  &  better   brought  for- 

with  as  much  merit  as  they — but  parental 
weakness  is  of  an  antient  date  &  seldom 
out  of  the  need  of  amendment. 

The  killing  of  the  late  King  of  France, 
or  rather  the  hopes  of  not  killing  him,  is  a 
common  topic  here — and  some  of  us  regret 
why  Congress  &  our  President  have  not 
thrown  their  weight  into  the  scale  of  his 
life.  Two  things  appear  to  me  to  dash  our 
hopes  of  french  liberty,  tho'  they  may  not 
overthrow  it — one  is  the  sending  mission- 
aries, some  say  into  various  parts  of  Eu- 
rope, all  say  into  the  Belgic  provinces 
formally  &  publickly  to  seduce  the  subjects 
of  other  powers  and  induce  them  to  adopt 
their  political  creed — the  other  is  the  kill- 
ing of  Louis  Capet — which  I  consider  no 
more  a  national  object  to  the  people,  than 
to  decree  the  death  of  a  crow,  or  a  chicken 
on  the  dunghill !  on  these  two  points  I 
cannot  reason  on  this  bit  of  paper,  but 
think  I  see  an  ample  field  for  it,  of  which 
their  enemies  may  but  too  naturally  avail 
themselves — It  is  not  easie  to  clear  either 
of  these  possitions  of  moral  guilt ;  but  that 
they  are  replete  with  ill  policy  &  national 
indignity  I  have  no  doubt. 

We  have  been  talking  a  little  of  a  foreign 
nation  entitled  as  they  are  to  our  good 
wishes  and  more — but  what  think  you  of 
our  own  situation — things  seem  to  me  as 
stagnant,  or  in  an  indigested  state,  I  mean 
our  military  affairs,  nor  are  the  causes 
thereof  hard  to   discover — indeed    I    pity 

publick  concern,  requiring  a  more  imme- 
diate establishment.  The  great  plenty  of 
money  said  to  be  deposited  in  the  State 
treasury  had  induced  warm  expectations  of 
going  on  with  the  building.  We  hear 
Mrs.  Irwin  is  soon  expected  up — until  which 
time  My  wife  joins  in  our  respects  to  you 
all,  with  dear  General  your  sincere  friend 
and  humble  servant, 

John  Armstrong. 
Callander  is  in  health  I  saw  him  yester- 


Continued  from  Vol.   VII.,  page  367. 

The  colonists  of  Massachusetts  assumed 
to  themselves  "a  right  to  treat  the  Indians 
en  the  footing  of  Canaanites  or  Amalek- 
ites,"  Bancroft,  III.  408,  and  practically 
regarded  them  from  the  first  as  forlorn  and 
wretched  heathen — possessing  few  rights 
which  were  entitled  to  respect.  Cotton 
Mather's  speculations  on  their  origin  illus- 
trate the  temper  of  the  times. 

"We  know  not  When  or  How  these 
Indians  first  became  Inhabitants  of  this 
mighty  Continent,  yet  we  may  guess  that 
probably  the  Devil  decoy'd  these  miserable 
Salvages  hither,  in  hopes  that  the  Gospel 




of  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ  would  never  come 
here  to  destroy  or  disturb  his  Absolute 
Empire  over  them."  Magnolia,  Booh  III. 
Part  III. 

The  instructions  from  the  Commissioners 
of  the  United  Colonies  to  Major  Gibbons, 
on  being  sent  against  the  Narragansetts  in 
1645,  further  illustrate  this  spirit. 

He  was  directed  to  have  "  due  re- 
gard to  the  honour  of  God,  who  is  both 
our  sword  and  shield,  and  to  the  dis- 
tance which  is  to  be  observed  betwixt 
Christians  and  Barbarians,  as  well  in  warres 
as  in  other  negociations."  It  was  indeed 
strange  that  men,  who  professed  to  believe 
that  God  hath  made  of  one  blood  all  na- 
tions of  men. for  to  dwell  on  all  the  face  of 
the  earth,  should  upon  every  occasion  take 
care  to  preserve  this  distinction.  Perhaps 
nothing  more  effectually  defeated  the  en- 
deavors for  Christianizing  the  Indians.  It 
seems  to  have  done  more :  to  have  sunk 
their  spirits,  led  them  to  intemperance,  and 
extirpated  the  whole  race."  Hutchinson 
Collection  of  Papers,  151. 

In  1646  the  Commissioners  of  the  United 
Colonies  made  a  very  remarkable  order, 
practically  authorizing,  upon  complaint  of 
trespass  by  the  Indians,  the  seizure  of  "  any 
of  that  plantation  of  Indians  that  shall  en- 
tertain, protect,  or  rescue  the  offender." 
The  order  further  proceeds,  "  And,  because 
it  will*  be  chargeable  keeping  Indians  in 
prisone,  and  if  they  should  escape,  they  are 
like  to  prove  more  insolent  and  dangerous 
after,  that  upon  such  seazure,  the  delin- 
quent or  satisfaction  be  againe  demanded, 
of  the  Sagamore  or  plantation  of  Indians 
guilty  or  accessory  as  before,  and  if  it  be 
denyed,  that  then  the  magistrates  of  the 
Jurisdiccon  deliver  up  the  Indians  seased  to 
the  party  or  parties  indamaged,  either  to 
serve,  or  to  be  shipped  out  and  exchanged 
for  Negroes  as  the  cause  will  justly  beare." 
Plymouth  Records,  IX.  VI. 

The  Commissioners  themselves  were 
not  blind  to  the  severity  of  this  proceeding, 
although  they  alleged  that  it  was  "just." 

There  are  here  two  features  of  historical 
importance  which  the  reader  will  not  fail  to 
notice,  viz.  the  export  for  trade  of  Indians 
for  Negroes,  and  the  measure  of  "justice" 

in  those  days  between  the  colonists  and  the 

It  may  be  observed  that  in  these  notes 
we  have  not  drawn  the  lines  between  the 
Plymouth  Colony  and  that  of  the  Massa- 
chusetts Bay.  In  this  connection  they  may 
justly  be  regarded  as  one,  indeed  they 
cannot  be  separated,  for  in  these  and  simi- 
lar proceedings,  to  quote  a  significant  pro- 
verb of  that  day,  "the  Plymouth  saddle 
was  always  on  the  Bay  horse." 

In  1658,  June  29,  certain  persons  were 
punished  by  fines  by  the  County  Courts  at 
Salem  and  Ipswich  for  attending  a  Quaker 
meeting  and  otherwise  "  syding  with  the 
Quakers  and  absenting  themselves  from 
the  publick  ordinances."  Among  them 
were  two  children,  Daniel  and  Provided 
Southwick,  sonne  and  daughter  to  Lawrence 
Southwick,  who  were  .lined  ten  pounds, 
but  their  fines  not  being  paid  and  the  par- 
ties (as  is  stated  in  the  proceedings)  "  pre- 
tending they  have  no  estates,  resolving  not 
to  worke  and  others  likewise  have  been  fyned 
and  more  like  to  be  fyned" — the  General 
Court  were  called  upon  in  the  following 
year,  May  11,  1659,  to  decide  what  course 
should  be  taken  for  the  satisfaction  of  the 

This  they  did,  after  due  deliberation,  by 
a  resolution  empowering  the  County  Trea- 
surers to  sell  the  said  persons  to  any  of  the 
English  nation  at  Virginia  or  Barbadoes — 
in  accordance  with  their  law  for  the  sale 
of  poor  and  delinquent  debtors.  To  ac- 
complish this  they  wrested  their  own  law 
from  its  just  application,  for  the  special  law 
concerning  fines,  did  not  permit  them  to  go 
beyond  imprisonment  for  non-payment. 
Mass.  Laws,  1675,  p.  51  ;  Felfs  Salem, 
II.  581  ;  Mass.  Records,  IV.  i.  366  ;  Mass. 
Laws,  1675,  p.  6  ;  Bishop's  JV.  E.  Judged, 
85  ;  Hazard,  II.  563. 

The  father  and  mother  of  these  children, 
who  had  before  suffered  in  their  estate  and 
persons,  were  at  the  same  time  banished  on 
pain  of  death,  and  took  refuge  in  Shelter 
Island,  where  they  shortly  afterwards  died. 
Mass.  Records,  IV.  i.  367  ;  Hazard,  II. 
564  ;  Bishop,  83.  The  Treasurer,  on  at- 
tempting to  find  passage  for  the  children 
to  Barbadoes,  in  execution  of  the  order  of 




sale,  found  "  none  willing  to  take  or  carry 
them."  Thus  the  entire  design  failed,  only 
through  the  reluctance  of  these  shipmasters 
to  aid  in  its  consummation.  Bishop,  190  ; 
Sewef  s  Hist,  of  the  Quakers,  I.  278. 

Provided  Southwick  was  subsequently  in 
the  same  year,  in  company  with  several 
other  Quaker  ladies,  "  whipt  with  tenn 
stripes,"  and  afterwards  "  committed  to 
prison  to  be  proceeded  with  as  the  law  di- 
rects."    3Iass.  Records,  IV.  i.  411. 

The  indignant  Quaker  historian,  in  re- 
counting these  things  says,  "After  such  a 
manner  ye  have  done  to  the  /Servants  of 
the  Lord,  and  for  speaking  to  one  another, 
...  and  for  meeting  together,  ransacking 
their  Estates,  breaking  open  their  Houses, 
carrying  away  their  Goods  and  Gattel,  till 
ye  have  left  none,  then  their  wearing 
apparel,  and  then  (as  in  Plimouth  govern- 
ment) their  Land ;  and  when  ye  have  left 
them  nothing,  sell  them  for  this  which  ye 
call  Debt.  Search  the  Records  of  former 
Ages,  go  through  the  Histories  of  the  Ge- 
nerations that  are  past;  read  the  Monu- 
ments of  the  Antients,  and  see  if  ever  there 
were  such  a  thing  as  this  since  the  Earth 
was  laid,  and  the  Foundations  thereof  in 
the  Water,  and  out  of  the  Water.  ...  O 
ye  Rulers  of  Boston,  ye  Inhabitants  of  the 
Massachusetts!  What  shall  I  say  unto 
you?  Whereunto  shall  I  liken  yef  In- 
deed, I  am  at  a  stand,  I  have  no  Nation 
with  you  to  compare,  I  have  no  People 
Avith  you  to  parallel,  I  am  at  a  loss  with 
you  in  this  point ;  I  must  say  of  you,  as 
Balaam  said  of  Amalek  when  his  eyes 
were  open,  Boston,  the  first  of  the  Nations 
that  came  out  thus  to  war  against,  to  stop 
Israel  in  their  way  to  Canaan  from 
Egypt?"     Bishop's  N.  E.  Judged,  90. 

At  the  time  of  King  Philip's  War,  the 
policy  and  practice  of  the  Colony  of  Mas- 
sachusetts, with  regard  to  slavery,  had 
been  already  long  settled  upon  the  basis  of 
positive  law.  Accordingly  the  numerous 
"  captives  taken  in  war"  were  disposed  of 
in  the  usual  way.  The  notes  which  follow 
are  mainly  from  the  official  records  of  the 
colony,  and  will  be  sufficient  to  show  the 
general  current  of  public  opinion  and  action 
at  that  period. 

In  August,  1675,  the  Council  at  Ply- 
mouth ordered  the  sale  of  a  company  of 
Indians,  "being  men,  weomen,  and  chil- 
dren, in  number  one  hundred  and  twelve," 
with  a  few  exceptions.  The  Treasurer 
made  the  sale  "  on  the  countryes  behalfe." 
Plymouth  Records,  V.  173. 

A  little  later  the  Council  made  a  simi- 
lar disposition  of  fifty-seven  more  (Indians) 
who  "  had  come  in  a  submissive  way." 
These  were  condemned  to  perpetual  servi- 
tude, and  the  Treasurer  was  ordered  and 
appointed  "  to  make  sale  of  them,  to  and 
for  the  use  of  the  collonie,  as  opportunity 
may  present."     lb.  174. 

The  accounts  of  the  Colony  of  Massa- 
chusetts for  receipts  and  expenditures  dur- 
ing "  the  late  War" — as  stated  from  25th 
June,  1675,  to  the  23d  September,  1676, 
give  among  the  credits  the  following, 

By  the  following  accounts  re- 
ceived in  or  as  silver,  viz  : 

Captives  ;    for  188  prisoners  at 

war  sold  397.13.00 

Plymouth  Records,  X.  401. 

There  is  a  peculiar  significance  in  the 
phrase  which  occurs  in  the  Records — "  sent 
away  by  the  Treasurer."  It  means  sold 
into  slavery.     Mass.  Records,  V.  58. 

The  statistics  of  the  traffic  carried  on  by 
the  Treasurers  cannot  be  accurately  ascer- 
tained from  any  sources  now  at  command. 
But  great  numbers  of  Philip's  people  were 
sold  as  slaves  in  foreign  countries.  In  the 
beginning  of  the  war  Captain  Moseley  cap- 
tured eighty,  who  were  confined  at  Ply- 
mouth. In  September  following  one  hun- 
dred and  seventy-eight ( were  put  on  board 
a  vessel  commanded  by  Captain  Sprague, 
who  sailed  from  Plymouth  with  them  for 
Spain.     Drake,  224. 

These  proceedings  were  not  without  wit- 
nesses against  their  injustice  and  inhuma- 
nity. The  Apostle  Eliot's  indignant  re- 
monstrance is  a  glorious  memorial  of  his 
fearless  devotion  to  reason  and  humanity — 
to  which  neither  rulers  nor  people  of  Mas- 
sachusetts were  then  inclined  to  listen. 

"  To  the  Honorable  the  Governor  and 
Council,  sitting  at  Boston  this  13t.  of  the 
6t,  75,  the  humble  petition  of  John  Eliot, 




Sheweth  that  the  terror  of  selling  away 
such  Indians  unto  the  Hands  for  perpetual 
slaves,  who  shall  yield  up  ym  selves  to  your 
mercy,  is  like  to  be  an  effectual  prolonga- 
tion of  the  warre,  and  such  an  exasperation 
of  them,  as  may  produce  we  know  not 
what  evil  consequences,  upon  all  the  land. 
Christ  hath  saide,  blessed  are  the  mercyfull 
for  they  shall  obtain  mercy.  This  useage 
of  them  is  worse  than  death  ...  it  seem- 
eth  to  me,  that  to  sell  them  away  for  slaves 
is  to  hinder  the  inlargement  of  his  [Christ's] 
kingdom  ...  to  sell  soules  for  money 
seemeth  to  me  a  dangerous  merchandize. 
If  they  deserve  to  die,  it  is  far  better  to  be 
put  to  death  under  godly  governors,  who 
will  take  religious  care,  that  meanes  may 
be  used,  that  they  may  die  penitently.  .  .  . 
Deut.  23,  15-16.  If  a  fugitive  servant  from 
a  Pagan  Master  might  not  be  delivered  to 
his  master  but  be  kept  in  Israel  for  the  good 
of  his  soule,  how  much  less  lawful  is  it  to 
sell  away  soules  from  under  the  light  of  the 
gospel,  into  a  condition,  where  theire  soules 
will  be  utterly  lost,  so  far  as  appeareth  unto 
man."  Plymouth  Colony  Records,  X. 
451-2 ;  Compare  Mather's  Magnalia, 
Book  VII.  109  (753),  concerning  the  neg- 
lect to  proselyte  the  Indians,  etc. 

There  is  nothing  to  show  that  "  the  Coun- 
cil gave  heed  to  the  petition  of  Eliot,"  but 
a  careful  examination  of  the  archives  dis- 
closed only  a  report  of  a  Committee  of  the 
General  Court,  dated  Nov.  5,  1675,  and 
adopted  by  the  Magistrates  and  Deputies 
the  same  day,  by  which  several  were  to  be 
sent  away.     MS.  Letter. 

Eliot  appears  also  to  have  been  the  first 
in  America  to  lift  up  his  voice  against  the 
treatment  which  Negroes  received  in 
New  England.  Towards  the  end  of  his 
life,  Cotton  Mather  states,  "  He  had  long 
lamented  it  with  a  Bleeding  and  Burning 
Passion,  that  the  English  used  their  Ne- 
gro's but  as  their  Horses  or  their  Oxen,  and 
that  so  little  care  was  taken  about  their 
immortal  Souls ;  he  look'd  upon  it  as  a  Pro- 
digy, that  any  wearing  the  Name  of 
Christians  should  so  much  have  the  Heart 
of  Devils  in  them,  as  to  prevent  and  hinder 
the  Instruction  of  the  ipoorDlackamores,  and 
confine  the  souls  of  their  miserable  Slaves 

to  a  Destroying  Ignorance,  meerly  for  fear 
of  thereby  losing  the  Benefit  of  their  Vas- 
salage ;  but  now  he  made  a  motion  to  the 
English  within  two  or  three  Miles  of  him, 
that  at  such  a  time  and  Place  they  would 
send  their  Negro's  once  a  week  to  him : 
For  he  would  then  Catechise  them,  and 
Enlighten  them,  to  the  utmost  of  his  Power 
in  the  Things  of  their  Everlasting  Peace  ; 
however,  he  did  not  live  to  make  much 
Progress  in  this  Undertaking.  Matter's 
Magnolia,  Book  III.  207  (325).  Compare 
also  p.  209  (327). 

In  1676,  November  4th,  it  was  ordered 
that  whereas  there  is  an  Acte  or  order  made 
by  the  Councell  of  War  bearing  date  July, 

1676,  prohibiting  any  male  Indian  captive 
to  abide  in  this  Jurisdiction  that  is  above 
fourteen  years  of  age  att  the  beginning  of 
his  or  their  captivity  and  in  case  any  such 
should  continue  in  the  Collonie  after  the 
time  then  prefixed  they  should  be  forfeit  to 
the  use  of  the  Gov1  this  Court  sees  cause  to 
ratify  and  confirme  that  order  and  acte,  and 
do  therefore  order ;  that  all  such  as  have 
any  such  Indian  male  captive  that  they 
shall  dispose  of  them  out  of  the  Collonie  by 
the  first  of  December  next  on  paine  of  for- 
feiting every  such  Indian,  or  Indians  to  the 
use  of  the  Collonie  ;  and  the  Constables  of 
each  town  of  this  Jurisdiction  are  hereby 
ordered  to  take  notice  of  any  such  Indian 
or  Indians  staying  in  any  of  the  respective 
towns  of  this  Colonie  after  the  time  pre- 
fixed and  shall  forthwith  bring  them  to  the 
Treasurer  to  be  disposed  of  to  the  use  of 
the  Government  as  aforesaid.  Plymouth 
Records,  XI.  242. 

There  were  a  few,  about  five  or  six,  ex- 
ceptions made  to  this  order,  in  favor  of  cer- 
tain Indians,  who  had  been  assured  by 
Capt.  Benjamin  Church  that  they  should 
not  be  sold  to  any  foreign  parts,  upon 
good  behavior,  &c.     lb.  242. 

The  Mass.  Genl.  Court  made  an  order  in 

1677,  24  May,  that  the  Indian  children, 
youths  or  girls,  whose  parents  had  been  in 
hostility  with  the  Colony,  or  had  lived 
among  its  enemies  in  the  time  of  the  war, 
and  were  taken  by  force,  and  given  or  sold 
to  any  of  the  inhabitants  of  this  jurisdiction, 
should  be  at  the  disposall  of  their  masters 


II I  S  T  O  R I  C  AL    MAGAZINE. 


or  their  assign es,  who  were  to  instruct  tliem 
in  Civility  and  Christian  religion.  3Iass. 
Records,  V.  136.  Note  the  distinction  be- 
tween friendly  Indians  whose  children 
were  to  be  held  until  24  years  of  age,  both 
in  this  order  and  in  Plymouth  Records, 
V.  207,  223. 

The  Court,  in  the  following  year  (16*78), 
found  cause  to  prohibit  "  all  and  every  per- 
son and  persons  within  our  jurisdiction  or 
elsewhere,  to  buy  any  of  the  Indian  chil- 
dren of  any  of  those  our  captive  salvages 
that  were  taken  and  became  our  lawfull  j 
prisoners  in  our  late  warrs  with  the  Indians,  j 
without  special  leave,  liking  and  approba- 
tion of  the  government  of  this  jurisdiction." 
lb.  253. 

In  the  following  year  (1679)  the  follow- 
ing entry  appears  in  the  records : 

"  In  reference  unto  severall  Indians 
bought  by  Jonathan  Hatch  of  Capt.  Church, 
the  brothers  of  the  woman,  desireing  shee 
might  be  released,  appeared  in  Court  with 
the  said  Jonathan  Hatch,  and  came  to 
composition  with  her  for  the  freedom  of 
both  her  and  her  husband,  which  are  two 
of  the  three  Indians  above  named  ;  and  her 
brothers  payed  on  that  accompt  the  sume 
of  three  pounds  silver  mony  of  New  Eng- 
land, and  have  engaged  to  pay  three 
pounds  more  in  the  same  specie,  and  then 
the  said  man  and  woman  are  to  be  released  ; 
and  for  the  third  of  the  said  Indians,  it 
being  younge,  the  Court  have  ordered, 
that  it  shall  abide  with  the  said  Jonathan 
Hatch  untill  it  attains  the  age  of  24  years, 
and  then  to  be  released  for  ever."  Ply- 
mouth Records,  VI.  15. 

It  were  well  if  the  record  were  no  worse, 
but  to  all  this  is  to  be  added  the  baseness 
of  treachery  and  falsehood.  Many  of  these 
prisoners  surrendered  and  still  greater 
numbers  came  in  voluntarily  to  submit 
upon  the  promise  that  they  and  their  wives 
and  children  should  have  their  lives  spared 
and  none  of  them  transported  out  of  the 
country.  In  one  instance,  narrated  by  the 
famous  Captain  Church  himself,  no  less  than 
u  eight  score  persons"  were  "  without  any 
regard  to  the  promises  made  them  on  their 
surrendering  themselves,  carried  away  to 
Plymouth,  there  sold  and  transported  out 

HIST.    MAG.      VOL.    VIII.       3. 

of  the  country."      Church,  23,  24,  41,  51, 

Nor  did  the  Christian  Indians  or  Praying 
Indians  escape  the  relentless  hostility  and 
cupidity  of  the  whites.  Besides  other  cru- 
elties, instances  are  not  wanting  in  which 
some  of  these  were  sold  as  slaves,  and 
under  accusations  which  turned,  out  to 
be  utterly  false  and  without  foundation. 
Gookin's  Hist,  of  the  Christian  Indians. 

Some  of  them  are  probably  referred  to 
by  Eliot,  in  his  letter  to  Boyle,  Nov.  27, 
1683,  in  which  he  says,  "I  desire  to  take 
boldness  to  propose  a  request.  A  vessel 
carried  away  a  great  number  of  our  sur- 
prised Indians,  in  the  times  of  our  wars,  to 
sell  them  for  slaves;  but  the  nations,  whith- 
er she  went,  would  not  buy  them.  Finally, 
she  left  them  at  Tangier ;  there  they  be, 
so  many  as  live,  or  are  born  there.  An 
Englishman,  a  mason,  came  thence  to  Bos- 
ton, he  told  me  they  desired  I  would  use 
some  means  for  their  return  home.  I  know 
not  what  to  do  in  it ;  but  now  it  is  in  my 
heart  to  move  your  honour,  so  to  meditate, 
that  they  may  have  leave  to  get  home, 
either  from  thence  hither,  or  from  thence 
to  England,  and  so  to  get  home.  If  the 
Lord  shall  please  to  move  your  charitable 
heart  herein,  I  shall  be  obliged  in  great 
thankfulness,  and  am  persuaded  that  Christ 
will,  at  the  great  day,  reckon  it  among 
your  deeds  of  charity  done  unto  them,  for 
his  name's  sake."     M.  JET.  S.  Coll.,  III.  183. 

Cotton  Mather  furnishes  another  extract 
appropriate  in  this  connection. 

"  Moreover,  'tis  a  Prophesy  in  Dent.  28, 
68.  The  lord  shall  bring  thee  into  Egypt 
again  with  ships,  by  the  way  ichereof  I 
spake  unto  thee.  Thou  shalt  see  it  no  more 
again;  and  there  shall  ye  be  sold  unto 
your  Enemies,  and  no  Man  shall  buy  you. 
This  did  our  Eliot  imagine  accomplished, 
when  the  Captives  taken  by  us  in  our  late 
Wars  upon  them,  were  sent  to  be  sold,  in 
the  Coasts  lying  not  very  remote  from  Egypt 
on  the  Mediterranean  Sea,  and  scarce  any 
Chapmen  would  offer  to  take  them  off." 
Mather's  Magnolia,  Book  III.,  Part  III. 

Mr.  Everett,  in  one  of  the  most  elabo- 
rate of  his  finished  and  beautiful  orations, 
has  narrated  the  story  of  two  of  the  last 




Captives  in  that  famous  war,  in  a  passage 
of  surpassing  eloquence  which  we  venture 
to  quote : 

"  President  Mather,  in  relating  the  en- 
counter of  the  1st  of  August,  1676,  the  last 
but  one  of  the  war,  says  'Philip  hardly- 
escaped  with  his  life  also.  He  had  fled 
and  left  his  peage  behind  him,  also  his 
squaw  and  son  were  taken  captive,  and  are 
now  prisoners  at  Plymouth.  Thus  hath 
God  brought  that  grand  enemy  into  great 
misery  before  he  quite  destroy  him.  It 
must  needs  be  bitter  as  death  to  him  to 
lose  his  wife  and  only  son  (for  the  Indians 
are  marvellous  fond  and  aifectionate  to- 
wards their  children)  besides  other  rela- 
tions, and  almost  all  his  subjects,  and 
country  also.' 

"  And  what  was  the  fate  of  Philip's  wife 
and  his  son  ?  This  is  a  tale  for  husbands 
and  wives,  for  parents  and  children.  Young 
men  and  women,  you  cannot  understand  it. 
What  was  the  fate  of  Philip's  wife  and 
child  ?  She  is  a  woman,  he  is  a  lad.  They 
did  not  surely  hang  them.  No,  that  would 
have  been  mercy.  The  boy  is  the  grand- 
son, his  mother  the  daughter-in-law  of  good 
old  Massasoit,  the  first  and  best  friend  the 
English  ever  had  in  New  England.  Per- 
haps— perhaps  now  Philip  is  slain,  and  his 
warriors  scattered  to  the  four  winds,  they 
will  allow  his  wife  and  son  to  go  back — 
the  widow  and  the  orphan — to  finish  their 
days  and  sorrows  in  their  native  wilderness. 
They  are  sold  into  slavery,  West  Indian 
slavery!  an  Indian  princess  and  her  child, 
sold  from  the  cool  breezes  of  Mount  Hope, 
from  the  wild  freedom  of  a  New  England 
forest,  to  gasp  under  the  lash,  beneath  the 
blazing  sun  of  the  tropics !  '  Bitter  as 
death  ;'  aye,  bitter  as  hell !  Is  there  any 
thing, — I  do  not  say  in  the  range  of  hu- 
manity— is  there  anything  animated,  that 
would  not  struggle  against  this?"  JEve- 
rettfs  Address  at  Bloody  Brook,  1835 ; 
Church,  62,  63,  6V,  68. 

Well  might  the  poet  record  his  sympa- 
thy for  their  fate — 

"  Ah !  happier  they,  who  in  the  strife 
For  freedom  fell,  than  o'er  the  main, 
Those  who  in  galling  slavery's  chain 
Still  bore  the  load  of  hated  life, — 

Bowed  to  base  tasks  their  generous  pride, 
And  scourged  and  broken-hearted,  died  1" 

or  in  view  of  this  phase  of  civilization  and 
progress,  sigh  for  that  elder  state,  when 
all  were 

"  Free  as  nature  first  made  man, 
Ere  the  base  laws  of  servitude  began, 
When  wild  in  woods  the  noble  savage  ran." 

After  the  death  of  King  Philip,  some,  of 
the  Indians  from  the  west  and  south  of 
New  England  who  had  been  engaged  in 
the  war,  endeavored  to  conceal  themselves 
among  their  brethren  of  Penacook  who  had 
not  joined  in  the  war,  and  with  them  of  Os- 
sapy  and  Pigwackett  who  had  made  peace. 
By  a  "contrivance"  (as  Mather  calls  it) 
which  savors  strongly  of  treachery,  four 
hundred  of  these  Indians  were  taken  pri- 
soners, one  half  of  whom  were  declared  to 
have  been  accessories  in  the  late  rebellion, 
and  being  "  sent  to  Boston,  seven  or  eight 
of  them  who  were  known  to  have  killed 
any  Englishmen,  were  condemned  and 
hanged ;  the  rest  were  sold  into  slavery  in 
foreign  parts." 

Some  of  those  very  Indians,  who  were 
thus  seized  and  sold,  afterwards  made 
their  way  home,  and  found  opportunity  to 
satisfy  their  revenge  during  the  war  with 
the  French  and  Indians  known  as  King 
William's  War.  Belknap,  I.  143,  245; 
Mather's  Magnolia,  Book  VII.  55  (699). 

Edward  Randolph,  in  1676,  in  an  answer 
to  several  heads  of  enquiry,  &c,  stated  that 
there  were  "  not  albove  200  slaves  in  the 
colony,  and  those  are  brought  from  Guinea 
and  Madagascar."  Hutchinson's  Collec- 
tion of  Papers,  p.  485. 

Gov.  Andros  reported  that  the  slaves 
were  not  numerous  in  1678 — "not  many 
servants,  and  but  few  slaves,  proportionable 
with  freemen."      Col.  Hist.  III.  263. 

In  May,  1680,  Governor  Bradstreet  an- 
swered certain  Heads  of  Inquiry  from  the 
Lords  of  the  Committee  for  Trade  and 
Foreign  Plantations.  Among  his  state- 
ments are  the  following : 

"  There  hath  been  no  company  of  blacks 
or  slaves  brought  into  the  country  since  the 
beginning  of  this  plantation,  for  the  space 
of  iifty  years,  onely  one  small  Vessell  about 




two  yeares  since,  after  twenty  months 
voyage  to  Madagascar,  brought  hither 
betwixt  forty  and  fifty  Negroes,  most 
women  and  children,  sold  here  for  ten, 
£15  and  £20  apiece,  which  stood  the  mer- 
chant, in  near  £40  apiece :  Now  and  then, 
two  or  three  Negroes  are  brought  hither 
from  Barbados  and  other  of  his  Majestie's 
plantations,  and  sold  here  for  about  twenty 
pounds  apiece.  So  that  there  may  be 
within  our  Government  about  one  hun- 
dred or   one  hundred  and  twenty 

There  are  a  very  few  blacks  borne  here,  I 
think  not  above  six  at  the  most  in  a  year, 
none  baptized  that  I  ever  heard  of.  .  .  M. 
H.  S.  Coll.  III.  viii.  337. 

The  following  century  changed  the  re- 
cord. Many  "  companies"  of  slaves  were 
"brought  into  the  country"  and  the  in- 
stitution flourished  and  waxed  strong. 

The  royal  instructions  to  Andros,  when 
he  was  sent  out  in  1688,  as  Governor  of  New 
England,  required  him  to  "pass  a  law  for 
the  restraining  of  inhuman  severity  which 
ill  masters  or  overseers  may  be  used  by 
towards  the  Christian  servants  or  slaves  ; 
wherein  provision  is  to  be  made  that  the 
wilful  killing  of  Indians  and  Negroes  be 
punished  with  death,  and  a  fitt  penalty 
imposed  for  the  maiming  of  them."  Col. 
Doc.  III.  547. 

The  Law  of  1698,  chapter  6,  forbids 
trading  or  trucking  with  any  "  Indian, 
molato  or  negro  servant  or  slave,  or  other 
known  dissolute,  lewd,  and  disorderly  per- 
sons, of  whom  there  is  just  cause  of  sus- 

Such  persons  were  to  be  punished  by 
whipping  for  so  trading. 

The  Law  of  1700,  chapter  13,  was  en- 
acted to  protect  the  Indians  against  the 
exactions  and  oppression,  which  some  of 
the  English  exercised  towards  them  "  by 
drawing  them  to  consent  to  covenant  or 
bind  themselves  or  children  apprentices  or 
servants  for  an  unreasonable  term,  on  pre- 
tence of  or  to  make  satisfaction  for  some 
small  debt  contracted  or  damage  done  by 
them."  Other  similar  acts  were  after- 
wards passed  in  1718  and  1725,  the  latter 
having  a  clause  to  protect  them  against 

In  1701,  the  Representatives  of  the  town 
of  Boston  were  "  desired  to  promote  the 
encouraging  the  bringing  of  white  ser- 
vants, and  to  put  a  period  to  Negroes 
being  slaves."     Drake's  Boston,  525. 

We  have  no  knowledge  of  the  efforts 
made  under  this  instruction  of  the  town  of 
Boston,  but  they  failed  to  accomplish 
anything.  Indeed,  the  very  next  enact- 
ment concerning  slavery  was  a  step  back- 
ward instead  of  an  advance  towards  re- 

The  law  of  1703,  chapter  2,  was  in 
restraint  of  the  emancipation  of  "  Molatto 
or  Negro  slaves."  Security  was  required 
against  the  contingency  of  these  persons 
becoming  a  charge  to  the  town,  and  "  none 
were  to  be  accounted  free  for  whom 
security  is  not  given."  This  act  was  still 
in  force  as  late  as  June,  1807,  and  con- 
tinued until  a  much  later  period  to  govern 
the  decisions  of  courts  affecting  the  set- 
tlement of  town  paupers. 

Chapter  4  of  the  same  year  prohibited 
Indian,  Negro  and  Molatto  servants  or 
slaves,  to  be  abroad  after  nine  o'clock  at 
night,  &c. 

The  Law  of  1705,  chapter  6,  "for  the 
better  preventing  of  a  Spurious  and  Mixt 
Issue,  &c. ;"  punishes  Negroes  and  Molat- 
toes  for  improper  intercourse  with  whites, 
by  selling  them  out  of  the  Province.  It 
also  punishes  any  Negro  or  Molatto  for 
striking  a  Christian,  by  whipping  at  the 
discretion  of  Justices  before  whom  he  may 
be  convicted.  It  also  prohibits  marriage 
of  Christians  with  Negroes  or  Molattoes — 
and  imposes  a  penalty  of  Fifty  Pounds 
upon  the  persons  joining  them  in  marriage. 
It  provides  against  unreasonable  denial  of 
marriage  to  Negroes  with  those  of  the 
same  nation,  by  any  Master — "  any  Law, 
Usage,  or  Custom,  to  the  contrary  not- 

In  1780,  the  legislature  of  the  State  of 
Massachusetts  passed  an  "  Act  for  the 
orderly  solemnization  of  Marriage,"  by 
section  7  whereof  it  was  enacted  "  that  no 
person  authorized  by  this  act  to  marry 
shall  join  in  marriage  any  white  person 
with  any  Negro,  Indian  or  Mulatto,  under 
penalty    of   fifty    pounds;    and    all   such 




marriages  shall  be  absolutely  null  and 

The  prohibition  continued  until  1843, 
when  it  was  repealed  by  a  special  "act 
relating  to  marriages  between  individuals 
of  certain  races." 

The  statute  of  1705  also  provided  an 
import  duty  of  four  pounds  per  head 
on  every  Negro  brought  into  the  Province 
from  and  after  the  1st  day  of  May,  1706, 
for  the  payment  of  which  both  the  vessel 
and  master  were  answerable.  A  drawback 
was  allowed  upon  exportation,  and  the 
like  advantage  was  allowed  to  the  pur- 
chaser of  any  Negro  sold  within  the 
Province,  in  case  of  the  death  of  his  Negro 
within  six  weeks  after  importation  or 
bringing  into  the  Province. 

In  1727,  the  traffic  in  slaves  appears  to 
have  been  more  an  object  in  Boston  than 
at  any  period  before  or  since,  and  in  the 
following  year  (1728)  an  additional  "  act 
more  effectually  to  secure  the  Duty  on 
the  importation  of  Negroes"  was  passed, 
by  which  more  stringent  regulations  were 
adopted  to  prevent  the  smuggling  of 
such  property  into  the  Province,  and  the 
drawback  was  allowed  on  all  negroes 
-dying  within  twelve  months. 

This  act  expired  by  its  own  limitation  in 
1735,  but  another  of  a  similar  character 
Avas  passed  in  1738,  which  recognised  the 
old  law  of  1705  as  being  still  in  force.  It 
reduced  the  time  for  the  drawback  on  the 
death  of  negroes  to  six  months  after  im- 

Free  Negroes  not  being  allowed  to  train 
in  the  Militia,  an  act  passed  in  1707,  chap- 
ter 2,  required  them  to  do  service  on  the 
highways  and  in  cleaning  the  streets,  <fcc, 
as  an  equivalent.  The  same  act  prohibited 
them  to  entertain  any  servants  of  their 
own  color  in  their  houses,  without  per- 
mission of  the  respective  masters  or  mis- 

In  1712,  an  act  was  passed  prohibiting 
the  importation  or  bringing  into  the  Pro- 
vince any  Indian  servants  or  slaves.  The 
preamble  recites  the  bad  character  of  the 
Indians  and  other  slaves,  "  being  of  a 
malicious,  surley  and  revengeful  spirit; 
rude  and  insolent  in  their  behaviour,  and 

very  ungovernable."  A  glimpse  of  future 
reform  is  to  be  caught  in  this  act,  for  it 
recognises  the  increase  of  slaves  as  a 
"  discouragement  to  the  importation  of 
White  Christian  Servants.''  But  the  chief 
motive  of  the  act  was  in  the  peculiar  circum 
stances  of  the  Province  "  under  the  sor- 
rowful effects  of  the  Rebellion  and  Hos- 
tilities" of  the  Indians,  and  the  fact  that 
great  numbers  of  Indian  slaves  were  already 
held  in  bondage  in  the  Province  at  the  time. 

In  1727,  all  Indian,  Negro  and  Molatto 
servants  for  life  were  estimated  as  other 
Personal  Estate — viz:  Each  male  servant 
for  life  above  fourteen  years  of  age,  at 
fifteen  pounds  value ;  each  female  servant 
for  life,  above  fourteen  years  of  age,  at 
ten  pounds  value.  The  assessor  might 
make  abatement  for  cause  of  age  or  in- 
firmity. Indian,  Negro  and  Molatto  Male 
servants  for  a  term  of  years  were  to  be 
numbered  and  rated  as  other  property, 
and  not  as  Personal  Estate. 

In  1734  the  law  was  changed,  and  all 
Indian,  Negro  and  Molatto  servants,  as 
well  for  term  of  years  as  for  life,  were  in- 
cluded in  the  rateable  estates.  The  supply 
bills  for  1738,  1739,  1740,  directed  the 
assessors  to  estimate  Indian,  Negro  and 
Molatto  servants  proportion  ably,  as  other 
personal  estate,  according  to  their  sound 
judgment  and  discretion. 

An  Indian  girl  brought  fifteen  pounds, 
at  Salem,  in  August,  1710.  CoM.  Essex 
Institute.  I.  14.  The  highest  price  paid 
for  any  of  a  cargo  brought  into  Boston 
in  1727,  was  eighty  pounds.  Felfs  Salem  : 
II.  416. 

"The  Guinea  Trade,"  as  it  was  called 
then,  since  known  and  branded  by  all 
civilized  nations  as  piracy,  whose  begin- 
nings we  have  noticed,  continued  to 
flourish  under  the  auspices  of  Massachusetts 
merchants  down  through  the  entire  colonial 
period,  and  long  after  the  boasted  Declara- 
tion of  Rights  in  1780  had  terminated 
the  legal  existence  of  slavery  within  the 
limits  of  that  State.  Felt's  Salem  :  II.  230, 
261,  265,  288,  292,  296.  Those  who  are 
curious  to  see  what  the  instructions 
given  by  respectable  merchants  in  Mas- 
sachusetts to  their  slave  captains  were  in 




the  year  1785  will  find  them  in  FelVs 
Salem,  II.  239-90  ;  probably  the  only  speci- 
men extant.  The  slaves  purchased  in  Af- 
rica were  chiefly  sold  in  the  West 
Indies,  or  in  the  Southern  colonies;  but 
when  these  markets  were  glutted,  and  the 
price  low,  some  of  them  were  brought  to 
Massachusetts.  The  statistics  of  the  trade 
are  somewhat  scattered,  and  it  is  difficult 
to  bring  them  together,  but  enough  is 
known  to  bring  the  subject  home  to  us. 
In  1795,  one  informant  of  Dr.  Belknap 
could  remember  two  or  three  entire  car- 
goes, and  the  Doctor  himself  remembered 
one  somewhere  between  1755  and  1765 
which  consisted  almost  wholly  of  children. 
Sometimes  the  vessels  of  the  neighboring 
colony  of  Rhode  Island,  after  having  sold 
their  prime  slaves  in  the  West  Indies, 
brought  the  remnants  of  their  cargoes  to 
Boston  for  sale.      Coll.  M.  H.  S.  I.  iv.  197. 

The  records  of  the  slave-trade  and  sla- 
very everywhere  are  the  same — the  same 
disregard  of  human  rights,  the  same  in- 
difference to  suffering,  the  same  contempt 
for  the  oppressed  races,  the  same  hate  for 
those  who  are  injured.  It  has  been  as- 
serted that  the  miseries  of  slavery  were 
mitigated,  and  that  especially  in  Massachu- 
setts, some  of  its  worst  features  were  un- 
known. But  the  record  does  not  bear  out 
the  suggestion. 

The  first  newspaper  published  in  Ame- 
rica illustrates  among  its  advertisements 
the  peculiar  features  of  the  institution  to 
which  we  refer,  and  in  its  scanty  columns 
of  intelligence  may  be  found  thrilling  ac- 
counts of  the  barbarous  murders  of  mas- 
ters and  crews  by  the  hands  of  their  slave 
cargoes.  The  case  of  the  Amistad  ne- 
groes had  its  occasional  parallel  in  the 
colonial  history  of  the  traffic — excepting 
that  the  men  of  New  England  had  a  sym- 
pathy at  home  in  the  17th  and  18th  cen- 
turies, which  was  justly  withheld  from 
their  Spanish  and  Portuguese  imitators  in 
the  19th.  As  the  advantages  of  adver- 
tising came  to  be  understood,  the  descrip- 
tions of  slave  property  became  more  fre- 
quent and  explicit. 

Negro  men,  women,  and  children  were 
mixed  up    in  the    sales  with   wearing   ap- 

parel, Gold  Watches  and  other  Goods — 
"  very  good  Barbados  Rum"  is  offered 
with  "a  young  negro  that  has  had  the 
Small  Pox" — and  competitors  offer  "  Likely 
negro  men  and  women  just  arrived" — 
"negro  men  new  and  negro  boys  who  have 
been  in  the  country  some  time,''  and  also 
"just  arrived,  a  choice  parcel  of  negro 
boys  and  girls."  "A  likely  negro  man 
bom  in  the  country  and  bred  a  Farmer, 
fit  for  any  service,"  "  a  negro  woman  about 
22  years  old,  with  her  boy  about  5  months," 
&c,  and  a  "likely  negro  woman  about  19 
years  and  a  child  about  six  months  of  age 
to  be  sold  together  or  apart"  must  conclude 
these  extracts. 

At  this  point  it  may  be  necessary  to 
interpose  a  caution  with  reference  to  the 
judgment  which  may  be  pronounced  against 
the  policy  which  has  been  illustrated  in 
these  notes ;  and  a  recent  writer  of  English 
history  has  so  clearly  stated  our  own  views 
that  his  language  requires  very  little  change 

It  would  be  to  misread  history  and  to 
forget  the  change  of  times,  to  see  in  the 
Fathers  of  New  England  and  their  suc- 
cessors mere  commonplace  slavemongers ; 
to  themselves  they  appeared  as  the  elect  to 
whom  God  had  given  the  heathen  for  an 
inheritance ;  they  were  men  of  stern  in- 
tellect and  fanatical  faith,  who  believing 
themselves  the  favourites  of  Providence, 
imitated  the  example  and  assumed  the 
privileges  of  the  chosen  people,  and  for 
their  wildest  and  worst  acts  they  could 
claim  the  sanction  of  religious  conviction. 
In  seizing  and  enslaving  Indians,  and  trad- 
ing for  negroes,  they  were  but  entering 
into  possession  of  the  heritage  of  the  saints  ; 
and  New  England  had  to  outgrow  the 
theology  of  the  Elizabethan  Calvinists 
before'it  could  understand  that  the  Father 
of  Heaven  respected  neither  person  nor 
color,  and  that  his  arbitrary  favor— if 
more  than  a  dream  of  divines — was  con- 
fined to  spiritual  privileges.  Compare 
Fronde's  Hist,  of  England:  viii.  480. 

It  was  not  until  the  struggle  on  the 
part  of  the  colonists  themselves  to  throw 
off  the  fast  closing  shackles  of  British 
oppression  culminated  in   open  resistance 




to  the  mother  country,  that  the  inconsis- 
tency of  maintaining  slavery  with  one 
hand  while  pleading  and  striking  for 
freedom  with  the  other,  compelled  a  re- 
luctant and  gradual  change  in  public 
opinion  on  this  subject. 

It  is  true  that  at  no  period  of  her  his- 
tory was  Massachusetts  without  her  "pro- 
testants"  against  the  wThole  system ;  but 
their  example  was  powerless  in  their  day 
and  generation.  The  words  and  thoughts 
of  a  Williams,  an  Eliot,  a  Sewall,  and  a  Dud- 
ley, fell  unheeded  and  unnoticed  on  the  ears 
and  hearts  of  the  magistrates  and  people  of 
their  day,  as  the  acorn  fell  two  centuries 
ago  in  the  forests  by  which  they  were 
surrounded.  e.  t.  e. 



On  looking  over  the  remarkable  collec- 
tion of  autograph  letters  and  other  historical 
documents  belonging  to  Peter  Force, 
Esq.,  relative  to  the  early  history  of  this 
country,  I  found  two  autograph  memorials 
of  John  Campbell,  who  started  the  first 
regular  newspaper  on  this  continent ;  they 
are  probably  unique.  With  the  kind  per- 
mission of  Mr.  Force,  I  have  made  exact 
copies  of  them  for  the  Historical  Maga- 

As  New  York  has  recently  honored  the 
memory  of  her  first  printer  and  publisher, 
Wm.  Bradford,  a  short  sketch  of  the 
pioneer  Boston  newspaper  publisher  may 
be  excused.  It  appears  he  was  a  Scotch- 
man, the  Postmaster  of  Boston,  and  started 
the  Boston  News-Letter  "  April  17  to  24, 
1704."  It  was  printed  in  a  half  sheet  of 
old-fashioned  pot  paper,  in  small  pica  type. 
The  first  page  of  No.  1  is  filled  with  an  ex- 
tract from  "The  London  Flying  Post," 
respecting  the  Pretender  (who  styled  him- 
self James  VIII.  of  Scotland,)*  sending 
Popish  missionaries  from  France  into  Scot- 
land, by  which  the  kingdoms  of  England 
and  Scotland  were  endangered.  The 
Queen's  Speech  to  both  Houses    of  Par- 

liament on  the  occasion ;  a  few  articles 
under  the  Boston  head  ;  four  short  para- 
graphs of  marine  intelligence  from  New 
York,  Philadelphia,  and  New  London ; 
and  one  advertisement,  form  its  whole  con- 
tents. The  advertisement  is  from  Camp- 
bell, the  publisher  of  the  paper,  and  is  as 
follows : 

"The  News-Letter  is  to  be  published 
weekly ;  and  all  Persons  who  have  any 
Houses,  Lands,  Tenements,  Farmes,  Ships, 
Vessels,  Goods,  Wares,  or  Merchandises, 
&c  to  be  Sold  or  Lett ;  or  Servants  Run- 
away ;  or  Goods  Stoll  or  Lost  may  have  the 
same  Inserted  at  a  Reasonable  Rate  ;  from 
12d.  to  5s.  and  not  to  exceed  ;  Who  may 
agree  with  Nicholas  JBoone  for  the  same  at 
his  Shop  next  door  to  Major  Davis's, 
Apothecary  in  Boston  near  the  Old  Meet- 
ing House." 

The  News-Letter  was  carried  on  by 
Campbell  till  1722,  when  he  transferred 
his  interest  to  B.  Green.  The  latter  died 
in  1733,  when  the  paper  was  continued  by 
John  Draper,  his  son-in-law,  till  1762  ;  and 
after  several  changes,  its  publication  ceased 
in  1776,  when  the  British  evacuated  Bos- 
ton,— seventy-two  years  in  all.  It  was  the 
first  regular  newspaper  published  in  Ame- 
rica, and  the  only  one  printed  in  Boston 
during  its  siege.  Many  able  Tory  writers 
filled  its  pages  in  the  political  discussions 
that  culminated  in  the  American  Revolu- 

Campbell,  the  original  proprietor,  died 
about  five  years  after  he  transferred  his 
right  to  Green.  His  death  is  thus  men- 
tioned in  the  News -Letter  of  March  7, 

"  On  Monday  Evening  last,  the  4th  cur- 
rant, about  8  a  Clock  died  here  John 
Campbell,  Esq  Aged  75  Years,  formerly 
Post  Master  in  this  place,  Publisher  of  the 
Boston  News-Letter  for  many  Years,  and 
One  of  His  Majesty's  Justices  of  the  Peace 
for  the  county  of  Suffolk." 

Here  follow  Mr.  Campbell's  memorials : 

To  His  Excellency  Joseph  Dudley  Esqr. 
Capt  Generall  And  Governour  In  Chief  in 
and  over  Her  Maj's.  Province  of  New 
Hampshire  &c  And  to  the  Honble  Her 
Maj's.  Council 




The  Humble  Petition  of  John  Campbell, 
Post-Master  of  New  England, 

That  Whereas  yor.  Petitioner,  has  had 
a  yearly  Allowance  from  this  Government, 
the  better  to  enable  him  to  discharge  his 
Trust,  in  the  management  of  sd  Office, 
And  taking  due  care  of  the  Publick  Letters, 
which  saves  this  Colony  Considerably  in  a 
year,  seeing  that  the  Income  by  the  sd 
office  are  not  yet  able  to  allow  him  a  Com- 
petent Sallary  for  the  same, 

Your  Petitioner  also  having  last  year 
sett  on  Foot  a  Weekly  Letter  of  Intelli- 
gence for  Foreign  and  Domestic  occur- 
rences expecting  that  the  Income  thereby, 
being  sett  a  Moderate  Rate  would  be  suf- 
ficient to  defray  the  necessary  charge 
Thereof,  the  which  it  did  not  do,  And 
several  Gentlemen  Merchts.  and  others 
being  willing  it  should  be  continued,  have 
agreed  to  contribute  Toward  its  support, 
yet  notwithstanding  there  are  not  a  com- 
petent number  to  carry  it  on,  And  it  being 
found  of  Publick  use  and  service  to  the 

Your  Petitioner  therefore  most  Humbly 
Prays,  That  your  Excellency  and  Honble. 
Council  will  be  pleased  to  take  the  premises 
into  yor.  most  Mature  and  wise  considera- 
tion and  Grant  yor.  Petitioner  such  allow- 
ance and  Encouragement  as  may  enable 
him  in  the  discharge  of  both  Trusts. 

And  yor.  Petitioner  as  In  Duty  bound 
Shall  ever  Pray  being  always 

Yor.  Excellency's  and  Honours  most 
Humble,  most  obedient  and  faithful  Servant 

John  Campbell. 

John  Campbell's  petition 

To  His  Excelly.  Joseph  Dudley  Esqr. 
Capt.  Generall  Govr.  In  Chief  In  and  over 
Her  Maj's.  Province  of  New  Hampshire 
&c  And  to  The  Honble  Her  Maje's  Council 

The  Humble  Petition  of  John  Campbell 
Post-Master  of  N.  England 

That  Whereas  your  Petitioner  has  had 
no  allowance  since  the  First  of  Febry. 
Seventeen  Hundred  &  three,  for  his  extra- 

ordinary Services  and  care  about  the  Pub- 
lic Letters,  in  giving  Due  dispatch  to  the 

Your  Petitioner  therefore  most  Humbly 

That  your  Excellency  and  Honours  will 
be  Pleased  to  take  the  same  into  your  most 
mature  Consideration  and  grant  your  Peti- 
tioner allowance  to  encourage  him  in  said 
Duty  for  the  future,  and  yor.  Petitioner  as 
in  Duty  bound  Shall  ever  pray,  being  all- 

Yor.  Excelly 's.  and  Honours  most  obe- 
dient &  faithful  servant 

John  Campbell^, 


John  Campbell 
RdMay  1705. 

Read  and  allowed  6th  in  Council. 

[The  sum  allowed  is  very  obscure ;  it  may 
be  6s.  or  £6.     It  looks  like  6ts  in  the  MS.] 

J.  B.  K. 

Washington,  D.C. 


The  late  movement  in  the  House  of  Re- 
presentatives for  inviting  Cabinet  Officers 
to  take  seats  in  the  House,  make  explana- 
tions, and  take  part  in  debates  relating 
to  their  particular  branches  of  the  Govern- 
ment, as  is  done  in  the  British  Parliament, 
brings  to  mind  the  early  practice  of  the 
Senate  on  this  subject. 

When  the  government  was  first  organ- 
ized under  the  Constitution,  in  New  York, 
in  1789,  it  was  customary  for  the  Senate  to 
sit  with  closed  doors  in  all  cases,  legislative 
and  executive.  This  practice  continued 
till  the  20th  of  February,  1794,  when  the 
contested  election  of  Albert  Gallatin  was 
under  discussion.  It  was  then  directed,  by 
a  vote  of  19  to  8,  "  that  suitable  galleries 
be  provided  for  the  Senate  chamber,  and 
that  the  same  be  opened  every  morning, 
except  in  such  cases  as  in  the  opinion  of  the 
Senate  require  secrecy." 

In  forming  treaties  and  in  making  ap- 
pointments, the  "  advice  and  consent"  of 
the  Senate  is  required  by  the  Constitution. 




Washington  very  naturally  gave  these 
words  their  obvious  meaning,  and  thought 
the  advice  and  consent  should  be  obtained 
beforehand.  In  executive  sessions,  there- 
fore, he  attended  the  Senate  in  person,  and 
took  the  presiding  officer's  chair.  The 
latter  was  assigned  a  chair  on  the  floor 
of  the  Senate,  and  was  considered  as 
the  immediate  presiding  officer ;  he  put  all 
questions  to  the  Senators,  who  answered 
Aye  or  No.  The  President  consulted  the 
Senate  beforehand,  upon  the  negotiation 
of  Indian  Treaties,  and  had  the  Secretary 
of  War  present  to  give  all  necessary  expla- 
nations. The  other  Secretaries  attended 
the  Senate  when  required  to  bring  papers 
and  give  explanations  ;  a  method  now  sup- 
planted by  their  Annual  Reports.  The 
early  Senators  thought  the  former  mode 
the  best  to  obtain  the  exact  information 
wanted,  and  the  best  security  against  the 
appointment  of  incompetent  Secretaries. 

Other  customs  connected  with  the  inau- 
guration of  a  new  President  have  fallen  into 
disuse ;  such  as  the  proclamation  by  the 
Chief  Justice,  after  administering  the  oath, 
"  Long  live  George  Washington,  President 
of  the  United  States !" — the  President  then 
repairing  to  church  to  attend  divine  ser- 
vice, accompanied  by  both  Houses  of  Con- 
gress— then  re-conducted  to  his  own  house 
by  a  Committee  of  both  Houses — and  the 
Answer  to  the  Inaugural  Address  by  the 

Instead  of  taking  the  "  advice"  or  asking 
the  "  consent"  of  the  Senate  beforehand  in 
the  formation  of  treaties,  for  many  years 
they  have  been  generally  negotiated  with- 
out even  the  knowledge  of  Senators,  and 
then  their  ratification  urged  as  an  admi- 
nistrative measure. 

A  Col.  Fishbourne,  having  been  nomi- 
nated as  Collector  of  Savannah,  was  re- 
jected by  the  Senate  at  the  wishes  of  the 
Georgia  Senators,  who  preferred  another 
man.  Washington  was  evidently  annoyed 
by  this  rejection,  as  the  Colonel  had  been  a 
iavorite  officer  with  him  during  the  Revo- 
lution ;  and  it  is  asserted  he  never  presided 
at  any  more  executive  sessions,  and  the 
attendance  of  his  Secretaries  also  soon  fell 
into  disuse. 

When  John  Quincy  Adams  was  Secre- 
tary of  State  in  1822,  he  entered  the  House, 
it  was  said,  to  request  some  member  to 
make  a  call  for  a  certain  paper  connected 
with  his  famous  controversy  then  pending 
with  Jonathan  Russell  respecting  the  Fish- 
ery question  at  the  treaty  of  Ghent.  His 
political  opponents  in  the  violent  Presi- 
dential campaign  then  opening,  affected  to 
consider  his  presence  in  the  House  a  great 
violation  of  "  the  proprieties  of  his  posi- 

President  Polk  consulted  the  Senate  in 
the  formation  of  the  Oregon  Treaty  of 
1846,  asking  their  advice  beforehand  on 
the  point  of  establishing  the  boundary  line 
with  Great  Britain  on  the  parallel  of  49°. 

Secretary  Chase  was  frequently  in  attend- 
ance in  one  of  the  Committee  rooms  of  the 
Senate  during  the  session  of  the  last  Con- 
gress, when  his  important  financial  mea- 
sures were  under  discussion.  How  much 
more  direct  and  satisfactory  for  the  Secre- 
tary to  have  been  present  in  the  House, 
and  given  all  necessary  explanations  in 
person.  j.  b.  e. 

Washington,  D.  O. 

|tate  anft  %mm. 

Phillis  Wheatley,  the  Negro-Slave 
Poet. — The  recent  appearance  in  print  of 
the  poetical  writings  of  Phillis,  the  negro 
servant  of  Mr.  John  Wheatley  of  Boston, 
leads  me  to  present  at  this  time  a  few  facts 
relating  to  this  remarkable  woman,  which 
are  not  generally  known,  and  which  have 
escaped  the  notice  of  her  biographers. 

Phillis  is  supposed  to  have  been  about 
seven  years  of  age  when  she  was  stolen 
from  her  parents  in  Africa  and  brought  to 
Boston  in  the  year  1761,  to  be  sold  as  a 
slave.  Fortunately,  at  that  time  a  bene- 
volent woman,  the  wife  of  John  Wheatley, 
a  tailor  dwelling  in  Boston,  was  in  need  of 
a  domestic  possessing  traits  of  disposition 
which  would  make  her  an  agreeable  com- 




panion  rather  than  a  drudge  and  servant 
of  all  work.  Phillis,  being  of  feeble  con- 
stitution, and  very  gentle  in  her  demeanor, 
appeared  to  be  just  the  person  Mrs.  Wheat- 
ley  required,  and  was,  therefore,  purchased 
of  the  slave-dealer  and  taken  home  ;  where, 
after  decent  clothing  superseded  her  mise- 
rable rags,  she  gave  evidence  of  vivacity  of 
genius,  a  superiority  of  intellect,  good  per- 
sonal appearance,  and  affectionate  disposi- 
tion, which  surprised  and  gratified,  not  only 
the  family  in  which  she  was  domesticated, 
but  also  the  principal  personages  of  the 
town,  who  were  frequent  visitors  to  Mr. 
Wheatley's  hospitable  mansion. 

The  family  consisted  then  of  Mr.  Wheat- 
ley,  his  wife  Susanna,  and  their  son  Na- 
thaniel and  daughter  Mary,  twins,  with  a 
few  slaves  who  had  grown  old  in  service, 
and  who  could  not  be  relied  upon  for  the 
time  when  the  young  folk  should  leave  the 
mansion  of  their  parents  to  become  the 
heads  of  other  families.  Miss  Mary,  then 
eighteen  years  old,  took  charge  of  the  new 
inmate  of  the  family,  and  so  rapid  was  the 
young  n egress  in  the  acquisition  of  learn- 
ing, that  in  less  than  a  year  and  a  half  after 
the  time  of  her  importation,  she  could  con- 
verse fluently  in  English,  a  language  she 
had  never  heard  spoken  before  she  was 
kidnapped,  and  could  read  and  correctly 
pronounce  the  most  difficult  passages  of 
the  sacred  writings ;  and  before  she  had 
been  under  pupilage  ten  years  she  wrote 
letters  and  poetry  that  astonished  the  lite- 
rary men  of  New  England,  who  were  then 
numerous,  and  had  acquired  for  the  metro- 
polis the  name  of  the  Modern  Athens. 

On  the  thirty-first  of  January,  1771,  when 
about  seventeen  years  of  age,  Phillis  was 
called  to  suffer  her  first  grief;  her  young 
mistress  was  taken  from  the  family  to  be- 
come the  wife  of  the  Rev.  John  Lathrop, 
the  pastor  of  the  second  church  in  Boston. 
The  event  may  have  led  her  to  the  step 
which  she  took  on  the  eighteenth  of  the 
following  August ;  for  then,  under  the 
simple  and  unpretending  name  of  Phillis, 
witt  no  surname  whatever,  she  became  a 
communicant  of  the  Old  South  Church  in 
Boston,  then  destitute  of  a  settled  minister. 

cellent  teachings  of  the  Rev.  Dr.  Joseph 
Sewall.  About  this  time  Phillis  began  to  fail 
in  health,  and  in  the  fall  of  1773  her  de- 
cline became  so  apparent  that  by  the  advice 
of  friends  she  left  Boston  to  visit  England, 
in  company  with  Mr.  Nathaniel  Wheatley 
and  his  family,  he  going  to  London  to  open 
a  branch  of  his  mercantile  business,  which 
had  already  become  large  for  a  New  Eng- 
lander.  While  in  England  she  received 
much  attention  from  the  patrons  of  litera- 
ture ;  and  there  her  poems  were  published, 
and  were  bringing  her  into  considerable 
note,  when  she  was  recalled  to  Boston  to 
attend  her  mistress  in  her  last  hours. 

Mrs.  Wheatley,  her  kind  friend  as  well 
as  mistress,  died  in  the  sixty-fifth  year  of 
her  age,  on  the  third  of  March,  in  the  year 
1774,  and  Mr.  Wheatley  on  the  twelfth 
of  March,  1778,  aged  seventy-two.  This 
left  Phillis  alone.  Mary  was  the  wife 
of  the  Rev.  Mr.  Lathrop,  and  Mr.  Natha- 
niel was  married  and  residing  in  Lon- 
don. At  this  sad  hour  of  her  exist- 
ence she  became  acquainted  with  a  u  co- 
lored gentleman,"  John  Peters,  whom 
she  married  in  April,  1778,  about  a  month 
after  her  kind  master's  decease.  He  was 
indeed  a  colored  gentleman,  for  report  says 
of  him  that  he  kept  store,  wore  a  wig,  and 
carried  a  cane,  and  felt  himself  superior  to 
all  kinds  of  labor.  At  the  time  of  her  mar- 
riage she  was  styled  "  a  free  negro,"  and 
it  is  supposed  that  Mrs.  Lathrop,  who  be- 
came her  owner  at  the  decease  of  her  father, 
gave  her  her  freedom,  perhaps  in  words  si- 
milar to  those  of  the  Rev.  Increase  Mather, 
who  manumitted  his  slave  withthefollowing 
words  in  his  will  :  "It  is  ray  mind  and  will 
that  my  negro  servant  called  Spaniard  shall 
not  be  sold  after  my  decease,  but  I  do  then 
give  him  his  liberty — let  him  then  be  es- 
teemed a  4  i'vee  negro.'  " 

Sadder  times,  however,  came  to  Phillis. 
.V  few  months  later  she  lost  her  kind  young 
friend  ;  for  Mrs,  Lathrop  died  at  the  age 
of  twenty-five  on  the  twenty-fourth  of  Sep- 
tember, 1778,  and  she  was  left  entirely  to 
her  miserable  husband,  who  proved  to  be 
improvident,  failing  in  business,  and  be- 
too  lazv  to  do  anything  that  would 

but  which  had  lately  experienced  the  ex- 1  conduce  to  her  comfort  in  the  days  of  her 

HIST.  MAG.       VOL.  VIII.  4 




sickness  and  sorrow.  In  the  summer  of 
1788  Mr.  Nathaniel  Wheatley  also  died, 
the  last  of  her  natural  protectors,  and  about 
this  time  she  lost  two  of  the  three  children 
born  to  her  while  she  temporarily  dwelt  in 
Wilmington,  Mass.  And  now  her  disease 
rapidly  increased,  and  on  the  fifth  of  De- 
cember, 1788,  at  the  early  age  of  thirty-one 
years,  poor  Phillis  Peters,  alias  Wheatley, 
drew  her  last  breath,  and  soon,  together 
with  her  last  offspring,  which  seemed  to 
have  been  left  till  then  to  make  the  occa- 
sion more  mournful,  was  carried  to  her  last 
earthly  resting-place,  without  one  of  the 
friends  of  her  prosperity  to  follow  her,  and 
without  a  stone  to  mark  her  grave. 

All  that  is  known  of  the  death  and  burial 
of  this  talented  person  may  be  summed  up 
in  the  following  notice  published  on  the 
Thursday  succeeding  her  decease,  in  the 
Independent  Chronicle:  "  Last  Lord's  day, 
died  Mrs.  Phillis  Peters,  (formerly  Phillis 
Wheatley,)  aged  31,  known  to  the  literary 
world  by  her  celebrated  miscellaneous  po- 
ems. Her  funeral  is  to  be  this  afternoon,  at 
4  o'clock,  from  the  house  lately  improved 
by  Mr.  Todd,  nearly  opposite  Dr.  Bulfinch's 
at  West  Boston,  where  her  friends  and  ac- 
quaintances are  desired  to  attend."  Could 
the  spot  of  her  burial  be  found,  there- could 
be  no  more  befitting  epitaph  than  the  words 
from  her  own  pen — 

Remember,  Christians,  negroes  black  as  Cain 
May  be  refined,  and  join  the  angelic  train. 

N.  B.  S. 


Ginashadgo,  24  May,  1794. 

Sir: — I  have  Returned  home  safe.  I 
wrote  a  letter  to  you,  (hope  you  received 
it,)  in  Regard  to  the  British  sending  a  man 
to  Catarogaras  &  he  sent  for  me— I  went 
to  see  him,  not  him  alone,  but  likewise  the 
Moncyes  Respecting  the  man  that  was 
killed  at  French-creek  as  you  wrote  to  me 
concerning  that  bnisness. 

Brother  this  man  that  sent  for  me  to 
Catarogaias  wanted  to  know  what  we  were 
about,  it  seemed  to  him  as  if  we  were  hide- 
ing  ourselves,     I  spoke  to  him,  <fc  told  him 

the  reason  of  our  Hiding  our  selves — That 
the  White  People  think  that  we  are  No- 
body— I  have  told  him  every  thing  from 
the  Begining.  That  the  Six  Nations  could 
not  be  heard  By  any  Body — This  was  all 
passed  betwen  this  British  man  &  myself 
— his  Name  is  Wm.  Johnston. 

Brother  then  I  spoke  to  the  Moncyes  in 
Regard  of  your  writing  to  me  to  help  you, 
and  I  asked  their  minds  as  the  Tommy- 
hawk  was  Sticking  in  their  Heads. — Then 
the  Moneys  Spoke  &  told  me  they  was  not 
Drunk  about  this  affair — As  you  writ  to 
me,  and  told  me  You  wanted  to  make  our 
minds  easy  about  this  Affair. — As  you  Writ 
to  me  that  you  wanted  our  minds  easy — 
It  Shall  be  so — This  is  all  I  have  to  say  this 
present  time  about  it. 

As  I  went  there  every  thing  happened 
Right,  &  you  will  hear  a  little  what  Bears- 
Oil  Chief  said  as  he  was  sent  there  by  the 
Chiefs  of  Conniatt  (Conyaut)  I  send  You 
three  Strings  of  Wampum  given  to  me  by 
Bears  Oil  Chief  &  his  words  were  that  God 
almighty  had  mad  day  and  Night,  and 
when  he  saw  me  it  appeared  to  him  as  if 
it  was  Daylight — Brother  says  Bears  Oil, 
my  mind  is  very  uneasy  when  I  live  at 
Conneat  every  Summer  &  I  see  the  bad 
Indians  and  always  tell  them  not  to  inte- 
rupt  our  friends  this  Way. 

Bears  Oil  says  his  mind  is  very  uneasy 
and  the  Reason  is,  that  he  cannot  hardly 
keep  these  Western  Nations  back  any 
more,*  as  they  the  white  people  are  making- 
Forts  in  their  Country  and  another  thing 
Our  Worriors  &  Children  are  very  uneasy. 
They  say  that  they  cannot  go  out  of  Doors 
to  ease  themselves  for  Fear  of  Spoiling 
Gen1  Washington s  lands — &  that  may 
(which  must)  be  the  Reason  we  wiU  or  can 
(are  to)  be  Killed. — Bears  Oil  speeks  and 
says  he  was  sent  by  all  the  Chiefs,  &  they 
looked  out  which  was  the  best  way  for  him 
to  Go.  by  Water  their  was  a  lake  that  God 
almighty  had  made  for  every  Body  &  he 
hoped  that  Gen1  Washington  would  have 
Nothing  to  say  if  he  went  by  Water 

Now  Brothers  says  Bears  Oil  to  the  si.\ 
Nations  I  have  com  to  know  your  minds 
and  if  you  want  me  to  com  down  hear  to 
live,  I  shill  com,  and  I  send  you  five  strings 






of  Wampum  as  his  speech  on  that  head — 
I  spoke  to  Bears  Oil  Chief  for  Wm.  Johns- 
ton to  help  him,  as  the  white  People  thinks 
Nothing  of  us,  Then  Johnston  spoke  and 
told  him  he  would  help  him,  and /or  (told) 
him  to  go  home  and  tell  his  Worriors  & 
Children  to  go  to  work,  plent  Corn  &  Git 
their  living — I  then  spoke  to  Bairs  Oil  my- 
self to  make  his  mind  Easy  &  go  home, 
and  if  he  See  (saw)  any  of  the  Western 
Nations  Going  to  war,  to  tell  them  not  to 
enterupt  any  Body  about  French-creek  or 
any  where  in  that  Country,!  and  if  he 
Should  see  them,  to  tell  them  to  go  Back, 
to  those  that  ware  at  war — I  told  Bears 
Oil  afterwards  that  if  You  dont  see  any  of 
them,  &  they  do  any  Mischief  we  cannot 
help  it — Then  after  that  I  Considered  & 
Dispached  Runners  to  Oswego  &  to  Buff- 
low-creek  &  to  the  Genessees  for  all  the 
Chiefs  to  Rise  and  Likewise  Gen1  Chapin 
Supiren*  of  Indian  affairs. 

Then  Mr  Johston  spoke  &  said  if  the  six 
Nations  went,  he  would  Go  with  them. — 
Their  is  but  Eight  Days  to  Com  when  they 
will  meet  at  tin's  Place  if  they  like  what  I 
have  said — Brothers  at  French-creek  if  it 
should  happen  that  they  dont  come  You 
must  not  Blame  me,  for  it  is  not  my  fault, 
Because  you  know  very  well  I  am  almost 
Tired  of  talking,  because,  none  of  you  will 
hear  me — It  will  be  but  a  few  Days  Before 
I  will  know  whether  they  are  Coming,  & 
if  they  are  Coming,  you  will  Know  it  Imea- 

I  am  Your  friend  &  Brother 
John  x  Obail 
j    Lieut.  John  Polhemus 

Commands  F  F 

I  wrote  you  Last  about  stoping  the 
Troops — I  hope  you  will  till  Affairs  is  (are) 
settled  X 


[From  Indentures  of  Palatine  Children  in  Secretary  of  State's 
Office,  Albany,  N.  Y.] 

This  Indenture  made  the  Twenty  Sixth 
Day  of  October  Anno  Domini,  1710,  and 
in   the  Ninth    Year  of  the  Reign  of  our 

Sovereign  Lady  Anne  by  the  Grace  of  God 
of  Great  Britain,   France   and    Ireland, 
Queen,    Defender    of  the  Faith,  &c.     Be- 
tween   His    Excellency    Robert    Hunter, 
Esqr;    Capt.  General    and    Governour    in 
Chief  of  the  Provinces  of  New  York,  New 
Jersey,  and  Territories  depending  thereon 
in  America,  and  Vice-Admiral  of  the  same 
c&c.ofthe  one  part,  And    William  Brad- 
ford of  the  City  of  New  York  Printer  of 
the  other  part,  Whereas  his  said   Excel- 
lency in  Council  having   determined    the 
putting  out  of  the  Orphans  of  the  Palatines 
(and  some  of  those  other   Children  whose 
Parents  have  too  many  to  look  after  them 
and  mind  their  Labour)  for  a  certain  time, 
upon   the  Conditions  following,    (to  wit) 
The  Boys  till  they  arrive  at  the  Age  of 
Twenty  one  years,  and  the  Girls  till  they 
arrive  at  the  Age  of  Nineteen  years ;  The 
Persons  taking  them  entring  into  Inden- 
tures, and  Bond  with  Surety,  in  the  Secre- 
tary's Office,  to  provide  them  with  Good 
and  Wholesom  Meat,  Drink,  Lodging  and 
Cloathing,  and  at  the   Expiration    of  the 
time  to  Surrender  them  to  the    Govern- 
ment ;   his    Excellency   and    Council     en- 
gaging they   shall   respectively   serve    till 
they  arrive  at  the  Ages  aforesaid.     Now 
this    Indenture     Witnesseth,    That    John 
Peter    Zenger    of   the  Age   of    Thirteene 
Years  or   thereabouts,    Son    of  Hannah 
Zenger  Widow  One  of  the  Palatines  afore- 
said, of  his  own  free  and  Voluntary  Will  by 
the  Consent  of  his  said  Mother  and  also  By 
the  consent  and  approbation  of  his  Excel- 
lency, hath  put  him  self  out  to  the  said 
William  Bradford  his  Executors  and  Ad- 
ministrators with  him  and  them  to  dwell 
and  serve  from  the  day  of  the  date  hereof 
for  and  during  and  unto   the  full  end  and 
term  of  Eight  years  from  thence  next  en- 
suing and  fully  be  compleat  and  Ended,  for 
all    which  said  Term  of  Eight  years   the 
said   John  Peter  Zenger  the  said    William 
Bradford  his  Executors  and  Administra- 
tors well  and  truly  shall  serve   his  &  their 
Commands  lawful  and  honest  every  where 
he  shall  do  ;  The  Goods  oihis  said  Master 
his  Executors  or  Administrators  he  shall 
not  waste  or  destroy,  nor  from  the  Service 
of  his  said  Master  his  Executors  or  Ad- 




ministrators  day  nor  night  shall  absent  or 
prolong  him  self,  but  in  all  things  as  a  good 
and  faithful  Servant  shall  bear  and  behave 
him  self  towards  his  said  Master  his  Exe- 
cutors  &  Administrators  during  the  said 
Term   aforesaid.     And    the  said    William 
Bradford  for  him  self  his  Executors  and 
Administrators  and    every   of  them   doth 
Covenant,  Promise  and  Grant  to  and  with 
his  said  Excellency  and  his  Successors,  that 
he  the  said  William  Bradford  his  Execu- 
tors &  Administrators  shall  and  will  during 
all  the  said  Term  of  Eight  years  find  and 
provide  for  the   said   John  Peter  Zenger 
good,  sufficient  and  wholesom  Meat,  Drink 
and  Cloathing  ;  And  also  shall  and  will  at 
the  end  and  Expiration  of  the  said  Term  of 
Eight  years  Surrender  and  deliver  up  the 
said  John  Peter  Zenger,  well  Cloathed  to 
his  said  Excellency,  or  to  the  Governour  or 
Commander  in  Chief  of  the  said  Province 
of  New  York,  for  the  time  being.     In  Wit- 
ness whereof  his  said  Excellency  and  the 
said  William  Bradford  have  hereunto  In- 
terchangeably  set  their  Hands  and  Seals 
the  day  and  year  first  above  Written. 

Will  Bradford  [Seal.] 
Sealed  and  delivered  in  the 
Presence  of  {the  several  In- 
terlineations aforesaid  of  ye 
Words  Executors  and  Ad- 
ministrators being  first  In- 

H.    WlLEMAN. 

The  Last  Survivor  of  Washington's 
Life  Guard. — Among  the  papers  of  my 
father  I  find  the  following  letter.  It  will 
be  remembered  that  about  1852  a  revolu- 
tionary soldier  named  Gibson  died  in 
Orange  County,  and  it  being  supposed  at 
the  time  that  he  was  the  last  of  the  Life 
Guard  of  Washington,  he  was  buried  in 
Greenwood  at  the  expense  of  one  of  the 
New  York  City  Regiments  and  with  mili- 
tary honor — having  lain  in  state  during  the 
day  prior  to  the  burial  in  the  Governor's 
Room  in  the  City  Hall.  He  claimed  for 
many  years  before  his  death  that  he  was 
not  only  one  of  the  Guard,  but  a  short 
time  before  his  decease  stated  to  the  Rev. 
Robert  Armstrong,  of  Newburgh,  that  he 

was  one  of  a  hundred  horsemen  (Life 
Guards)  who  escorted  Washington  to  Mt. 
Vernon  at  the  close  of  the  Revolution. 
Mr.  Armstrong  subsequently  published 
this  statement,  and  it  was,  I  think,  gene- 
rally credited.  My  father  (who  had  pre- 
viously published  several  articles  to  show 
that  the  Life  Guards  were  infantry  and 
not  mounted  men)  discredited  the  state- 
ment of  Gibson  as  to  the  escort  to  Mt. 
Vernon.  This  led  to  a  controversy  in  the 
Newburgh  papers  between  Mr.  E.  and  Mr. 
A.  as  to  the  fact  whether  the  Guards  were 
footmen  or  horsemen.  The  former  wrote 
to  George  Washington  Parke  Custis,  then 
at  Arlington  House,  detailing  the  state- 
ment of  Gibson  as  to  the  escort,  and  also 
asking  him  as  to  the  military  character  of 
the  Guards.  It  brought  the  following 
letter,  which  was  conclusive  upon  both 

The  real  survivor  of  the  Life  Guards  was 
Uzual  Knapp,  who  was  buried  at  the  Head 
Quarters  of  Washington  at  Newburgh.  The 
remains  of  his  wife  (whom  he  had  survived 
for  many  years)  were  subsequently  deposit- 
ed by  his  side.  The  graves  are  within  a 
few  steps  from  the  north-east  corner 
of  the  old  building.  A  portrait  of  Mr. 
Knapp  by  Charles  Rice,  Esq.,  hangs  in  the 
large  room  of  the  building.  I  believe  it  is 
the  only  likeness  ever  taken  of  him.  He 
was  an  exceedingly  intelligent  and  pleasant 
man,  of  small  stature,  though  compactly 
built,  and  with  one  of  the  finest  profiles  I 
ever  saw. 

Yours  truly, 

John  M.  Eager. 

Arlington  Hotrsis,  April  2,  1862. 

My  Dear  Sir, 

Yours  is  received.  The  story  told  by 
Gibson,  "the  old  Life  Guardsman,"  of 
Washington's  being  escorted  to  Mt.  Vernon 
in  1783  by  a  hundred  horsemen  is  a  fable. 

The  Life  Guards  was  a  corps  of  in- 
fantry. When  the  Chief  had  taken  leave 
of  his  officers  in  the  memorable  scene  at 
Francis'  Tavern,  he  proceeded  himself  on 
his  way  to  Annapolis,  then  the  seat  of  Go- 
vernment, and  there  to  resign  his  commis- 
sion, accompanied    only   by   two  aide-de- 




camps  and  three  serva?its.  Not  a  soldier 
of  any  sort!  He  tarried  with  Robert 
Morris — called  at  his  head-quarters  when 
v\  Philadelphia,  and  then  on  to  Annapolis. 

After  the  resignation  of  the  commission, 
Washington,  as  a  private  citizen,  accom- 
panied by  Colonel  Humphries  (one  of  his 
aide-de-camps  at  Yorktown),  called  at  my 
grandfather's,  the  Honorable  Benedict 
Calvert,  at  his  seat  in  Prince  George's 
County,  Maryland,  and  stayed  one  night,  and 
then  reached  Mt.  Vernon  on  the  next  day. 

During  the  journey  the  beloved  chief 
was  greeted  by  the  love,  gratitude,  and 
acclamation  of  the  people,  who  turned  out 
as  volunteers  to  bid  him  welcome  to  their 
hearts  and  homes,  and  everywhere  escort- 
ed him  from  place  to  place;  but  not  a 
single  Continental  soldier  escorted  him 

Very  respectfully,  sir, 

your  obedient  servant, 

George  W.  P.  Custis. 
Hon.  Samuel  M  Eager,  Newburgh, 

New  York. 

Americanisms  in  German  English 
Dictionaries. — German  English  Diction- 
aries have  always  been  noted  as  receptacles 
for  slang,  inserted  not  as  slang  but  as 
genuine  English.  Taking  up  Elwell's  New 
and  Complete  American  Dictionary  of  the 
English  and  German  Languages,  New 
York,  1851,  I  have  been  amused  to  see 
what  amount  of  vulgarisms  has  been  thrust 
into  it  as  English. 

JVbt  by  a  jugfull,  is  favored  with  an  es- 
pecial heading. 

Clamshell,  is  given  as  one  of  the  equiva- 
lents of  mouth,  but  the  word  clam,  as  the 
name  of  a  shell  fish,  is  not. 

Boss,  is  given  as  a  noun  and  as  a  verb. 

Bubbler,  a  word  unknown  to  me,  is  given 
as  the  name  of  a  fish  in  Ohio. 


Burgoo,  is  given  as  a  preparation  of  oat- 

Carpetwed,  as  a  creeping  plant. 

Cisco,  as  a  small  fish. 

Frough,  is  given  as  meaning  rancid. 

Fornient  is  interpreted  gegeniiber,  but  on 

looking  to  that  German  wrord  I  find  he  in- 
tended the  Irish  forninst  I 

Energize,  citizenize,  funkify,  noncom- 
mittalism,  and  many  similar  words  abound, 
and  the  pages  bristle  with  such  expressions 
as  fork  over,  hurry  up  the  cakes,  the  jig  is 
up,  jiminy,  killing,  to  kick  up  a  row, 
kinder,  kilter,  loaf,  lovyer. 

Spunk,  underwood,  improperly  called  in 
some  parts  punk,  is  given  only  in  the  incor- 
rect form. 

The  Indian  sled,  tabogan,  is  given  tar- 

The  book  is  worth  a  closer  examination 
than  I  have  taken  time  to  give  it,  by  any 
student  of  Americanisms.  i. 

The  Jurisdiction  of  the  Bishop  op 
London  in  America. — In  1*786,  Owen  Salis- 
bury Brereton,  Esq.,  exhibited  to  the  So- 
ciety of  Antiquaries  of  London  an  impres- 
sion of  a  seal  used  prior  to  the  reign  of 
George  I.  by  the  Bishop  of  London  for 
American  documents.  It  bore  the  legend, 
"  Sigillum  Episcopi  Londlnensis.  Pro 
comiss.  Americanis."  It  is  stated  in  Notes 
and  Queries  that  in  the  reign  of  George  I. 
this  question  was  referred  to  the  law  offi- 
cers of  the  crown  :  u  Whether  America 
was  so  far  to  be  deemed  within  the  diocese 
of  London,  that  the  bishop  thereof  had  all 
power  in  America  ?"  They  decided  that 
a  royal  patent  was  necessary  to  sustain 
such  a  power,  but  Dr.  Gibson,  Bishop  of 
London,  refused  to  take  out  a  patent. 

Revised  Statutes. — At  page  225,  vol. 
1,  of  the  5th  ed.  of  this  work,  the  beginning 
of  the  town  of  Lewis,  Essex  Co.,  is  stated 
to  be  "  where  the  river  Raquette  crosses 
the  town  line."  There  is  no  river  "Ra- 
quette" in  Essex  County.  The  river  of 
that  name  is  in  St.  Lawrence  Co.  The 
Essex  County  river  is  called  Boquet,  and 
it  ought  to  have  been  so  printed  in  the 
Statutes,  for  it  is  so  written  in  the  minute 
of  the  Board  of  Supervisors,  which  is 

In  the  same  vol.,.  p.  206,  the  town  of 
Gilboa  is  described  as  beginning  at  the 
mouth  of  the  "  Mauer"  Kill.  It  should  have 
been  printed  Manor  KM. 




Resolved  Waldron's  will  was  proved 
1st  June,  1761.  He  left  the  following 
children :  John,  Jacob,  Adrian,  Anne, 
Elizabeth,  Peggy,  Caty.  Anne  m.  Strauts 
Springstein ;  Elizabeth  m.  Patrick  Kine ; 
Peggy  married  Abraham  Lent,  and  Caty 
m.  Alexander  Buleen.  Jacob  settled  even- 
tually at  Haverstraw,  Orange  County,  near 
Strong  Point,  on  lands  inherited  from  his 
father.  It  may  be  well  to  preserve  these 
particulars  of  the  descendants  of  one  of 
Gov.  Stuyvesant's  ambassadors  to  Vir- 
ginia, e.  b.  o'c. 

Clockville,  Madison  Co.,  N.Y. — This 
is  an  instance  where  the  misspelling  of  a 
word  destroys  the  only  link  whereby  cor- 
rect information  may  be  obtained  of  the 
origin  of  the  name  of  the  place.  It  was 
called  "  Klockville''  after  John  Klock,  the 
original  grantee  of  lot  No.  10  in  the  towm 
of  Lenox,  in  which  the  village  is  situated, 
and  has  no  connection  with  those  time- 
pieces called  "  clocks,"  as  one  would  be  led 
at  present  to  infer.  e.  b,  o'c. 

"  During  Men." — This  name,  as  I  was 
informed  by  the  late  Samuel  Stevens,  a  son 
of  Gen.  Ebenezer  Stevens,  of  Revolutionary 
memory,  was  used  to  distinguish  the  troops 
enlisted  to  serve  through  the  War  of 
Independence,  as  contra-distinguished  from 
those  called  out  for  a  limited  time. 

G.    G. 

An  Antient  Landmark. — One  Thomas 
Jones  petitioned  in  1709,  for  2000  acres  of 
land  in  Orange  County,  the  bounds  of 
which  are  described  as  beginning  "at  a 
certain  wiggwam  on  the  North  side  of 
Murderer's  Creek,  about  seven  miles  from 
its  mouth."  It  is  evident  from  this  that 
the  Indians  inhabited  the  Highlands  in  the 
neighborhood  of  Westpoint,  at  the  above 
date.  o'c. 

Throgs  Neck. — This  name  is  most  ab- 
surdly converted  into  "  Frogs  neck"  in 
the  Revised  Statutes  of  our  state.  It  is  de- 
rived from  that  of  JohnThrogmorton,  who 
obtained  a  patent  for  the  land  as  far  back 
as  1658.     It  is  about  time,  is  it  not,  that 

those  who  undertake  to  form  or  revise  our 
laws  should  know  something  of  the  early 
history  of  the  country  ? 

Earl  Bellomont  —  Joe  Daveiss. — 
Although  the  New  York  Colonial  History 
and  Colonial  documents  give  the  name  of 
Earl  Bellomont  correctly,  as  above,  in  ac- 
cordance with  his  own  custom,  for  I  have  his 
handsome  autograph  before  me,  the  earlier 
writers,  such  as  Hutchison,  and  even  some 
as  late  as  Grahame,  Sparks,  and  Hildreth, 
write  it  Bellamont.  The  title  is,  inverted, 
that  of  one  of  Napoleon's  Generals,  the 
Duke  of  Montebello,  and  exists  even  in 
England  in  the  French  form  Beaumont. 
How  the  incorrect  letter  came  in  is  not  easily 

Jos.  H.  Daveiss,  who  was  killed  at  the 
battle  of  Tippecanoe,  in  1811,  and  after 
whom  several  counties  in  various  states 
have  been  named,  spelt  his  name  as  I  have 
written  it.  In  the  official  list  of  post-offices  it 
is  uniformly  spelt  Daviess.  These  particulars 
are  not  important,  but  it  is  pleasant  to  see 
names  correctly  printed. 

J.  B.    R. 

Washington,  D.  C 

Dying  in  the  Last  Ditch. — This  ex- 
pression, so  frequently  used  by  the  Rebels, 
originated  with  the  Prince  of  Orange,  in 
his  reply  to  the  Duke  of  Buckingham  in 
1679.  "There  is  one  certain  means,"  said 
the  prince,  answering  the  remark  that  the 
Commonwealth  was  ruined,  "  by  which  I 
can  be  sure  never  to  see  my  country's  ruin  ; 
I  will  die  in  the  last  ditch.''  Hume's  Hist. 
of  England,  vol.  iv.,   page  261. 

j.  w. 

Belfast,  Maine. 

A  Bibliographical  Anecdote. — The 
visitor  to  the  British  Museum  who  pauses 
at  Show-case  VIII.,  in  the  King's  Li- 
brary, where  specimens  of  the  early  English 
press  are  displayed,  may  notice,  quite  at 
the  end,  an  open  volume,  bearing  the  fol- 
lowing label: — 

"  The  book  of  St.  Alban's.  The  bokys 
of  Haukyng  and  Huntyng,  and  also  of 
Coot  armuris.  Written  by  Dame  Juliana 
Barnes,  or  Berners,  Prioress  of  Sop  well 




Nunnery.  Printed  at  St.  Alban's  in  1486. 
Bequeathed  by  the  Right  Hon.  Thomas 

The  following  adventures  which  befell 
this  very  volume  before  it  found  its  present 
secure  resting-place,  are,  I  think,  worthy 
of  a  place  in  the  first  rank  of  bibliographi- 
cal romance. 

The  story  has  never,  so  far  as  I  know, 
been  published  ;  and  originally  formed  part 
of  a  letter  written  on  bibliographical  mat- 
ters by  the  Rector  of  Pilham,  in  184V,  to 
the  Rev.  S.  R.  Maitland.  By  the  kind  per- 
mission of  the  latter  gentleman,  I  have  been 
allowed  to  copy  it : — 

"In  June,  1844,  a  pedlar  called  at  a 
cottage  at  Blyton,  and  asked  an  old  widow 
named  Naylor  whether  she  had  any  rags 
to  sell.  She  said,  s  No  !'  but  offered  him 
some  old  paper;  and  took  from  a  shelf  The 
Booh  of  St.  AloanPs  and  others,  weighing 
9  lbs.,  for  which  she  received  nine  pence. 
The  pedlar  carried  them  through  Gains- 
boro',  tied  up  in  a  string,  past  a  chemist's 
shop,  who,  being  used  to  buy  old  paper  to 
wrap  drugs  in,  called  the  man  in;  and, 
struck  by  the  appearance  of  The  Boke, 
gave  him  three  shillings  for  the  lot.  Not 
being  able  to  read  the  colophon,  he  took 
it  to  an  equally  ignorant  stationer  and 
offered  it  to  him  for  a  guinea;  at  which 
price  he  declined  it,  but  proposed  that  it 
should  be  exposed  in  his  window  as  a 
means  of  eliciting  some  information  about 
it.  It  was  accordingly  placed  there,  with 
the  label — "  Very  old  curious  work."  A 
collector  of  books  went  in,  and  offered  2s. 
Qd.  for  it.  This  excited  the  suspicions  of 
the  vendor.  Soon  after  Mr.  Bird,  the 
Vicar  of  Gainsboro',  went  in  and  asked  the 
price,  wishing  to  have  a  very  early  spe- 
cimen at  a  reasonable  price;  not  knowing, 
however,  the  great  value  of  the  book. 
While  he  was  examining  the  book,  Stark, 
a  very  intelligent  bookseller,  came  in, 
to  whom  Mr.  Bird  at  once  ceded  the 
right  of  pre-emption.  Stark  betrayed 
such  visible  anxiety  that  the  vendor,  Smith, 
declined  settling  a  price.     Soon  after,  Sir  j 

C came  in,  and  took  the  book  to  col- 1 

late  ;  and  brought  it  back  in  the  morning,  j 
having  found  it  imperfect  in  the  middle,  I 

and  offered  hi.  for  it.  Sir  Charles  had  no 
book  of  reference  to  guide  him  to  its  value ; 
but  in  the  mean  time,  Stark  had  employed 
a  friend  to  obtain  for  him  the  refusal  of  it, 
and  had  undertaken  to  give  a  little  more 
than  Sir  Charles  might  offer.  On  finding 
that  at  least  hi.  could  be  got  for  it,  Smith 
went  to  the  owner  and  gave  him  two  gui- 
neas, and  then  proceeded  to  Stark's  agent 
and  sold  it  for  11.  Is.  Stark  took  it  to 
London,  and  sold  it  to  the  Rt.  Hon.  T. 
Grenville  for  *70  or  80  guineas. 

"It  must  now  be  stated  how  it  came  to 
pass,  that  a  book  without  covers  of  such  ex- 
treme age  was  preserved.  About  fifty 
years  since,  the  Library  of  Thonock  Hall, 
in  the  parish  of  Gainsboro',  the  seat  of  the 
Hickman  family,  underwent  great  repairs ; 
and  the  books  were  sorted  over  by  a  most 
ignorant  person,  whose  selections  seem  to 
have  been  determined  by  the  coat.  All 
books  without  covers  were  thrown  into  a 
great  heap,  and  condemned  to  all  the  pur- 
poses which  Leland  laments  in  the  sack  of 
the  Conventual  Libraries  by  the  visitors. 
But  they  found  favor  in  the  eyes  of  a  literate 
gardener,  who  begged  leave  to  take  what  he 
liked  home.  He  selected  a  large  quantity  of 
Sermons  before  the  House  of  Commons,  local 
pamphlets,  tracts  from  1680  to  1710,  opera 
books,  Ac,  &c.  He  made  a  list  of  them, 
which  was  afterwards  found  in  his  cottage ; 
and  No.  43  was  '  Catermouris.'  The  old 
fellow  was  something  of  a  herald,  and  drew 
in  his  books  what  he  held  to  be  his  coat. 
After  his  death,  all  that  could  be  stuffed 
into  a  large  chest  were  put  away  in  a  gar- 
ret ;  but  a  few  favorites,  and  The  Bohe 
among  them,  remained  on  the  shelves  of 
the  kitchen  for  years,  till  his  son's  widow 
became  so  stalled  of  dusting  them  that  she 
determined  to  sell  them." 

Here  ends  the  material  of  the  story. 
The  volume  was  afterwards  splendidly 
bound,  and  is  now  the  only  copy  in  the 
British  Museum. 

Description  of  a  Fashionable  Lady 
107  Years  Ago. — 

the  petition. 
Artful  Painter,  by  this  Plan 
Draw  a  Female  if  you  can 




Paint  her  features  bold  and  gay, 
Casting  Modesty  away ; 
Let  her  Air  the  mode  express, 
And  fantastick  be  her  Dress  ; 
Cock  her  up  a  little  Hat 
Of  various  colours,  this  and  that ; 
Make  her  Cap  the  Fashion  new, 
An  Inch  of  Gauze  or  Lace  will  do ; 
Cut  her  hair  the  shortest  dock ; 
Nicely  braid  the  Forehead  Lock ; 
Put  her  on  a  Negligee, 
A  short  Sack  or  Sheperdee, 
Ruffled  up  to  keep  her  warm, 
Eight  or  ten  upon  an  Arm  ; 
Let  her  Hoop  extending  wide 
Shew  her  Garters  and  her  Pride. 
Her  Stockings  must  be  pure  and  white, 
For  they  are  seldom  out  of  sight. 
Let  her  have  a  high  heel'd  shoe, 
And  a  glittering  Buckle  too ; 
Other  Trifles  that  you  find, 
Make  quite  careless  as  her  Mind. 
Thus  equip'd  she's  charming  ware 
For  the  Races  or  the  Fair. 
New  York  City,  March  29, 1756. 


Negro  Burying  Ground. — There  was 
a  "Negro  burying  ground"  in  1738  upon 
a  place  called  Little  Neck,  in  the  town 
of  West  Farms,  Westchester  Co.  Does  any 
trace  of  it  remain  ? 

Epishemo. — Can  any  one  give  me  the 
derivation  of  this  word,  in  common  use  in 
Oregon,  meaning  the  housings  of  a  horse  ? 
I  have  looked  in  vain  in  French  and  Spa- 
nish dictionaries  for  a  word  from  which  it 
might  come. 

G.  G. 

O'Reilly  at  Algiers. — Can  any  of 
your  correspondents  give  an  account  of 
the  Spanish  expedition  which,  under  the 
command  of  an  Irishman,  General  Count 
O'Reilly,  and  of  an  English  Baronet,  went 
from  Carthagena  to  take  Algiers,  but  ac- 
cording to  Lord  Byron  (note  to  Don  Juan) 
instead  of  O'Reilly  taking  Algiers,  Algiers 
very  nearly  took  him?  What  was  the 
real  story?  p.  o. 

Letters  of  "  Patrick  Henry." — Who 
wrote  the  letters  to  Vice-President  Cal- 
houn, in  1826,  signed   "Patrick  Henry?" 

They  were  originally  published  in  Mr. 
Force's  National  Journal,  and  afterwards 
collected  in  a  pamphlet  of  96  pages.  They 
relate  to  Mr.  Calhoun's  course  as  presiding 
officer  of  the  Senate,  when  the  famous 
"  Retrenchment"  Resolutions  were  before 
that  body ;  and  John  Randolph,  for  day 
after  day,  indulged  in  those  well  remem- 
bered rhapsodies  of  hostility  to  the  adminis- 
tration without  reference  to  its  measures, 
outraging  all  decorum  by  his  gross  person- 
alities against  Mr.  Adams,  Mr.  Day,  and 
their  friends  both  in  and  out  of  Congress. 
As  far  as  Mr.  Day  was  concerned,  it  result- 
ed in  a  duel  between  himself  and  Mr.  Ran- 

Mr.  Calhoun's  course  was  severely  re- 
viewed in  a  series  of  letters  in  the  National 
Journal,  signed  "  Patrick  Henry."  They 
were  written  in  a  trenchant  style,  and  have 
abundant  evidence  of  the  pen  of  John 
Quincy  Adams,  to  whom  they  were  gene- 
rally inscribed  in  the  papers  of  the  day. 

Norris's  Journal  of  Sullivan's  Ex- 
pedition to  the  Genesee  Country,  1779. 
— I  have  the  original  manuscript  journal  of 
Major  James  Norris,  of  ~New  Hampshire, 
who  was  in  the  campaign.  It  covers  70 
foolscap  pages,  and  is  much  more  intelli- 
gent than  the  account  of  Grant.  (Hist. 
Mag.,  vol.  vi.,  page  233.)  Was  this  journal 
of  Isf orris  ever  published,  and  if  so,  when 
and  where  ? 

J.  w. 

Belfast,  Me. 

John  Paul  Jones. — Was  he  ever  allow- 
ed by  Congress  to  receive  a  title  from 
France,  and  if  so,  when  and  where  ? 

j.  w. 

Belfast,  Maine. 

Copperhead  :  When  was  the  term 
First  Used  ?  (Hist.  Mag.,  vol.  vii.,  page 
166). — As  applied  to  individuals  by  Irving, 
in  his  History  of  New  York.  "  The  Yan- 
kees sneeringly  spoke  of  the  round-crowned 
burglars  of  the  Manhattoes  as  the  Copper- 
heads.'' (See  the  author's  revised  edition, 
1849,  page  385).  In  the  modern  sense  of 
the  term  it  was  probably  first  used  by  E. 




W.  Flagg,  Esq.,  of  Bangor,  in  the  Maine 
Democratic  Convention,  in  August,  1861. 

j.  w, 

Belfast,  Me. 

M  Cease,  sude  Boreas,blustering  Rail 
er."  (Vol.  vii.,  p.  198.) — This  ballad  must 
have  been  well  known  as  early  as  1779,  lor 
it  is  contained  in  a  manuscript  collection, 
dated  "Wyoming,  Forty  Fort,  July  6, 
1779."  The  following  song  from  the  col- 
lection I  do  not  remember  to  have  seen 
before.  It  may  be  interesting  at  the 
present  time. 

Husbands  must  leave  their  loving  wives, 

And  spritely  youths  attend, 
Leave  their  sweet  hearts  and  goe  with  speed, 

Our  country  to  defend. 

May  their  heavens  guard  us  in  the  field, 

And  keep  us  safely  their ; 
We  Pray  the  Lord  to  be  our  Shield 

Where  thundering  Cannon  Roar. 

And  in  the  Great  Jehovah's  Name 

And  under  his  command, 
We  will  goe  forth  against  our  foe, 

While  they  Invade  our  Land. 

The  Cause  for  which  we  Do  Contend 

We  know  is  just  and  rite, 
Therefore  we  Pray  the  Lord  of  host 

to  Put  our  foes  to  flight. 

Our  Property  we  will  maintain, 

Our  rights  we'l  near  Resign ; 
They  Shan't  be  sold  for  glitering  gold, 

Nor  heaps  of  Spanish  Coine. 

J.   W 

Belfast,  Me. 


John  Simcock,  etc. — I  can  give  your 
correspondent,  u  Philadelphia,"  some  facts 
relating  to  three  of  the  persons  mentioned 
in  his  communication  : — John  Simcock, 
John  Cadwalader,  and  Nicholas  Newlin. 

John  Simcock,  of  Ridley,  Esquire,  came 
from  a  place  of  that  name  in  Cheshire  with 
Wm.  Penn  about  1682.  He  was  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Provincial  Council  and  Assem- 
bly, and  sometimes  Speaker  of  that  body  ; 
a  Judge  of  the  Common  Pleas,  and,  after- 
wards, of  the  Supreme  Court ;  one  of  the 

HIST.    MAG.      VOL.    VIII.  5 

Of  this,  how- 

!  Commissioners  to  Settle  the  Maryland 
| boundary;  "and  Deputy  President  of  the 
Society  of  Free  Traders.  He  was  a  Qua- 
ker preacher,  and  was  at  one  time  fined 
£100  and  imprisoned  fifteen  months  for  bis 
religion.  He  was  a  large  landowner.  He 
died  in  1703,  aged  73.  His  son  John  was 
Deputy  Recorder  of  Chester  County,  and 
his  son  Jacob  was  Deputy  Register  Gene- 
ral under  James  Claypoole. 

The  John  Cadwalader  referred  to  is, 
doubtless,  the  Quaker  Preacher  of  that 
name.  There  was  a  John  Cadwalader  in 
the  Assembly,  I  suppose  it  was  the  same 
person.  The  Philadelphia  family  is,  I 
think,  descended  from  another  John  Cad- 
walader and  not  this  one. 
ever,  I  am  not  certain. 

Nicholas  Newlin,  of  Birmingham  and 
Concord,  Esquire,  was  an  English  gentle- 
man of  ancient  family,  and  came  to  Penn- 
sylvania from  Mt.  Mellick  in  1683.  He 
was  a  member  of  the  Provincial  Council, 
and  a  Judge  of  the  Common  Pleas.  He 
died  in  1699  aged  70.  His  son,  Nathaniel 
Newlin,  of  Concord,  Birmingham,  and 
Newlin,  Esquire,  was  a  Justice  of  the 
County  Courts,  a  Member  of  the  Provincial 
Assembly,  Commissioner  of  Property,  one 
of  the  Trustees  of  the  General  Loan  Office 
of  the  Province,  etc.  He  married  in  1685 
Miss  Mary  Mildenhall,  of  Mildenhall  in 
Suffolk,  and  V»ied  in  1729  aged  70.  His 
son,  Nathaniel  Newlin,  of  Concord,  Bir- 
mingham and  Newlin,  Esquire,  was  a  Just- 
ice of  the  County  Courts,  and  Member  of 
the  Assembly.  Newlin  Township  was  first 
purchased  by  and  called  after  the  elder 
Nathaniel.  x, 

The  Redeemed  Captive  (vol.  vii.  p. 
382). — I  have  a  fragment  of  a  volume  con- 
taining only  56  pages.  The  running  title 
is  "  The  Redeemed  Captive  Returning  to 
Zion."  The  titlepage  of  the  work  itself  is 
gone,  but  that  of  the  sermon  is  as  follows : 
Reports  of  Divine  Kindness  :  |  or,  |  Re- 
markable Mercies  |  should  be  faithfully 
published,  |  for  the  |  Praise  of  God  the  Gi- 
ver. |  Set  forth  in  a  |  Sermon  |  preached  at 
Boston  Lecture  December  5,  1706.  |  By 
John  Williams  I  Pastor  of  the  Church  of 




Christ  in  Deerfield,  |  soon  after  his  return 
from  a  doleful  captivity.  |  Psal.  107.  13, 
14,  15,  32  (quoted  in  full) ;  Psal.  34.  3 
(quoted  in  full).  |  New  London :  Re- 
printed and  sold  by  T.  Green,  1776.  | 

I  think  it  adds  one  to  the  list  of  editions 
given  by  g.  in  the  Magazine  for  Decem- 
ber. D.  W.  PATTERSON. 
West  Winsted,  Conn. 

Alden  Family  (vol.  vii.  355). — There 
were  families  of  this  name  seated  at  New- 
ton Longville,  Bucks,  and  Rickmansworth, 
Herts.,  in  1634;  and  their  pedigrees  are 
preserved  in  the  British  Museum.  I  do 
not  know  whether  they  were  connected 
with  the  American  family  or  not,  nor  how 
long  they  had  been  seated  at  this  place. 
Sims  gives  the  references  to  these  pedigrees 
in  his  Index  to  the  Herald's  Visitation  in 
the  British  Museum, 

x.  y.  z. 

New  York  Names. — Mr.  Strong,  of 
Irving,  N.Y.,  is  represented  as  saying 
(Hist.  Mag .,  vii.  313),  "he  has  not  been 
able  to  find  a  river,  creek,  lake  or  moun- 
tain in  our  state  that  now  bears  the  name 
of  any  herbivorous  animal."  By  turning 
to  the  map  of  Northern  New  York,  Deer 
River,  and  Moose  River,  and  Deer  Lake 
and  Moose  Lake  will  be  found  laid  down. 

e.  b.  o'c. 


The  Life  of  Father  Antonio  Mar- 
gil. — A  very  uncommon  though  com- 
paratively recent  work  is  the  life  of  the 
Franciscan  Missionary  in  Texas  and  other 
parts  of  Mexico,  Father  Antonio  Margil  de 
Jesus.  It  is,  as  I  am  informed  by  one  of 
the  best  informed  scholars  in  the  Spanish 
part  of  our  history,  so  rare  in  Mexico  and 
Spain  that  he  met  with  but  two  copies 
in  his  investigations  in  both  countries,  and 

one  of  these  was  a  well  worn  one  in  the 
hands  of  the  Margil  family  at  Valencia.  It 
is  possible,  however,  that  its  strange  title 
may  have  caused  it  to  be  overlooked  in 
some  cases.     The  title  is  as  follows : 

El  Peregrino  |  Septentrional  Atlante  :  | 
Delineado  |  en  la  exemplarissima  Vida  |  Del 
Venerable  Padre  |  Fr.  Antonio  Margil  |  de 
Jesus  |  Fruto  de  la  floridissima  ciudad  de 
Valencia,  |  Hijo  de  su  Serafica  Observante 
Provincia,  Predicador  Missionero,  |  Notario 
Apostolico,Comissario  del  Santo  Oficio,Fun- 
dador, |  y  Ex-Guardian  de  tres  Colegios,  Pre- 
fecto  de  las  Misiones  |  de  Propagande  Fide 
en  todas  las  Indias  Occiden-  |  tales,  y  acla- 
mado  de  la  piedad  |  Por  nuevo  Apostol  de 
Guatemala  |  Dedicase  |  A  los  das  gloriosis- 
simos  Juanes  |  Bautista,  y  Evangelista  :  | 
A  expensas  de  un  amartelado  del  V.  P.  y 
de  la  Serafica  Religion.  |  Escrivela  |E1  Pa- 
dre Fr.  Isidro  Felix  de  Espinosa,  |  Predi- 
cador, y  Misionero  Apostolico,  Ex-Guar- 
dian del  Colegio  |  de  la  Santa  Cruz  de  Que- 
retaro,  su  Chro- 1  nista,  y  menor  Hijo.  |  Con 
Licencia  :  |  En  Valencia:  Por  Joseph  Tho- 
mas Lucas,  Impressor  del  Illustris- 1  simo 
Senor  Obispo  de  Teruel.  Ano  de  1742.  | 
Vendese  en  casa  de  Salvador  Fauli,  Li- 
brero,  en  la  Plaza  de  Villarrasa. 

It  is  a  quarto  of  426  pages  double  co- 
lumn. Title  and  preliminary  pages  un- 
folioed  10,  then  page  1  to  411,  412  blank, 
and  4  pages  Indice  without  folios. 

His  Texan  missions  are  described  on 
pages  248  to  265.  It  is  divided  into  three 
books,  two  of  which  are  historical,  the 
third  being,  as  is  usual  in  the  lives  of  saints, 
devoted  to  a  portrait  of  his  virtues,  each 
head  being  treated  separately. 

The  volume  contains,  moreover,  some 
very  curious  matter  relative  to  the  Pagan 
rites  secrelly  preserved  among  the  Indians. 

Father  Margil  was  born  at  Valencia 
Aug.  18,  1657,  and  died  at  Mexico  Aug. 
6,  1726. 




New  Haven  Historical  Society. — New  Ha- 
ven, Nov.  30,  1863.— The  New  Haven  Historical 
Society  held  their  first  annual  meeting  under  the 
charter  from  the  State  Legislature.  After  the 
usual  preliminaries  attending  such  meetings, 
Henry  Bronson,  M.D.,  read  a  paper  on  the  Cur- 
rency of  Massachusetts  and  Connecticut.  It 
began  with  an  introductory  concerning  the 
wants  of  all  communities,  whether  civilized  or 
barbarian,  of  a  medium  of  commercial  exchange, 
and  the  various  devices  which  have  been  adopted 
to  meet  such  want.  The  early  settlers  found  the 
aborigines  using  for  money  what  they  termed 
wampum,  consisting  of  several  kinds  of  shells, 
the  value  of  which  was  determined  by  its  light 
or  dark  color,  and  by  other  circumstances.  For 
many  years  this  wampum,  to  a  certain  extent, 
passed  current  among  the  settlers,  the  value  being 
determined  by  act  of  court.  The  Doctor  pre- 
sented many  highly  interesting  facts  concerning 
this  shell  money,  as  also  the  method  of  exchange 
in  commodities  in  those  early  days,  and  then 
passed  to  the  use  of  coin,  the  mode  of  coining — 
the  coin  being  hammered  out — and  the  gradual 
development  of  our  system  of  bills  of  exchange 
and  the  general  features  of  our  system  of  banking. 
The  report  of  Mr.  John  Collis,  the  Curator, 
was  read.  It  showed  that  there  had  been  re- 
ceived during  the  year  444  bound  volumes,  2,064 
pamphlets,  16  bundles  newspapers,  27  handbills, 
88  volumes  of  autograph  letters  and  manuscripts, 
70  volumes  manuscripts,  7  mounted  maps,  20 
framed  engravings,  34  other  engravings,  2  oil 
paintings,  1  bust,  59  curiosities,  7  pieces  ancient 

The  Treasurer's  report  shows  a  balance  in  hand 
of  $388  48. 

Mr.  White  was  elected  President,  Dr.  E.  E. 
Beardsley,  Vice  President,  Mr.  Horace  Day,  Se- 
cretary, and  Mr.  Nathan  Peck,  Treasurer.  The 
Directors  are  Messrs.  Leonard  Bacon,  Henry 
Bronson,  Wm.  A.  Reynolds,  Thos.  R.  Trow- 
bridge, Samuel  Punderson,  Elliott  T.  Foote, 
Henry  C.  Kingsley,  Chas  E.  English,  Elisha  L. 
Cleveland,  Chas.  R.  Ingersoll,  Edward  H.  L. 

It  was  voted  that  a  book  be  procured  for  the 
reception  of  the  autographs  of  visitors. 

The  additions  to  the  library  for  the  past  month 
(in  all  1,066)  were  received  from  61  contributors  ; 
and  included  the  entire  publications,  in  uniform 
binding,  of  the  documents  of  the  first  and  second 
sessions  of  the  37th  Congress ;  those  of  the 
"  Loyal  Publication  Societies''  of  Boston,  New 
York,  and  Cincinnati;  the  entire  documents  of 
the  Territory  of  Colorado ;  the  Journal  of  the 
(seceding)  Convention  of  Louisiana,  in  English 
and  French,  with  Gayarre's  History  of  Lou- 
isiana, the  obliging  gift  of  Maj.  General  Banks; 
numerous  publications  on  the  war,  and  relics 
from  the  battle-field  of  Gettysburg,  etc. 

Of  the  correspondence  for  the  month  reported 
(nineteen  letters  received  and  seventy-one  writ- 
ten), letters  of  interest  W  re  read  from  Gen. 
Charles  B.  Stuart,  Geneva,  in.  Y.,  relative  to  ma- 
terial improvements  in  the  North-west;  from  the 
Hon.  John  Young,  M.P.P.,  Montreal,  in  regard 
to  the  Provincial  Documents  of  Canada;  also 
from  the  Hon.  Charles  Mason,  New  York  ;  Gov. 
J.  Evans,  of  Denver  City,  Col.,  and  George  Liver- 
more,  Esq.,  of  Massachusetts. 

The  following  were  then  elected  to  fill  the 
principal  offices  of  the  Society  for  the  ensuing 
year  : 

President,  Walter  L.  Newberry,  Esq. ;  Vice- 
Presidents,  Hon.  W.  B.  Ogden,  and  J.  Y.  Scam- 
mon ;  Treasurer,  Dr.  F.  Scammon ;  Rec.  Secre- 
tary and  Librarian,  William  Barry ;  Corres- 
ponding Secretary,    E.   B.  McCagg,   Esq.      The 

usual  Committees  of  Business,  Research,  etc., 
were  re-elected  with  slight  modifications. 

The  Society's  thanks  were  directed  to  be  re- 
turned to  the- editors  or  publishers  of  serials  for- 
warded to  the  Library  the  past  year. 

Nov.  24. — The  adjourned  annual  meeting  was 
held  at  the  private  residence  of  Mr.  Bross,  and 
was  numerously  attended  by  members,  with  their 
ladies  and  invited  guests. 

An  address  was  read  by  Mr.  J.  Y.  Scammon, 
presenting  a  historical  sketch  of  Banks  and 
Banking  in  Illinois ;  which  was  followed  by  the 
annual  report  of  the  Secretary,  reviewing  the 
transactions  of  the  year. 

The  following  summary  was  given  of  the  So- 
ciety's collections : 

For  the 

Chicago  Historical  Society. —  Chicago,  Nov. 
17,   1863. — The   annual  meeting  was  regularly 
held — W.  L.  Newberry,  Esq.,  President,  in  the 

Unbound  books  and  pamphlets    .  9,779 

Files  of  serials .  197 

"     u  newspapers 48 

Old  and  rare  newspapers    ...  40 

Maps  and  charts 108 

Manuscripts 762 

Prints,  photographs,  etc.     ...  45 

Cabinets  single  and  collective  .     .  44 

Collections  of  miscellanies  ...  47 
















New  England  Historic  Genealogical  Soci- 
ety.— Boston,  Wednesday,  Dec.  2. — A  stated 
meeting  was  held:  this  afternoon,  Rev.  Martin 
Moore,  Vice-President  for  Massachusetts,  in  the 

Rev.  Caleb  Davis  Bradlee,  the  Corresponding 
Secretary,  reported  that  since  the  last  meeting 
letters  had  been  received  from  the  following  gen- 
tlemen accepting  the  membership  to  which  they 
had  been  elected,  viz. : 

Corresponding. — Hon.  G-eorge  P.  Fisherr  of 
Washington,  Judge  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  the 
District  of  Columbia. 

Resident. — Thomas  Parsons,  M.D.,  of  Boston, 
Edward  S.  Moseley,  of  Newburyport,  and  Charles 
C.  Dana,  of  Boston. 

William  B.  Trask,  the  Historiographer,  read 
an  able  and  very  interesting  memoir  of  the  Right 
Honorable  John  Singleton  Copley,  Lord  Lynd-' 
hurst,  an  Honorary  Member  of  the  Society,  who 
died  in  London,  Oct.  12,  1863,  at  the  age  of  91 

John  H  Sheppard,  the  Librarian,  reported  as 
donations,  during  the  past  month,  21  volumes, 
33  pamphlets,  large  map,  and  three  photographs. 
These  photographs, which  represent  a  relic  recent- 
ly discovered  at  Valley  Forge,  were  sent  to  the  So- 
ciety by  John  A.  McAllister  of  Philadelphia,  who 
gave  this  account  of  the  relic: — "  A  few  weeks 
ago,  workmen  engaged  in  removing  the  founda- 
tions of  an  ancient  building  near  Washington's 
Head  Quarters  at  Valley  Forge,  found  what  ap- 
peared to  be  a  block  of  wood  three  inches  square. 
It  remained  among  the  rubbish  for  several  days, 
when  one  of  the  laborers  turned  it  over  and  disco- 
vered it  to  be  a  box.  This  outer  box  appears  to  be 
of  some  composition  metal  resembling  copper,  but 
somewhat  corroded.  On  removing  the  outside  box 
another  was  discovered  plated  with  silver,  and  in 
this  case,  carefully  packed  to  protect  it  from 
moisture,  was  a  miniature  beautifully  painted 
and  in  excellent  preservation.  The  miniature 
represents  a  person  in  an  embroidered  coat,  ruf- 
fled shirt,  and  powdered  wig,  and  from  the  cos- 
tume was  evidently  painted  between  1730  and 
1740.  The  painting  is  on  enamel  and  has  on  its 
edge  near  the  right  shoulder,  the  letters  hall, 
which  can  be  distinguished  in  the  photograph 
with  the  aid  of  a  powerful  magnifier.  The  house 
in  which  the  relic  was  discovered  is  said  to  have 
been  built  about  the  year  1770."  Mr.  Sheppard 
suggested  that  hall  might  be  the  name  of  the 

After  the  transaction  of  the  ordinary  business 
the  meeting  was  dissolved. 


New  York  Historical  Society. — December, 
1863. — The  regular  meeting  of  the  Society  was 
held  m  the  Fire  Proof  Building,  the  Rev.  Dr. 
Dewitt  in  the  chair. 

Among  the  important  matters  transacted  was 
the  appointment  of  a  committee  to  nominate 
officers  for  the  election  in  January. 

Mr.  Moore,  the  librarian,  also  read  a  notice  of 
the  career  of  the  late  Judge  Macdonald,  and 
offered  a  series  of  resolutions  expressive  of  the 
regret  of  the  Society  for  the  loss  of  one  who, 
amid  the  annoyances  of  ill-health,  so  cheerfully 
devoted  himself  to  literary  and  historic  pursuits. 

The  paper  of  the  evening,  a  Memoir  of  Edward 
Lovington,  the  law-giver  of  Louisana,  was  read- 
by  Mr.  Charles  H.  Hunt,  and  was  an  interesting 
account  of  one  of  our  greatest  men. 

Among  the  donations  presented  were  the 
accounts  of  Washington's  executors,  rescued 
at  Fairfax  Court  House  by  Captain  James  B. 
Kirker,  and  presented  to  the  Society. 

Onondaga  Historical  Association. — Syra- 
cuse, Dec.  3. — Officers:  President,  Mr.  Clark; 
Vice-Pres.,  N.  B.  Smith;  Secretary,  R.  F. 
Trowbridge.  The  regular  meeting  was  held  at 
the  Society's  rooms,  President  Clark  in  the 

A  number  of  contributions  to  the  library  and 
museum  were  reported. 

The  Secretary  read  a  letter  from  H.  C.  Van 
Schaack,  Esq.,  offering  to  present  an  unbroken 
file  of  the  New  York  Spectator  for  more  than 
twenty  years,  on  certain  terms,  which  were 
agreed  to  by  the  Board. 

A  communication  from  Prof.  Agassiz  having 
been  received,  Mr.  Smith  moved  that  the  Lecture 
Committee  be  instructed  to  circulate  a  sub- 

Mr.  Noxon  introduced  Mr.  Griffin,  an  Indian, 
who  produced  a  number  of  Indian  curiosities. 
His  conversation  showing  him  to  be  intelligent ; 
he  was  employed  by  the  Board  to  secure  Indian 
relics  and  curiosities  for  the  Museum,  and  a 
sum  of  money  advanced  to  him  for  that  purpose. 

Mr.  Noxon,  from  the  Committee  on  Rooms, 
reported  the  bills  of  expenditure,  &c,  in  re- 
arranging the  rooms.  The  bill  of  D.  S.  &  S. 
P.  Geer  $32.29,  Alpetre  &  Hoffman  $95.41, 
E.  R.  Dandford  $24.60,  balance  of  Stoddard's 
account  $19.75,  Jas.  Noxon  $7.22,  were  audited 
and  ordered  paid. 

Mr.  Leach  reported  the  lease  as  drawn,  wnich 
was  accepted,  and  on  motion  the  President  or 
Vice-President  was  authorised  to  execute  it  on 
the  part  of  the  Association. 




Mr.  Noxon  moved  that  an  insurance  cf  $1,000 
be  procured  on  the  property  of  the  Association. 

The  following  letter  was  read  by  the  Secre- 
tary : 

Syracuse,  N.Y.,  Dec.  3,  ^S. 
E.  F.  Trowbridge,  Esq.,  Sec'y  of  Onondaga  Co. 

Historical  Society,  &c.  : 

Dear  Sir: — Please  accept  in  behalf  of  the 
Onondaga  Historical  Society  the  accompanying 
portrait  and  biography  of  one  of  Onondaga's 
pioneers — Capt.  Oliver  Teall.  It  is  needless  for 
me  to  pronounce  a  eulogium  upon  his  charac- 
ter, for  he  was  too  well  known  throughout  this 
section  of  the  State  to  require  it  at  my  hands. 
Suffice  it  to  say  that  he  was  one  of  Nature's 
noblest  works — an  honest  man. 

Yours,  for  the  welfare  of  the  Association, 
Geo.  G.  Gardner. 

The  portrait  and  biography  were  received, 
and  the  thanks  of  the  Association  given  to  the 

The  thanks  of  the  Association  were  also  voted 
to  several  other  donors,  and  the  Board  ad- 


Fire  Lands  Historical  Society,  New  London, 
December  9,  1863. — The  Society  convened  in  the 
M.  E.  Church  at  half  past  10  o'clock,  A.  M., 
and  was  called  to  order  by  Judge  S.  C.  Parker, 
Vice  President. 

The  minutes  of  the  Quarterly  Meeting  of  Fair- 
field were  read,  after  which  the  report  of  the  Se- 
cretary was  presented.  It  noticed  the  progress 
of  the  work  of  the  Society,  the  reception  of  pub- 
lications from  the  Essex  Institute  of  Salem, 
Mass.,  H.  A.  Smith,  Esq.,  of  Cleveland,  A.  Ban- 
ning Norton,  Esq.,  of  Mt.  Vernon,  and  Judge 
Parker,  of  Greenfield,  and  called  attention  to  the 
necessity  of  early  steps  to  secure  the  publication 
of  the  next  volume  of  the  Pioneer. 

Letters  were  read  from  Samuel  Holden  Par- 
sons, Esq.,  of  Middletown,  Conn.,  and  Rev.  John 
Seward,  of  Tallmadge,  Ohio.  The  former,  a 
grandson  of  Judge  S.  H.  Parsons,  the  first  Judge 
of  the  Northwestern  Territory,  suggested  some 
corrections  in  the  history  of  the  Fire  Lands 
grant,  in  the  3d  vol.  of  the  Pioneer,  from  docu- 
ments in  his  possession.  The  latter  gave  some 
additional  facts  concerning  his  Missionary  tour 
to  the  Fire  Lands  in  1819,  and  expressed  his  in- 
tention to  give  a  more  full  description  of  it  at 
some  future  time. 

The  names  of  standing  Historical  Committees 
of  the  several  townships  were  called,  and  the 
following  presented  reports:      Dr.   Skellenger, 

of  New  London — Sketches  of  Joseph  Seymour 
Menifield  and  Mrs.  Hendrix,  early  Settlers  of 
that  township.  D.  A.  Pease,  Norwalk — a  gene- 
alogical sketch  of  Rev.  Hezekiah  Ripley,  from 
whom  the  township  of  Ripley  was  named,  and  a 
letter  from  the  venerable  Thomas  D.  Webb,  of 
Warren,  relating  to  the  manner  in  which  the 
Fire  Lands  were  distributed  among  the  proprie- 
tors. Rev.  C.  F.  Lewis,  Wakeman — Indian  Re- 
miniscences, relating  in  particular  to  the  method 
of  manufacturing  canoes,  sap  troughs,  etc.,  of 

The  following  special  Committees,  appointed 
to  secure  the  histories  of  the  townships  named, 
reported  their  work  as  in  progress  :  Greenwich, 
Luther  Mead ;  Richmond,  J.  H.  Niles ;  Ruggles, 
S.  C.  Sturtevant ;  Sherman,  D.  H.  Pease. 

The  Constitution  was  then  read,  and  thirty- 
nine  persons  became  members  of  the  Society. 
A  portion  of  the  last  Annual  Report  of  the  Se- 
cretary was  then  read  by  the  Rev.  C.  F.  Lewis, 
and  on  his  motion  the  Society  requested  the  press 
of  the  Fire  Lands  and  other  papers  circulating 
there  to  publish  it.  The  Society  also,  on  motion 
of  the  same,  voted  to  request  of  the  Rev.  L.  B. 
Gurley  a  copy  of  the  Poem  referred  to  in  his  ad- 
dress, for  preservation. 

The  President,  Piatt  Benedict,  Esq.,  having 
arrived,  made  a  few  appropriate  remarks  on  as- 
suming the  chair,  expressing  for  himself  and  the 
Society  their  gratification  at  the  interest  mani- 
fested at  this  meeting  by  the  citizens  of  New 
London,  as  well  as  of  Ruggles,  Rochester,  and 
other  adjoining  towns,  so  many  of  whom  were 

The  Rev.  John  Keep,  of  Oberlin,  then  deli- 
vered an  address  on  the  duty  and  advantages  of 
not  only  gathering  history  for  ourselves  and  pos- 
terity, but  of  living  it.  It  was  remarkable  for 
power,  variety,  and  originality,  and  held  the 
undivided  attention  of  the  crowded  audience  till 
its  close.  The  Society,  on  motion  of  Dr.  Skel- 
lenger, unanimously  requested  a  copy  for  publi- 
cation. The  Rev.  Mr.  Keep  also  presented  the 
Society  a  copy  of  the  book  containing  the  first 
sermon  ever  preached  in  New  England,  and 
also  accounts  of  the  first  prayer  meeting  and  first 
Thanksgiving  on  "  Wild  New  England  Shore;" 
a  book  entitled  "  Congregationalism  and  Church 
Action,"  and  last,  but  "  not  least,"  a  copy  of  the 
New  England  Primer,  edition  of  1691. 

Castalia  was  selected  as  the  place  for  the  next 
meeting,  March  9,  1864. 





The  American  Baptist  Historical  Society, 
was  founded  in  Philadelphia  about  ten  years  ago. 
It  aims  to  collect  whatever  remains  of  the  history 
of  the  Church,  and  especially  of  such  portions  of 
it  as  in  every  age  have  maintained  the  sentiments 
of  those  who  now  constitute  the  Baptist  deno- 
mination. Also  books  and  pamphlets  by  Baptist 
authors  on  any  subject,  all  religious  Baptist  peri- 
odicals, existing  or  extinct ;  likenesses,  autograph 
letters  and  manuscripts  of  British  ministers ;  and 
views  of  Baptist  churches  and  literary  institu- 

The  Society  is  incorporated.  President,  Rev. 
Howard  Malcom,  D.D.,  LL  D.  Its  library  is  yet 
small,  embracing  about  1200  volumes,  7000 
pamphlets,  and  some  valuable  manuscripts.  Its 
constitution  connects  it  intimately  with  the 
American  Baptist  Publication  Society,  and  its 
room  is  in  their  building,  530  Arch  street,  Phila- 


The  Vermont  Historical  Society. — Mont- 
pelier, October  20,  1863. — At  the  annual  meeting 
of  this  Society,  October  20,  choice  was  made  of 
the  following  officers : 

Highland  Hall,  North  Bennington,  Presi- 

Daniel  Kelloerg,  Brattleboro',  Rev.  William  H. 
Lord,  Montpelier,  George  W.  Benedict,  Bur- 
lington, Vice-Presidents. 

George  F.  Houghton,  Recording  Secretary. 

Albert  D.  Hager,  Proctorsville,  John  S. 
Adams,  Burlington,  Corr.  Secretaries. 

Charles  Reed,  Montpelier,  Librarian  and 
Cabinet- Keeper. 

George  B.  Reed,  Montpelier,  Treasurer. 

Rev.  John  A.  Hicks,  D.D.,  Burlington,  Rev. 
P.  W.  Shelton,  Montpelier,  Henry  Clark,  Esq., 
Poultney,  Rev.  P.  H.  White,  Coventry,  Dugald 
Stewart,  Middlebury,  and  John  B.  Perry,  Swan- 
ton,  Curators. 

The  Publishing  Committee  were,  on  motion, 
requested  to  publish  a  volume  of  Collections  as 
soon  as  sufficient  funds  were  raised  for  the  pur- 
pose. Dr.  David  P.  Holton  argued  the  import- 
ance of  preserving  a  careful  record,  not  only  of 
Vermont  officers,  but  of  all  the  men  who  had 
joined  the  Volunteers  from  Vermont.  Albert 
D.  Hager,  Esq.,  then  read  a  paper  on  the  "  Cop- 
per Mines  of  the  United  States  and  Canada." 
Several  valuable  donations  were  reported  from 
General  J.  Watts  de  Peyster,  of  Tivoli,  N.Y., 
Hon.  W.C.  Watson,  of  Port  Kent,  N.Y.,  H.  B. 

Dawson,  Esq.,  of  Morrisania,  Rev.  W.  H.  Lord, 
and  Dr.  Earl  Cushman,  of  Orwell.  Messrs.  L.  C. 
Kellogg,  A.  Clark,  Moses  Cheney,  Dr.  H.  F. 
Stevens,  and  A.  D.  Hager,  Esq.,  were  requested 
to  prepare  papers  on  given  subjects  to  be  read 
at  some  early  meetings  of  the  Society.  The 
subject  of  "  Ancient  Mining  in  the  Lake  Superior 
region"  was  assigned  to  Albert  D.  Hager,  Esq. 
In  the  evening  the  annual  address  was  delivered 
to  a  large  audience  in  the  Representatives'  Hall, 
by  General  J.  Watts  de  Peyster,  of  Tivoli,  N.Y., 
upon  the  subject  of  Secession  in  Switzerland. 
The  speaker  drew  a  line  of  comparison  between 
the  secession  of  Swiss  Cantons  and  the  Seceded 
States  of  the  American  Union.  He  traced  the 
war  for  the  preservation  of  the  Swiss  Republic, 
and  told  the  tale  of  the  triumph  of  those  braves 
who  triumphed  for  human  liberty.  General  de 
Peyster  predicted  a  similar  success  in  our  own 
country,  and  that  the  doom  of  the  rebels  in 
Switzerland  awaits  the  Southern  arch-rebel 
and  his  co-conspirators.  The  address  was  learned 
and  eloquent,  and  very  acceptable  to  the  large 
audience  assembled  at  the  State  House. 

The  President  then  introduced  Hon.  Winslow 
Watson,  of  Port  Kent,  N.Y.,  who  read  an  ela- 
borately prepared  and  interesting  paper  on 
"  The  Life  and  Services  of  Hon.  Richard  Skinner, 
Governor  of  Vermont  in  1820,  '21,  and  '22." 

Thanks  were  returned  to  the  speakers,  and 
copies  of  their  papers  solicited  for  the  archives 
of  the  Society. 

Luther  G.  Emerson,  Esq.,  of  Ontonogon, 
Michigan,  was,  on  motion,  elected  a  corres- 
ponding member  of  the  Society. 

The  next  special  meeting  of  the  Society  will 
be  held  at  Brandon,  January  27th  and  28th, 
1864,  and  the  summer. meeting  will  beholden  at 
St.  Johnsbury  in  the  month  of  June,  1864. 

The  Standing  Committees  for  the  year  1863-4 
are  constituted  as  follows : 

On<  Library  and  Cabinet — F.  W.  Shelton, 
Albert  D.  Hager,  and  Henry  Clark. 

On  Printing  and  Publishing — George  F. 
Houghton,  Charles  Reed,  and  Pliny  H.  White. 

On  Finance-^D&mel  Kellogg,  Albert  D. 
Hager,  and  Charles  Reed. 

To  Manage  and  Superintend  the  Historical  De- 
partment— W.  H.  Lord,  P.  H.  White,  and  Henry 

To  Manage  and  Superintend  the  Department  of 
Natural  History — George  W.  Benedict,  John  B. 
Perry,  and  John  A.  Hicks. 

To  Manage  and  Superintend  the  Department  of 
Horticulture — Daniel  Kellogg,  John  A.  Hicks, 
and  Dugald  Stewart. 


HISTORICAL    MA  G  A  Z  I  X  E  . 


fates  m  §uif. 

.4n  Address  delivered  at  the  Celebration  by  the 
New  York  Historical  Society  of  the  Tii'o  Hun- 
dredth Birth-day  of  Mr.  William  Bradford,  who 
introduced  the  art  of  Printing  into  the  Middle 
Colonies  of  British  America.  By  John  Wm. 
Wallace,  of  Philadelphia.  Albany :  Munsell, 
1863.  8vo. 

A  tribute  to  a  printer  most  fitly  calls  for  typo- 
graphic beauty,  and  Mr.  Wallace,  in  giving  his 
address  in  full,  inserting  the  parts  omitted  in 
delivery,  has  given  Mr.  Munsell  full  scope,  and 
must  certainly  feel  satisfied  with  the  edition 
which  he  has  privately  issued.  Of  the  address 
itself  we  need  not  speak.  Our  readers  are  to 
some  extent  already  acquainted  with  it. 

It  is  here  given  complete,  with  many  in- 
teresting notes,  including  a  well  merited  tribute 
to  the  Alban  disciple  of  Aldus. 

Mr.  Wallace,  in  his  enthusiastic  admiration 
of  our  first  printer,  has  gathered  all  the 
items  of  his  history,  and  gleaned  all  interest- 
ing information  as  to  the  issues  of  his  press,  but 
not  content  with  embodying  all  this  in  his 
address,  makes  it  in  itself  a  more  permanent 

The  work  is  inscribed  to  the  honor  and  memory 
of  the  late  Mr.  Bradish,  and  we  have  seldom 
met  with  a  dedication  more  noble  in  idea  or 
more  appropriate  in  word. 

Journal  of  the  Expedition  against  Quebec,  undet 
command  of  Col.  Benedict  Arnold,  in  they  eat 
1776.  By  Major  Return  J.  Meigs ;  with  an 
Introduction  and  Notes  by  Charles  I.  Bush- 
nell.  New  York  :  Privately  Printed,  1864 
8vo.  pp.  57. 

The  readers  of  the  Magazine  will  recollect  a 
query  as  to  this  journal,  announced  on  the  title 
but  not  found  in  the  body  of  an  Ohio  work.  Mr. 
Bushnell  has  therefore  done  well  to  give  it  in 
this  attractive  form.  His  notes  elucidate  all 
obscurities  and  give  the  needed  information  as  to 
the  characters  that  figure  in  it.  There  is  a  dis- 
position, which  we  certainly  commend,  to  save 
these  Revolutionary  relics,  arid  gentlemen  could 
not  find  a  better  work  for  leisure  moments  and 
a  comparatively  small  expenditure  than  to  put 
them  beyond  all  possibility  of  loss,  as  Mr.  Bush- 
nell has  so  frequently  done. 

Historical  Sketch   of  Continental  Paper  Money. 

By  Samuel Breck.  Philadelphia:  8vo.  1863. 

This  is  a  timely  reprint  by  Mr.  Kline  of  the 
very  interesting  paper  of  the  late  venerable  Mr. 

Breck,  which  many  have  since  used  with  profit. 
As  the  original  pamphlet  was  printed  twenty 
years  ago,  it  has  become  quite  rare. 

The  Federalist :  A  Collection  of  Essays  written  in 
favor  of  the  Neiv    Constitution  as  agreed  upon 
by  the  Federal  Convention,  September  17,  1787. 
Reprinted  from  the  original  text,   with   an  His- 
torical Introduction  and  Notes.     By  Henry  P. 
Dawson.      In   two    volumes,    Vol.   I.     New 
York  :  Charles  Scribner,  1863. 
No  work  more  timely  than  that  which  Mr. 
Dawson  has  so  well  performed.     This  edition  of 
the  Federalist  is  a  national  boon.  At  the  moment 
when  broader   and  more  statesmanlike   discus- 
sions of  our  Constitution  must  occupy  the  public 
mind,   when  the  plan  of  a  new  government  will 
be   debated,    a  thorough  study    of  the  present 
Constitution  and  its  adoption  must  be  made. 

New  York  was  most  averse  to  the  new  Con- 
stitution, and  the  articles  of  Hamilton,  Madison, 
and  Jay  undoubtedly  won  over  the  State  and 
enabled  the  General  Government  to  commence. 
Mr.  Dawson,  as  part  of  his  plan,  presents  in  this 
volume  the  text  of  the  Federalist,  printed  from 
the  newspapers  on  which  it  originally  appeared, 
without  the  least  alteration,  and  with  such  notes 
only  as  the  authors  gave  at  the  time  :  a  second 
volume  will  contain  the  alterations  made  by  the 
authors  and  illustrative  notes,  with  a  full  and 
copious  index.  A  subsequent  volume  will  em- 
brace, under  the  title  of  the  Anti-Federalist,  the 
essays  which  these  of  Hamilton,  Madison,  and 
Jay  so  successfully  met. 

Mr.  Dawson,  in  giving  this  authentic  copy  ot 
the  Federalist,  renders  his  edition  of  the  highest  ■ 
authority :  this  great  service  is  increased  by  the 
valuable  introduction.  It  embraces  a  history 
of  the  circumstances  which  led  to  the  work, 
gives  a  full,  fair  statement  of  the  claims  as  to  the 
authorship  of  certain  numbers,  especially  18,  19, 
20,  48  to  57,  61  to  63,  and  a  table  showing  the 
various  claims.  A  full  bibliographical  account 
of  the  various  editions  of  the  work  completes  the 
history  of  the  Federalist. 

It  is  a  matter  of  gratification  that  an  edition 
has  at  last  appeared,  edited  by  one  so  thoroughly 
conversant  with  the  history  of  the  period,  so 
painstaking,  accurate,  and  critical.  It  is  the  only 
edition  to  stand  on  the  shelf  of  a  choice  library, 
and  is  one  that  few  libraries  can  dispense  with. 

A  Brief  and  True  Narrative  of  the  Hostile  Con- 
duct of  the  Barbarian  Natives  towards  the 
Dutch  Nation.  Translated  by  E.  B.  O'Cal- 
laghan.  8vo.  pp.  48.  Albany :  Munsell, 

This  is  quite  an  interesting  little  tract  of  the 



[Jan.,  1864.] 

Dutch  times,  the  value  of  which  is  enhanced  by 
an  appendix  containing  the  treaty  of  1645,  cor- 
respondence in  regard  to  it,  opinions  of  Stuy- 
vesant,  La  Montagne,  Yan  Tierhoven,  a  list  of 
the  survivors  of  Van  de  Capelle's  Colony,  and 
the  Proclamation  of  January  27,  1656. 

A  Sketch  of  the  History  of  the  Episcopal  Church 
in  Portland,  Maine,  from  the  organization  of 
St.  PauTs  Church,  Falmouth,  Nov.  4,  1763,.  to 
the  Present  Time.  By  the  Eev.  W.  S.  Perry, 
M.A.  Portland:  1863. 
A  very  interesting  history  of  the  Episcopal 

Church  in  Portland  during  the  last  century.  Mr. 

Perry  is  too  thorough  a  historic  scholar  and  too 

polished  an  orator  to  fail  to  invest  his  narrative 

with  interest  and  value. 

Life  and  Letters  of  John  Winthrop,  Governor  of 
the  Massachusetts  Bay  Company  at  their  Emi- 
gration to  New  England,  1630.  By  Eobert 
C.  Winthrop.  Boston :  Ticknor  and  Fields, 
1864.    8vo.,  pp.  452. 

This  elegant  volume  is  the  first  part  of  the 
life  of  John  Winthrop,  written  with  all  the 
affectionate  interest  of  a  scholarly  descendant, 
but  in  no  spirit  of  what  might  have  been  excused 
as  a  laudable  pride.  The  narrative  is  told  mainly 
by  Winthrop  and  his  family  in  their  letters  and 
other  writings.  Apart  from  its  interest  as  a 
biography  of  one  of  the  great  men  of  American 
colonization,  as  a  picture  of  the  life  of  the  gentry 
in  England  at  the  time,  it  possesses  a  re- 
markable value  to  all  readers  here  and  in 

Another  thought  arises.  Where  is  the  vaunted 
gentleness  of  the  Virginian  and  more  southerly 
families  ?  How  stands  the  assumption  that  all 
at  the  South  are  descended  from  the  English 
gentry,  and  all  at  the  North  from  the  boors  ? 
What  Southern  State  can  give  us  a  life  of  its 
first  governor,  written  by  a  descendant  main- 
taining a  position  of  honor  and  distinction  in 
the  State  ? 


Mr.  C.  B.  Richardson,  the  publisher  of  this 
Magazine,  has  commenced  the  United  States  Ser- 
vice Magazine,  a  periodical  devoted  to  the  inte- 
rests, descriptive  of  the  progress,  and  illustrative 
of  the  honorable  services  of  the  United  States 
Army  and  Navy,  regular  and  volunteer. 

This  enterprise  has  been  undertaken  at  the 
solicitation  of  many  prominent  officers. 

It  is  under  the  editorial  care  of  Henry  Coppee, 
Esq.,  Professor  of  English  Literature  and  History 
in  the  University  of  Pennsylvania  (Philadel- 
phia), whose  military  experience  and  literary 
attainments  are  sufficient  warrant  that  the  Ma- 
gazine will  be  rendered  .worthy  the  patronage  of 
all,  in  and  out  of  the  Service,  who  are  interested 
in  military  and  naval  affairs. 

Its  principal  articles  will  cover  the  entire  scope 
of  war  topics,  including  Modifications  and  In- 
ventions of  Arms  of  all  kinds;  Notes  on  the 
Organization  of  Armies  and  Navies ;  Historical 
Sketches  and  Illustrations ;  Interesting  Narra- 
tives of  Personal  Experience ;  Stories  of  Military 
and  Naval  Life;  Military  Hygiene,  and  such 
other  themes  as  are  directly  or  indirectly  con- 
nected with  the  great  subject.  The  Publisher 
has  the  pleasure  of  announcing  that,  in  this  de- 
partment, contributions  are  promised  by  many 
of  our  most  distinguished  officers,  and  other 
writers  of  the  highest  authority. 

Mr.  Faxon,  of  Hartford,  paid  a  soldier  $5  for 
a  lot  of  relics  from  the  Revolutionary  battle- 
ground before  Yorktown,  Va.  He  found  among 
the  articles  a  small  red  stone,  which  upon  clean- 
ing proved  to  be  a  garnet ;  and  a  further  inspec- 
tion revealed  the  interesting  fact  that  it  had 
once  formed  a  part  of  the  signet  ring  of  the  Mar- 
quis de  Rochambeau,  the  liberty  loving  com- 
mander of  the  French  army  in  this  country,  who 
acted  in  concert  with  Washington  in  plans  which 
won  for  us  the  battle  of  Yorktown.  It  contains 
the  noble  Count's  motto,  in  Latin,  and  his  family 

On  the  19th  of  October,  1863,  the  St.  Jean 
Baptiste  Society  of* Quebec,  C.  E.,  inaugurated  an 
elegant  monument  on  the  heights  of  St.  Foy  to 
commemorate  the  battle  of  April  28,  1760 — the 
second  battle  of  Quebec  in  which  the  French  s> 
nearly  regained  the  colony.  It  is  a  bronzed 
metal  column  on  a  stone  base,  surmounted  by  a 
bronze  statue  of  Bellona,  presented  by  Prince 
Napoleon.  The  base  bears  the  inscription,  "  Aux 
braves  de  1760,  erigee  par  la  Societe  St.  Jean 
Baptiste  de  Quebec  1860 ;"  and  on  two  other  faces 
the  names  of  Levis  and  Murray.  It  stands  on  a 
beautiful  spot  on  the  brow  of  the  cliff  overhang- 
ing the  valley  of  the  St.  Charles.  The  successful 
erection  of  this  tribute  to  the  brave  of  the  last 
century  is  due  in  no  slight  degree  to  Dr.  Bardy. 



Vol.  VIII.] 

FEBRUARY,  1864. 

[No.  2. 

<§mral  IMprtmtnt. 



Masonic  Portrait  of  Washington. — 
Mr.  Charles  B.  Richardson,  the  publisher  of 
this  Magazine,  some  time  since  showed  me 
a  photograph  from  a  portrait  of  Washing- 
ton, representing  him  in  Masonic  Regalia. 
The  original  was  stated  to  be  by  an  artist 
named  Williams,  and  preserved  in  the 
lodge  at  Alexandria.  At  my  request  Mr. 
Benson  J.  Lossing  undertook  an  inquiry 
into  its  authenticity,  and  at  the  same  time  I 
addressed  a  letter  to  Mr.  C.  Cammack,  Sr., 
Grand  Treasurer  of  the  District  of  Colum- 
bia, for  the  same  purpose.  Mr.  Lossing  has 
obtained  from  Mr.  &  Hay  den  of  Athens, 
Bradford  Co.,  Pa.,  an  account  of  the  pic- 
ture, from  which  I  extract  the  following  : 

Mr.  Hayden  has  no  knowledge  of  the  ar- 
tist beyond  what  is  stated  in  the  records  of 
the  Alexandria  lodge,  by  which  it  appears 
that  in  August,  1793,  Mr.  Williams  offered 
to  compliment  that  body  with  a  portrait  of 
the  President  of  the  United  States,  provi- 
ded it  would  prevail  upon  him  to  sit,  and 
that  the  lodge  made  application  to  that  ef- 
fect accordingly.  In  October,  1794,  the 
portrait  was  received,  and  an  appropriation 
passed  to  defray  the  expenses  of  the  artist 
in  going  to  Philadelphia  on  the  business. 
In  the  "  Recollections  and  Private  Memoirs 
of  Washington,"  p.  523,  there  is  a  mention, 
which  Mr.  Hayden  cites,  as  follows :  "  A  Mr. 
Williams,  a  painter  in  Crayons,  had  sittings 
about  1794,  and  made  a  strong  likeness, 
but  we  have  no  further  knowledge  of  him 
or  his  works."  He  is  undoubtedly  the  per- 
son referred  to  in  a  letter  to  Gov.  Lee  of 

Virginia,  dated  at  Philadelphia  in  July, 
1792,  at  which  time  Washington  declined 
to  sit,  but  it  would  appear  that  the  request 
of  Alexandria  lodge,  of  which  Washington 
had  formerly  been  Master,  subsequently 
prevailed  on  him.  Mr.  Hayden  has  seen  a 
copy  of  this  portrait  in  the  possession  of  a 
Baltimore  ledge,  and  surmises  that  others 
may  exist,  as  it  seems  to  have  been  the  ar- 
tist's expectation  to  make  them. 

The  authenticity  of  the  portrait  as  one 
taken  from  life  may  be  therefore  considered 
as  established.  It  represents  Washington 
as  bearing  greater  marks  of  age  than  any 
other  I  have  seen.  He  wears  the  apron, 
sash,  collar,  and  jewel  of  a  Past  Master  of 
Masons.  The  picture,  with  the  other  pro- 
perty and  archives  of  the  lodge,  has  been 
removed  since  the  rebellion  broke  out,  but 
they  are  said  to  be  insecurity.  The  apron, 
Mr.  Cammack  informs  me,  was  a  present  to 
Washington  from  Madame  de  la  Fayette. 
These  articles  all  belong  to  the  Alexandria 
lodge,  but  the  gavel  with  which  he  laid  the 
corner-stone  of  the  Capitol  at  the  city  of 
Washington  (which  he  did  in  regalia),  is 
now  in  the  custody  of  a  lodge  at  George- 

It  may  be  added  that  a  full  length  statue 
of  Washington  in  Masonic  dress  was  ex- 
ecuted by  Powers  just  before  the  rebellion, 
and  was  designed  to  be  erected  at  Frede- 
ricksburg. It  never  was  set  up,  however, 
and  is  now  concealed  somewhere  at  the 

The  Williams  portrait  is  now  being  pho- 
tographed from  Mr.  Richardson's  copy  by 
Fredericks  of  Broadway,  New  York,  where 
cartes  de  visite  can  be  obtained. 


A  well  known,  though  not  very  common 

HIST.  MAG.       VOL.  VIII. 





engraving,  is  one  of  quarto  size,  in  an  oval 
included  within  a  shaded  square,  "  publish- 
ed by  T.  Holloway,  and  the  other  propri- 
etors, May  21,  1*794,"  representing  Wash- 
ington  in    military   dress,    with   a  tablet 
beneath  of  Cornwallis's  surrender,  lettered 
"  Event  of  the  19th  of  Oct.,  1781,  at  York- 
town,  in  Virginia,"  and  with  the  following 
note,    "  The  English  Artist   has  followed 
the  lines  of  the  Print  in  the  French  origi- 
nal after  a  picture  by  Piehle,  on  account  of 
the  remarks  of  Mr.   Lavater."     The  fea- 
tures,   as   Mr.   Tuckerman   has   observed, 
would  not  be  recognised  for  those  of  Wash- 
ington.    I  have   never   seen   the   French 
print,  but  am  able  to  give  a  clue  to  the  pic 
ture  by  "Piehle."     Dr.  Charles  Beck,  of 
Cambridge,  Massachusetts,  informs  me  that 
it  was   formerly   the   property   of  a   Mr. 
Streckeiser,  of  Basle,  in  Switzerland,  and 
now  belongs  to  his  daughter,  Mrs.  Righi- 
ner.     The  late  Theodore  Parker,  who  saw 
the  picture  when  travelling  in  Europe,  re- 
quested Dr.  Beck  to  procure  a   copy,  and 
that  gentleman  caused  two  to  be  executed, 
one  of  which  he   retains  himself.     It  is  a 
small  painting,  and  bears  the  following  in- 
scription ;  "  Le  General  Washington,  Peint 
d'apres    nature   a   Philadelphie,    par    N. 
Piehle  en  1783."     The  family  account  of  it 
is  that  it  was  purchased  in  a  shop  in  Paris 
during  the  French  Revolution. ,  This  is  in 
all  probability  one  of  those  by  C.  W.  Peale. 

brown's  statue  in  union  square. 
The  head  in  this  is  taken  from  a  marble 
duplicate  of  Houdon's  bust,  originally  ex- 
ecuted by  that  artist  for  the  Hon.  Rufus 
King,  which  came  into  the  possession  of 
the  late  Col.  George  Gibbs,  and  is  now  the 
property  of  the  Hon.  Hamilton  Fish. 


I  have  recently  seen  a  profile  photograph 
of  Washington,  purporting  to  have  been 
taken  from  "  the  wax  original  by  Mrs. 
Wright."  Having  in  my  possession  a  wax 
medallion  of  Washington,  apparently  its 
counterpart,  I  am  anxious  to  ascertain 
upon  what  authority  the  one  referred  to  is 
ascribed  to  that  artist. 

This  portrait,  which  is  in  about  half  the 
actual  relief,  and  is  encased  in  a  deep  oval 

frame,  is  nine  inches  in  height,  including 
head  and  bust,  and  represents  Washington 
with  much  the  same  profile  as  in  Houdon's 
marble.  The  hair  is  drawn  back  from  the 
forehead,  curled  at  the  side,  and  tied  with  a 
ribbon  in  a  very  long  queue.  A  military 
cloak  is  thrown  back  over  the  shoulder  so 
as  to  exhibit  the  epaulette,  upon  which  are 
three  four-pointed  stars.*  The  lappel  of 
the  coat  is  buttoned  back,  showing  the 
waistcoat,  and  a  very  prominent  shirt  frill. 
The  profile  looks  to  the  right. 

The  Mrs.  Wright  in  question  is  undoubt- 
edly Mrs.  Patience  Wright,  an  American 
who  pursued  her  art  in  England,  as  a  mo- 
deller in  wax  during  the  war  of  the  Revo- 
lution, where  she  made  herself  useful  to  her 
country  by  transmitting  valuable  informa- 
tion to  Franklin,  then  in  Paris.  A  short  bio- 
graphical notice  of  her  may  be  found  in 
Dunlap,  and  an  amusing  anecdote  in  El- 
kanah  Watson's  "  Men  and  Times  of  the 
Revolution."  In  a  note  to  a  letter  of 
Franklin,  by  William  Temple  Franklin 
(Works  of  Franklin,  vol.  vi.)  she  is  styled 
Mehitable  Wright,  but  Dunlap  writes  her 
name  as  Patience  on  the  authority  of  her 
own  letters,  and  says  that  she  was  also 
called  Sybilla,  as  she  professed  to  predict 
future  events.  The  following  letter  from 
her  to  Jefferson  is  published  by  Dunlap. 


London,  at  the  Wax  Work, 
Aug.  14,  1785. 

"  Honoured  Sir:  I  had  the  pleasure  to 
hear  that  my  son  Joseph  Wright  had  paint- 
ed the  best  likeness  of  our  Hero,  Wash- 
ington, of  any  painter  in  America ;  and  my 
friends  are  anxious  that  I  should  make  a 
likeness,  a  bust  in  wax,  to  be  placed  in  the 
State  house,  or  some  public  building  that 
may  be  erected  by  Congress.  The  flatter- 
ing letters  from  gentlemen  of  distinguished 
virtues  and  rank,  and  one  from  that  Ge- 
neral himself,  wherein  he  says:  '  He  shall 
think  himself  happy  to  have  his  bust  done 
by  Mrs.  Wright,  whose  uncommon  talents, 
&c,  &c.J  make  me  happy  in  the  prospect 
of  seeing  him  in  my  own  country. 

*  Mr.  Klias  Dexter  also  has  a  photograph,  apparent- 
ly from  one  of  these  medallions,  in  which  the  stars 
have  five  poinls. 




"I  most  sincerely  wish  not  only  to  make  1787,  by  her  modelling  in  wax.  The 
the  likeness  of  Washington,  but  of  those  younger  daughter  married  Hopner,  the 
Jive  gentlemen  who  assisted  at  the  signing  rival  of  Stuart  and  Lawrence  as  a  portrait 

the  treaty  of  peace,  that  put  an  end  to  so 
bloody  and  dreadful  a  war.  The  more  pub- 
lic the  honours  bestowed  on  such  men  by 
their  country,  the  better.  To  shame  the 
English  king,  I  would  go  to  any  trouble 
and  expense  to  add  my  mite  in  the  stock 
of  honour  due  to  Adams,  Jefferson,  and 
others,  to  send  to  America ;  and  I  will,  if 
it  is  thought  proper  to  pay  my  expense  of 
travelling  to  Paris,  come  myself  and  model 
the  likeness  of  Mr.  Jefferson ;  and  at  the 
same  time  see  the  picture,  and  if  possible 
by  this  painting,  which  is  said  to  be  so  like 
him,  make  a  likeness  of  the  General.  I 
wish  likewise  to  consult  with  you,  how  we 
may  honour  our  country  by  holding  up  the 
likenesses  of  her  eminent  men,  either  in 
painting  or  wax  work.  A  statue  in  marble 
is  already  ordered,  and  an  artist  gone  to 
Philadelphia  to  begin  the  work  {Houdon). 
This  is  as  I  wished  and  hoped." 

It  is  to  be  inferred  from  this  letter  that 
she  had  not  at  its  date  (1785)  executed 
any  model  of  Washington.  Certainly  she 
could  not  have  done  so  from  life,  for  she 
had  never  seen  him,  and  according  to  Dun- 
lap  she  died  during  the  same  year. 

Mrs.  Wright's  son,  Joseph,  not  only  ex- 
ecuted a  portrait,  well  known  among  those 
taken  of  Washington,  but  as  mentioned  by 
Watson,  took  a  cast  of  his  face  in  plaster  in 
the  year  1784,  and  Washington,  in  describ- 
ing the  operation,  mentioned  that  an  im- 
pulse to  smile  "gave  his  mouth  a  slight 
twist  or  compression  of  the  lips  observable 
in  the  busts  Wright  afterwards  made." 
Whether  the  busts  thus  spoken  of  were  in 
wax,  or  what  other  material,  I  cannot  find. 
They  are  not,  I  believe,  mentioned  in  the 
catalogues  of  the  Washington  portraits. 
There  is  nothing  peculiar  in  the  mouth  of 
the  one  I  have. 

Besides  this  son,  Mrs.  Wright  had  two 
daughters,  of  whom  Dunlap  says:  "The 
elder  married  an  American  of  the  name  of 
Piatt,  and  inheriting  some  of  her  mother's 
works  and  talent,  returned  to  this  country 
and  died  here.  Mrs.  Piatt  made  herself 
well  known  in  New  York  about  the  year 

painter."  It  might  be  conjectured  that  the 
medallion  in  question  was  by  Miss,  instead 
of  Mrs.  Wright,  but  I  should  judge  from 
Dunlap's  expression  that  she  had  married 
before  her  return  to  America. 

I  trust  that  some  correspondent  will 
ascertain  by  whom  the  medallion  really 
is  ;  how  many  copies  of  it  there  are,  what 
other  works  by  the  same  hand  exist,  and 
finally  if  any  authentic  modellings  by  Mrs. 
Wright,  her  son  Joseph,  or  her  daughter 
Mrs.  Piatt,  are  yet  to  be  found.* 



Monday,  19th  of  July,  1779. — The  fleet 
sailed  from  Nantasket  road  this  morning, 
consisting  of  16  armed  vessels,  with  about 
20  transports. 

Wednesday,  2\st. — We  arrived  at  Town- 
send  about  sunset,  where  1000  militia  were 
in  readiness  to  embark,  including  those 
that  came  from  Boston  in  the  transports 
under  command  of  General  Lovel. 

Friday,  23d. — The  troops  embarked  on 
board  the  transports. 

Saturday,  24th. — This  morning  we  sailed 
from  Townsend,  Or  Booth-Bay  Harbour, 
and  favoured  by  a  pleasant  N.W.  gale,  ar- 
rived at  Penobscot  Bay,  anchoring  under 
four  islands,  about  one  league  above  Owl's 

Sunday,  25th. — We  made  sail,  and  about 
two  o'clock  came  up  to  the  entrance  of  a 
harbour  called  Magebagiduce,  about  12 
leagues  from  the  sea,  where  lay  at  anchor 
three  British  ships,  viz.  the  North  of  20 
guns,  the  Albany  of  18,  and  the  Nautilus  of 
1 8,  &c.  On  the  north  side  of  the  harbour 
was  the  British  flag  displayed  from  a  large 

*  There  is  a  notice  of  "Wright's  bust  in  a  letter  from 
"Washington  to  Mrs.  Wright,  dated  June  26,  1785 
(H.  M.  vii.  65),  but  it  throws  no  additional  light  on 
the  subject  of  the  medallions. 




fort  on  a  regular  eminence,  below  which 
were  two  batteries,  on  the  south  side  ano- 
ther battery  was  forming ;  the  whole  made 
a  pretty  formidable  appearance.  Some  of 
our  largest  ships  passed  by  the  harbour's 
entrance  several  times  within  reach  of  their 
cannon,  and  discharged  a  number  of  broad- 
sides at  the  ships  and  fortresses,  which 
were  returned  with  great  vigour  and  intre- 
pidity ;  in  the  meantime  our  transports 
came  to  anchor  about  one  mile  above,  co- 
vered by  the  ship  Sally  and  brig. 

Monday,  26th. — Our  ships  in  turn  ap- 
proached the  harbour's  mouth  several 
times  in  the  course  of  the  day,  within  three 
quarters  of  a  mile  of  the  British  encamp- 
ment, and  discharged  many  cannon,  receiv- 
ing an  equal  number  M7ith  little  annoyance, 
excepting  one  unfortunate  shot  which  over- 
set one  of  our  boats,  as  they  were  landing 
some  troops  on  the  south  point,  out  of 
which  Major  Littlefield  and  two  privates 
were  drowned.  They  pursued  their  object 
with  great  activity,  and  dispossessed  the 
British  party  of  their  unfinished  fort,  killing 
one  man ;  after  which  our  troops  finished 
it  and  brought  several  18-pounders  to  bear 
upon  the  ships,  which  caused  them  to  be 
removed  further  up.  This  evening  our 
ships  came  to  anchor  in  a  line  across  the 
harhour's  mouth. 

Tuesday,  21th. — A  council  of  war  was 
held  this  day  on  board  the  Commodore's 
frigate,  the  result  of  which  was  that  the 
marines  from  all  the  ships  should  join  the 
troops  and  land  under  cover  of  the  Hunter 
and  Sky-Rocket ;  pursuant  to  which,  about 
two  o'clock  at  night,  the  ships  came  to  an 
anchor  within  musquet  shot  of  the  place 
assigned  for  the  landing  the  men,  being 
the  north  side  of  the  harbour  on  a  beach 
just  above  which  arose  a  very  high  hill  full 
of  trees,  brush,  and  craggy  rocks,  where 
two  or  three  hundred  Highlanders  and 
some  Britons  lay  in  ambush. 

Wednesday,  2bth. — About  four  o'clock 
in  the  morning  the  two  ships  began  to  fire 
into  the  woods,  which  was  continued  al- 
most incessantly  for  about  half  an  hour, 
that  the  troops  might  have  the  opportunity 
to  land  without  being  annoyed  ;  as  soon  as 
the  boats  had  landed  our  men  (who  were 

in  number  about  six  or  seven  hundred)  the 
Britons  from  the  hill  fired  upon  them  and 
killed  16  men,  and  wounded  as  many  ;  our 
men  with  great  resolution  returned  the 
fire,  ascended  the  almost  impassable  preci- 
pice, routed  them  and  took  possession  of 
the  hill,  killing  (as  they  supposed)  about  as 
many  as  they  lost,  and  taking  a  few  prison- 
ers ;  from  thence  they  advanced  to  a  bat- 
tery near  the  large  fort,  and  possessed 
themselves  of  it,  with  considerable  artillery 
and  baggage.  The  action  continued  near 
an  hour  with  great  spirit  and  resolution  on 
both  sides ;  the  party  that  ascended  the 
hill  and  put  the  Britons  to  flight  were 
chiefly  marines,  consisting  of  about  one 
hundred ;  the  Captain  of  marines  and  eight 
privates  belonging  to  the  Warren  were 
killed.  The  troops  are  this  day  engaged 
in  building  a  breastwork  near  the  large 
fort,  to  which  all  those  that  fled  had  re- 
sorted. Several  of  our  men  have  been 
wounded  in  the  course  of  this  day  by  shot 
from  the  fort.  A  number  of  cattle  are 
taken  and  brought  on  board  the  ships. 

Thursday,  29th. — Our  troops  continue 
to  fortify,  p.  m.  All  the  ships  are  ordered 
to  anchor  within  the  mouth  of  the  harbour, 
where  they  were  considerably  annoyed  and 
some  men  wounded  by  shot  from  the  fort. 
The  prisoners  inform  us,  that  the  fort  and 
shipping  contain  about  1000  men,  much  ar- 
tillery, and  two  years'  provision.  The 
prospect  of  succeeding  appears  at  present 
very  dubious,  the  British  ships  are  removed 
further  up  the  harbour  out  of  our  reach. 

Friday,  30th. — Our  troops  continue  to 
fortify  without  much  annoyance  within  half 
a  mile  of  the  British  fort. 

Saturday,  31st. — This  day  the  Commo- 
dore, in  consultation  with  the  Captains  of 
the  fleet,  is  concerting  a  plan  for  all  the 
marines  to  go  ashore  about  midnight,  un- 
der the  command  of  Captain  Burke,  and 
in  conjunction  with  the  land  troops,  to 
attack  a  breastwork  on  a  point  near  the 
British  shipping  just  below  their  fort,  think- 
ing by  taking  that,  the  communication 
would  be  cut  off  between  the  fort  and 

Sunday,  August  1st. — The  attack  was 
made  about  2  o'clock  at  night  with  great 




vigour  and  resolution,  and  notwithstanding 
the  arduous  opposition  that  was  made  with 
cannon  and  small-arms,  they  were  obliged 
to  desert  the  breastwork  in  a  little  time 
and  repair  to  the  fort.  We  lost  about 
fifteen  men,  and  had  as  many  wounded 
dangerously,  killing  and  wounding  (as  is 
supposed)  about  as  many  of  the  British 
party;  after  being  in  possession  of  the 
place  it  was  found  impracticable  to  main- 
tain without  much  annoyance  from  the  fort 
and  ships,  therefore  after  destroying  a  few 
hogsheads  of  rum  and  dismounting  the 
three  nine-pounders  in  it,  we  resigned  it  to 
them  again. 

Monday,  2d. — Major  Sawyer  and  the 
Second  Lieutenant  of  the  Vengeance,  with 
several  others,  died  this  day  of  their 

Tuesday,  3d. — Many  shells  as  well  as 
shot  are  thrown  from  our  fort  into  the 

Thursday,  5  th. — Many  cannon  are  dis- 
charged thi3  day  from  our  fort  into  the 

Friday,  6th. — A  signal  from  the  Com- 
modore was  displayed  for  all  the  Captains 
of  the  fleet  to  come  on  board  to  consult 
about  attacking  the  British  shipping  and 
fort ;  the  result  was,  that  if  the  General 
would  attack  the  fort  with  his  army,  which 
consisted  of  about  1200  men,  including 
officers,  a  number  of  the  largest  ships 
should  go  into  the  harbour  and  attack  the 
shipping.  The  plan  was  sent  to  the  General 
for  approbation. 

Saturday,  1th. — The  above  plan  was  not 
conceded  to  by  the  General,  supposing 
that,  as  his  army  consisted  chiefly  of  mili- 
tia that  were  undisciplined,  he  should  be 
defeated  in  the  attempt,  therefore  the  con- 
clusion was  to  continue  the  siege  till  intel- 
ligence could  be  obtained  from  Boston 
respecting  reinforcement.  Several  boats 
were  discovered  to  be  landing  men  from 
the  British  ships  on  the  south  part  of  the 
harbour  above  our  small  breastwork,  which 
were  prevented  by  the  landing  of  about 
100  men  from  our  ships  near  by,  in  the 
mean  time  a  skirmish  commenced  between 
a  party  of  our  men  near  our  three-gun  bat- 
tery on  the  north  6ide  of  the  harbour,  and 

about  100  regular  troops  who  were  near 
their  two-gun  battery,  tho'  they  were  not 
near  enough  to  inspire  each  other ;  the 
British  party  soon  retired  to  their  fort, 
after  which  some  of  our  people  set  fire  to  a 
number  of  houses  and  large  barns  near  the 
fort,  which  were  soon  entirely  consumed. 
The  procedure  was  judged  to  be  conducted 
with  great  imprudence,  as  it  would  only 
have  a  tendency  to  distress  the  poor  inha- 
bitants ;  previous  to  the  landing  of  the 
British  boats  the  Commodore  and  the  Cap- 
tain of  the  Hampden  had  landed  in  the 
same  place  to  view  the  land,  who  were 
obliged  to  flee  into  the  woods,  losing  their 

Sunday,  Sth. — The  Commander  returned 
to  his  ship  about  ten  o'clock  in  the  morn- 
ing, after  much  fatigue,  travelling  through 
the  woods. 

Monday,  9th. — A  signal  was  displayed 
from  the  Commodore  for  all  Captains  to 
come  on  board,  to  consult  what  measures 
should  be  most  advisable ;  after  much  de- 
bate and  vote  passed  for  the  ships  to  go 
into  the  harbour,  and  attack  the  British 
ships,  though  it  was  judged  by  the  Com- 
modore and  many  others,  that  the  attack 
would  be  attended  with  great  risque  and 
danger  of  having  our  ships  much  injured, 
as  we  should  be  exposed  to  the  fort,  which 
we  could  not  in  the  least  annoy.  The  con- 
dition of  this  vote  was,  that  the  General 
should  attack  the  British  fort  at  the  same 
time,  which  was  sent  to  him  for  concur- 
rence. A  general  uneasiness  is  discovered 
through  the  fleet  at  being  detained  so  long, 
many  desert  from  the  ships  every  night. 

Tuesday,  10th. — Consultation  was  at- 
tended upon  this  day  on  board  the  Com- 
modore ;  the  result  of  which  wras,  that  an 
attack  should  be  made  the  ensuing  day,  by 
the  ships  entering  the  harbour,  and  the  land 
forces  attacking  the  British  fortress  at  the 
same  time. 

Wednesday,  11th. — The  General  not  be- 
ing ready  for  the  proposed  attack,  thought 
proper  to  advance  out  upon  a  plain  between 
the  British  citadel  and  the  harbour  to  ma- 
noeuvre his  men,  being  about  750,  leaving 
about  500  in  the  fort,  a  detached  party  of 
250  proceeded  to  the  small  battery  near 




the  S.E.  point  to  excite  the  British  troops 
to  attack  them  from  their  citadel ;    after 
they  had  paraded  themselves  in  the  bat- 
tery, about  fifty-five  regular  troops  sallied 
from  their  citadel,  and  advancing  with  reso- 
lution and  intrepidity,  put  the  whole  party 
to  flight,  without  discharging  a  gun  ;  they 
-pursued  them  to  the  main  body,  and  then 
discharging  a  volley,  drove  the  whole  se- 
ven hundred  and  fifty  into  the  fort,  in  the 
greatest  confusion  imaginable — the  officers 
damning  their  soldiers,  and  the  soldiers  their 
officers  for  cowardice,  many   losing   their 
implements  of  war,  &c.     The  Captains  of 
our  ships  were  invited  to  see  this  grand 
manoeuvre  of  the  militia  troops.     The  de- 
tached   British   party   returned,    exulting 
with  loud  huzzas.     A  Council  was  convened 
this   night  by  the   General  in  camp,  the 
result  of  which  was,  That  he  judging  his 
army  was  not  sufficient  to  oppose  the  Bri- 
tish on  account  of  their  inexpertness  and 
want  of  courage,  and  not  being  in  expect- 
ation of  any  reinforcement,  thought  it  high- 
ly advisable,  with  the  advice  of  his  officers, 
to  raise  the  siege.      This  being   transmit- 
ted the  ensuing  morning  (Thursday,  12th) 
to  the  Commodore,  a  general  council  with 
the  Captains  of  the  navy  were  held  in  camp, 
passing  a  vote  to  continue  the  siege,  not- 
withstanding they  thought  themselves  in- 
adequate to  the  attempt  proposed ;  that  is, 
of  encountering  the  Britons  in  the  field,  so 
as  to  give  our  fleet  an  opportunity  of  at- 
tacking the  ships.     For  unless  the  General 
could  possess  himself  of  the  point  near  the 
British  ships,  it  would  not  be  advisable  for 
our  ships  to  go  in,  as  they  would  be  ex- 
posed to  the  fort  and  artillery  run  down 
from  the  point,  which  would  annoy  us  to  a 
very  great  degree  ;   as  the  harbour  is  so 
narrow  that  we   cannot   readily   get   out 
again, — therefore   the   plan   for   the  ships 
going  in  has  proved  abortive. 

Friday,  13th. — Very  great  uneasiness 
appears  throughout  the  fleet  at  being  thus 
detained  at  the  risk  of  British  reinforce- 
ments arriving,  and  the  prospect  of  reduc- 
ing the  place,  either  by  sea  or  land,  was  so 
dubious.  Three  weeks  have  now  elapsed 
since  our  siege  began,  and  little  or  nothing 
is  effected  to  our  advantage.     In  the  mean 

time  our  opponents  are  fortifying,  and  have 
compleated  a  very  formidable  citadel, 
where  they  are  secure  against  us ;  which 
at  our  arrival  was  only  a  breastwork,  con- 
taining five  or  six-pounders,  which  then,  in 
all  probability,  we  could  have  reduced  very 
easily,  as  also  their  shipping,  as  they  have 
since  acknowledged;  in  the  course  of  which 
time  thirteen  or  fourteen  councils  of  war 
have  been  held,  resolving  one  day  to  at- 
tack, and  the  next  day  reversing  their 
schemes.  The  Commodore  complaining 
that  the  General  is  backward,  and  the  Ge- 
neral that  the  fault  is  in  the  Commodore ; 
the  people  censuring  both,  and  are  deter- 
mined, unless  something  is  directly  done, 
that  is  either  to  attack  vigorously  or  raise 
the  siege  (preferring  the  former)  that  they 
would  leave  the  ships,  and  not  risk  an  at- 
tack by  a  superior  force  which  was  daily 
expected.  While  matters  are  thus  alter- 
cating, five  or  six  British  ships  hove  in 
sight,  making  a  formidable  appearance, 
which  has  thrown  our  fleet  and  army  into 
great  consternation,  the  ships  are  all  heav- 
ing up,  the  land  forces  embarking  onboard 
the  transports,  waiting  to  see  what  force 
this  consists  of,  and  consulting  how  to  es- 
cape if  the  force  should  be  superior,  con- 
cluding to  attempt  an  escape  by  the  west 
side  of  Long  Island,  or  run  the  ships  ashore 
and  betake  ourselves  to  the  woods. 


That  the   Indo-European  or  Caucasian 
race  is  the  leading  family  of  mankind, 
': — the  heir  of  all  the  ages  in  the  foremost  files  of 

time ;" 

and  that  its  Germanic  branches,  more 
or  less  pure — whether  unmixed  Teuton, 
Anglo-Saxon,  Franco-Celtic,  or  Composite 
American — furnish  its  file-leaders  and  the 
champions  of  every  genuine   and  prolific 

*  Die  Deutschen  Huelfstruppen  in  Nordamerika- 
nischen  Befreiungskriege,  17 7 0  bis  1783.  Von  Max 
von  Eelking. 

The  German  Auxiliary  Troops  in  the  North  Ameri- 
can War  of  Independence,  1776  to  1783.  By  Max 
von  Eelking.  Hanover,  1863.  Two  vols.  8vo.,  pp. 
397  and  271. 




thought  of  modern  days — these  are  truths 
which  we  hold  to  be  as  evangelical  as  that 
Liberty,  Equality,  and  Fraternity,  cor- 
rectly understood,  are  the  birthright  and 
the  destiny  of  the  whole  human  species. 
Numerous  are  the  means  which  it  has 
pleased  Divine  Providence  to  employ  in 
disseminating  over  the  earth  this  goodly 
seed  of  Teut:  their  love  of  travel  and 
adventure,  not  loath  to  take  the  kindred 
Norman  graft  of  piracy,  so  palpable  in  our 
British  brethren;  their  assimilative  tend- 
encies, whereby  they  make  themselves 
everywhere  at  home,  even  as  they  once 
Germanized  the  Eternal  City  while  Roman- 
izing themselves  ;  their  habits  of  industry, 
wherewith,  as  their  own  poet  says,  they 

"  Gather  on  every  plain  honey  thejr  know  not  for 

their  loyalty  to  their  chiefs,  which  leads 
them  to  make  their  prince's  foreign  quarrel 
their  own  domestic  grief,  and  his  shrewd 
policy  their  plain  interest. 

The  hated  Hessian  of  our  Revolutionary 
war  came  hither  to  fight  against  our  fathers 
under  this  last  influence.  He  had  been 
brought  up  by  the  good  old  rule  and  sim- 
ple plan  to  "  fear  God  and  honor  the  king," 
for  Napoleon  Bonaparte,  the  potent  "  Ho- 
bespierre  d  chevcd,"  had  not  yet  leavened 
with  new  ideas  the  European  lump.  The 
type  and  representative  hero  of  these  old- 
fashioned  docile  men  might  well  be  seen  in 
their  commander-in-chief,  Lieutenant-Gen- 
eral  Baron  von  Knyphausen,  sitting,  as  he 
is  depicted  in  the  attractive  production 
before  us,  on  a  rock  in  front  of  Fort  Wash- 
ington, New  York  Island,  holding  his 
watch  in  his  hand  till  the  one  halt-hour 
which  he  had  granted  the  besieged  Colonel 
Magaw  for  capitulation  should  expire,  and 
looking  down  with  contemptuous  abhor- 
rence on  the  captured  rebel  standards  as 
they  were  successively  laid  at  his  feet. 
The  "  blinde  Hess,''  even  now  not  famed 
for  insight,  as  this  his  standing  title  shows, 
must  then  have  thought  it  the  height  of 
sentimental  absurdity  that  his  fidelity  to 
the  sovereign,  who,  in  profound  king-craft, 
had,  by  solemn  treaty,  sold  him  to  Great 
Britain,  should  be   imputed  to  him  as  the 

!  baseness  of  a  hireling.  This  feeling,  excu- 
sable in  the  anxious  patriots  of  those  preg- 
nant days,  has  long  subsided  and  given 
place  to  an  enlightened  curiosity  to  learn 
from  trustworthy  German  authorities  the 
details,  from  their  own  point  of  view,  of 
their  countrymen's  share  in  resisting  our 
great  appeal  to  arms. 

Now  appears  the  worthy  Captain  von 
Eelking — already  favorably  known  to  us 
as  author  of  "  The  Life  and  Actions  of 
General  von  Riedesel,"  commander  of  the 
Brunswickers  in  Burgoyne's  expedition — 
with  his  two  excellent  volumes,  which  go 
very  far  toward  satisfying  our  desire.  If 
we  can  be  allowed  to  pun,  we  will  say  that 
he  bears  an  appropriate  family-name,  for 
the  Eel  is  well  known  to  be — forgive  us, 
Max ! — a  scavenger  of  the  waters,  or,  more 
delicately  speaking,  a  gleaner  of  neglected 
matter,  and  Max  is  a  king  among  such  lite- 
rary eels.  He  gives  a  list  of  no  fewer  than 
thirty-eight  manuscripts — principally  dia- 
ries kept  by  officers  during  the  war — which 
have  been  made  use  of  by  him  as  sources 
of  information.  This  being  the  fact,  the 
work  has  that  inimitable  freshness  and  life- 
like movement  which  can  never  pertain  to 
a  stately  history  compiled  from  second- 
hand materials.  The  Life  of  Riedesel  has, 
we  believe,  been  overlooked  by  translators, 
and  is,  therefore,  accessible  only  in  German. 
That  such  should  be  long  the  case  with  the 
book  which  we  are  considering,  w^e  think 
quite  impossible.  It  must,  from  its  subject 
and  the  merit  of  its  execution,  eventually 
take  rank,  when  Anglicized,  as  a  standard 
and  essential  complement  of  all  narratives 
of  the  war. 

Many  an  interesting  observation  on  the 
city  of  New  York  and  its  vicinity,  during 
that  fateful  period,  enlivens  this  new  con- 
tribution to  American  historic  literature. 
A  few  of  these  remarks  we  purpose  to 
translate,  by  way  of  whetting  the  appetite 
of  the  antiquarian  reader,  till  some  pains- 
taking linguist  serve  him  up  a  full  repast  in 
the  guise  of  a  complete  version.  After  an 
ocean-passage,  on  which  the  Hessians  were 
so  crowded,  herring-like,  between  decks, 
that  the  oldest  man  was  placed  at  their 
right  wintx   to  {rive  a  word  of  command 




when  they  had  all  lain  till  one  side  was 
"  ripe,"  whereat  all  turned  over  on  the 
other  side,  the  troops  disembarked,  in 
August,  1776,  on  Staten  Island. 

"  On  landing,  the  Hessians  were  most 
joyously  welcomed  by  the  English,  as  a 
long-desired  aid,  with  salvos  of  cannon  and 
musketry.  The  officers,  in  particular,  vied 
one  with  another  to  meet  the  Germans  in 
a  friendly  manner,  and  invited  them  into 
their  tents.  General  von  Heister  was  asked 
to  dinner  by  the  British  commander-in-chief. 
The  English  camp  was  on  a  rocky  height 
advantageously  situated  with  a  splendid 
view  of  the  harbor  of  New  York,  and 
over  a  part  of  the  interior  country,  as  well 
as  over  the  adjacent  American  camp  on 
Long  Island.  The  wonderful  scenery,  and 
the  charm  of  novelty,  after  the  long,  mono- 
tonous, and  toilsome  voyage,  cheered  up 
officers  and  men." 

"  Immediately  on  their  arrival,  the  Ger- 
man officers  were  obliged  to  have  every- 
thing of  silver  removed  from  their  uniforms, 
as  the  British  had  already  done.  The  ob- 
ject was  to  make  them  less  easily  recogniz- 
able by  the  dreaded  riflemen,  who  were 
especially  fond  of  aiming  at  officers."  P. 
27,  vol.  i. 

We  have  next  a  sketch  of  the  condition 
of  affairs  in  America  at  that  moment,  in- 
cluding curious  pen-and-ink  portraits  of  the 
two  brothers,  Lord  Richard  and  Sir  Wm, 
Howe.  Has  a  faithfully  minute  biography 
of  the  former,  in  succeeding  years  one  of 
England's  greatest  naval  heroes,  ever  been 
written  ?  We  think  not.  He  it  was,  who, 
as  we  recall  to  mind  from  our  anecdotal 
odds  and  ends,  bore  among  the  sailors  the 
nickname  "  Black  Dick,''  from  his  swarthy 
and  serious  countenance,  and  in  whose 
honor,  doubtless,  after  his  great  victory 
over  the  French  fleet  off  Ushant,  June  1, 
1794,  was  drunk  the  queer  and  very  apt 
toast,  "First  and  Second  of  David's 
Third !"  which  the  sagacious  reader  may 
interpret  for  himself.  A  veracious  life 
of  the  admiral,  comprising,  of  course,  pro- 
per notice  of  his  brother,  the  popular, 
good-natured,  bon-vivant  general,  who, 
fortunately  for  the  American  cause,  filled 
a  position  originally  destined  for  that  Ben- 

gal tiger,  Lord  Clive,  would,  if  well  related 
by  some  judicious  countryman  of  theirs, 
hardly  fail  to  afford  us  important  facts  as 
wrell  as  amusing  gossip.  We  are  disposed 
to  class  with  Carlyle's  "books  which  are 
no  books,"  the  pompous  and  decorous 
"  Life  of  Richard  Earl  Howe,  KG.,  Ad- 
miral of  the  Fleet,  and  General  of  Marines  ; 
by  Sir  John  Barrow,  Bart,  F.R.S.,"  where- 
in wre  read  that  the  mother  of  the  two 
Howes  wras  "Mary  Sophia  Charlotte, 
daughter  of  Baron  Kielmansegge,  Master 
of  the  Horse  to  George  I.,  when  Elector 
of  Hanover,  by  Sophia  Charlotte,  daughter 
of  Count  Platen,  of  the  Empire;"  whereas 
it-  is  no  secret  that  she  was  the  natural 
child  of  the  Hanoverian  "Defender  of  the 
Faith,"  Richard  and  William  being  thus, 
with  a  bar  sinister,  cousins-german  to  King 
George  the  Third's  Father,  Frederick, 
Prince  of  Wales. 

The  battle  of  Long  Island  was  now  im- 
pending, and  some  of  the  newly  arrived 
Hessians  relieved  a  portion  of  the  English 
troops  hitherto  posted  on  Staten  Island, 
but  destined  to  take  part  in  that  action. 
This  movement  gives  occasion  for  a  de- 
scription of  Staten  Island  and  its  inhabitants 
and  neighbors  at  that  date  : 

"  Von  Stirn's  brigade  received  the  order 
to  move  forward  upon  the  Jersey  Sound, 
an  arm  of  the  sea  which  separates  the  is- 
land from  the  mainland,  and  there  to 
relieve  the  35th  English  regiment  and  a 
part  of  the  5th.  In  the  morning  of  the 
19th  of  August  the  brigade  began  its  march, 
their  tents  and  baggage  being  packed  in 
wagons.  The  singular  vehicles,  small, 
painted  red,  and  drawn  by  two  little 
horses  driven  by  a  negro,  appeared  to  the 
good  Hessians  new  and  strange  enough. 
When  the  brigade  arrived  at  its  destined 
place,  the  English  officers  had  the  politeness 
to  invite  the  Germans  to  dinner.  The  relief 
took  place  at  nightfall.  The  advanced  posts 
were  stationed,  which  stood  very  near  to 
and  opposite  those  of  the  enemy  on  the 
other  side  of  the  narrow  sound.  The  entire 
brigade  was  distributed  along  the  shore  in 
small  detachments.  The  regiment  of'body- 
guards  took  its  position  at  Amboy  Ferry. 
The  camp  was  pitched  in  two  lii.e;,  but  in 




a  few  days  had  to  be  moved  some  distance 
backwards,  as  the  Americans  fired  across 
from  the  other  side  with  their  long  rifles. 
The  out-posts  being  more  and  more  molest- 
ed in  this  way,  Grenke,  lieutenant  of  artil- 
lery, was  directed  to  pitch  a  few  cannon- 
balls  into  Amboy,  after  which  the  Americans 
behaved  more  quietly." 

4  The  width  of  the  sound  might  be  a 
little  over  three  hundred  paces.  The 
Americans  on  the  other  shore,  who  here 
saw  for  the  first  time  the  dreaded  German 
strangers,  collected  themselves  in  crowds 
on  the  bank,  more  to  satisfy  their  curiosity 
than  to  await  a  demonstration  from  this 
side.  A  Hessian  officer  says  in  his  journal : 
4  They  stretched  their  necks  mighty  long. 
Some  among  them  were  in  uniform,  but 
the  most  in  the  dress  of  a  promiscuous 
rabble.' » 

"  The  landing  of  the  foreign  re-enforce- 
ments had  spread  no  slight  terror  among 
the  Americans,  Especially  did  they  fear 
the  Germans,  whom  they  imagined  to 
be  half  devils.  A  large  part  of  the  in- 
habitants had  therefore  fled  with  the 
greatest  haste  into  the  principal  towns, 
particularly  to  New  York,  leaving  their 
property,  and  even,  to  some  extent,  money 
and  valuables.  This  dread  was  further 
increased  when  the  troops  took  possession 
by  force  of  the  quarters  assigned  them, 
and  refused  at  first  by  the  obstinate  in- 

"  The  soldiers  had  been  most  urgently 
commanded  by  their  superiors  to  exercise 
the  greatest  moderation  towards  the  people, 
even  those  of  hostile  sentiments ;  for  the 
hope  of  an  amicable  arrangement  of  differ- 
ences was  still  cherished,  and  it  was  desired 
to  spare  'his  Majesty's  subjects'  as  much 
as  possible,  and  avoid  everything  that 
might  irritate  them  still  more." 

44  Such  was  the  serious  wish  of  the  Ger- 
man generals  as  well  as  the  British.  But 
this  moderation  was,  in  many  instances, 
not  recognized;  the  billeted  soldiers  were 
met  in  the  rudest  manner,  nay,  there  was 
even  a  disposition  to  kick  them  at  once  out 
of  doors,  which  naturally  gave  occasion  to 
all  sorts  of  collisions  and  excesses,  since 
officers  and  men  considered  themselves  to 

HIST.   MAG.      VOL.    VIII.  1 

be  at  war  in  an  enemy's  country.  When 
the  first  fear  and  excitement  of  the  popula- 
tion had  passed  away,  and  they  perceived 
that,  after  all,  they  had  no  robbers  or  can* 
nibals  to  deal  with,  the  fugitives  gradually 
returned,  and  were  not  a  little  surprised, 
not  only  to  find  their  dwellings  just  as  they 
had  left  them,  but  also  their  furniture,  uten- 
sils— aye,  even  money  and  valuables,  for 
the  Germans,  accustomed  to  discipline  as 
they  were,  demanded  no  more  than  was 
due  to  them.  The  mutual  relations  now 
assumed  a  more  agreeable  aspect,  and  not 
unfrequently  some  rank  liberal  treated 
his  billeted  inmate  better  than  a  guest, 
and  carefully  tended  the  sick  or  wounded 

44  The  portions  of  country  thus  taken 
possession  of,  situated  in  a  mild  climate, 
had,  with  their  rich  and  changeful  natural 
beauties,  joined  to  their  great  fertility,  the 
appearance  of  a  paradise.  The  finest  fruits, 
the  most  fragrant  and  beautiful  flowers, 
grew  here  almost  wild.  Everywhere  neat 
and  cheerful  country-houses  and  villages 
met  the  eye,  and  newly-founded  towns 
which  were  manifestly  growing.  Almost 
universally,  prosperity,  even  luxury,  pre- 
vailed among  the  inhabitants,  who  with 
slight  toil  gained  an  easy  and  abundant  re- 
turn. Almost  every  little  farmer  had  his 
cabriolet  and  his  black  servants.  Although 
Staten  Island  and  Long  Island  had,  since 
the  beginning  of  the  war,  been  occu- 
pied, now  by  our  side,  now  by  the 
American,  and  had,  therefore,  been  dis- 
puted points,  yet  this  had  left  scarcely  a 
trace  behind.  The  newly  arrived  Germans 
wondered  greatly  how  it  could  occur  to 
people  thus  living  in  superfluity  and  com- 
fort to  rebel  against  a  government  under 
which  they  were  apparently  so  well  off. 
And  how  trifling  were  the  imposts  and 
taxes  in  this  country  compared  with  those 
of  the  German  States  !  The  country-noble- 
man in  Germany  lived  hardly  so  much  at 
his  ease  in  his  castle  as  the  most  ordinary 
agriculturist  did  here  upon  his  farm."  Pp. 
30-32,  vol.  i. 

But  military  marauding  is  a  genuine 
German  practice,  as  the  verb  4t  to  maraud" 
is  a  genuine  German  word,  derived  from 




the  old  Counts  of  Merode,  noted  freeboot- 
ers in  the  Thirty  Years'  War,  whose  castle 
we  have  seen  between  Aix-la-Chapelle  and- 
Cologne.  The  national  trait  developed 
itself  in  the  subsequent  stage  of  the  con- 
test, when  reconciliation  had  become  hope- 
less, and  it  was  no  longer  thought  worth 
while  to  treat  the  insurgents  with  forbear- 
ance. More  particularly  was  this  absence 
of  restraint  observed  while  Knyphausen 
commanded  the  garrison  of  New  York  dur- 
ing Sir  Henry  Clinton's  successful  expedi- 
tion to  the  South.  It  was  the  celebrated 
winter  of  17*79-80,  concerning  whose 
severity  we  gain  from  Eelking  some  new 
facts : 

"  The  ice  on  the  East  River  was  eight- 
een feet  thick,  a  thing  without  precedent. 
The  soldiers  had  to  chop  up  old  ships,  and 
even  fell  the  trees  in  the  beautiful  walks 
and  gardens,  as  the  only  means  of  procur- 
ing necessary  fuel.  A  small  board  cost 
from  six  to  eight  pence."     P.  83,  vol.  ii. 

For  the  privations  and  anxieties  of  this 
season,  during  which  the  city  was  accessi- 
ble to  the  enemy  on  every  side,  the  ice 
being,  as  is  well  known,  strong  enough  to 
bear  the  transportation  of  heavy  artillery 
from  New  York  to  Staten  Island,  Knyphau- 
sen, early  in  the  ensuing  spring,  indemni- 
fied his  men  by  a  plundering  excursion  to 
Hackensack.  The  detachment  consisted 
of  English,  Hessians,  and  Bayreuthers. 
Among  the  latter  was  a  certain  musketeer, 
Doehla,  who  has  left  on  record  the  follow- 
ing naive  account  of  his  winnings  : 

"  We  gained  considerable  booty,  as  well 
in  money,  silver  watches,  silver  plates  and 
spoons,  as  also  in  furniture,  good  clothes, 
fine  English  linen,  silk  stockings,  gloves, 
and  cravats,  with  other  costly  silk  stuff, 
satin,  and  dry  goods.  My  plunder,  which 
I  safely  brought  back  with  me,  amounted 
to  two  silver  watches,  three  silver  buckle- 
rims,  a  pair  of  woman's  woolen  stockings, 
a  pair  of  man's  mixed  summer  stockings, 
two  shirts  and  four  chemises  of  fine  English 
linen,  two  fine  table-cloths,  one  silver  table- 
spoon, and  one  silver  teaspoon,  five  Spanish 
dollars  and  six  York  shillings  in  money. 
The  rest,  namely,  eleven  ells  of  fine  linen, 
and  over  two  dozen  silk  handkerchiefs,  with 

six  silver  plates  and  a  silver  goblet,  all  tied 
together  in  a  bundle,  I  had  to  throw  away 
and  leave  to  the  pursuing  army,  on  account 
of  the  long  and  rapid  march."  P.  86, 
vol.  ii. 

The  city  of  New  York,  as  it  existed  in 
those  days,  seems  to  have  struck  the 
strangers  with  admiration.  Even  at  an 
advanced  period  of  the  war,  when  much 
injury  and  mischief  must  have  been  already 
done,  troops  are  represented  as  marching 
with  music  through  its  "  beautiful  streets" 
to  occupy  their  camp  near  Corlaer's  Hook. 
(p.  48,  vol.  ii.)  In  the  night  between  Sept. 
20  and  21,  1776,  one-third  of  the  town  had 
been  reduced  to  ashes  by  a  conflagration 
which  American  writers  agree  in  deeming 
accidental,  but  which  our  author  views  as 
undoubtedly  the  act  of  a  fanatic  mob.  He 
expresses  his  surprise,  too,  that  no  attempt 
has  ever  been  made  to  give  it  the  color  of 
a  great  national  sacrifice,  which  the  burn- 
ing of  Moscow  is  wrongly  supposed  to 
have  been.  As  early  as  the  winter  of 
1776-7,  the  British  army  being  encamped 
about  one  mile  north  of  the  city,  in  two 
masses,  the  left  wing  on  the  Hudson  and 
the  right  on  the  East  River,  the  sidewalks 
had  begun  to  lose  that  peculiar  ornament 
for  which  the  New  York  of  former  days 
was  so  distinguished. 

"  Owing  to  the  impending  want  of  fuel, 
many  of  the  beautiful  trees  had  been  cut 
down,  which  stood  along  the  houses,  on 
both  sides  of  the  streets,  and  were  wont  to 
yield  a  cooling  shade  amid  the  heat  of  the 
sun."     P.  103,  vol.  i. 

From  his  authorities  Eelking  proceeds  to 
describe,  as  follows,  the  situation  of  things 
in  New  York  at  that  time  : 

"  On  the  harbor  stood  Fort  St.  George, 
a  quadrangular  work,  with  four  bastions  and 
mounted  with  twenty  guns.  Not  far  from 
it  lay  the  former  Government  House  and  a 
chapel,  in  ruins  since  1741,  both  buildings 
having  been  demolished  in  the  Negro  In- 
surrection of  that  epoch.  Wooden  barracks" 
for  the  reception  of  the  garrison  had  now 
been  built  within  them.  Another  fortifica- 
tion of  stone  was  situated  beneath  the 
former,  on  the  water-side,  extending  along 
the  point  of  the  island,  and  mounting  ninety 




cannon.  It  was  particularly  intended  for 
the  defence  of  the  mouth  of  the  Hudson. 
Along  the  East  River  stretched  the  fine 
streets,  Queen  and  Water  streets,  in  which 
wealth  and  luxury  had  chiefly  gathered,  for 
here  lived  the  foremost  men  of  the  mercan- 
tile class  in  houses  like  palaces." 

"  Many  churches  served  as  prisons  for 
the  many  prisoners.'' 

"  As  everywhere,  so  in  New  York,  par- 
ties were  at  bitter  variance.  In  spite  of 
the  stagnation  of  business,  and  although 
many  families,  the  loyal  as  well  as  the 
liberal,  had  fled  when  the  change  occurred, 
yet  great  prosperity  manifestly  existed.  At 
the  helm  of  municipal  affairs  now  stood 
royalists  only,  consisting  of  one  mayor, 
seven  aldermen,  and  as  many  members 
from  the  people.  The  city  was  divided 
into  seven  wards.  Most  of  the  male  citizens 
were  impressed  as  militia,  and  provided 
with  arms  for  the  defence  of  the  town. 
Willingly  would  the  Germans  have  taken 
up  their  winter-quarters  in  this  great,  rich, 
and  every  way  agreeable  place,  but  Howe 
assigned  to  a  portion  of  them  another 
station."     Pp.  103-104,  vol.  i. 

Things  wore  another  look  in  the  season 
of  1*782-3,  just  before  the  cessation  of  hos- 
tilities : 

-  "  On  York,  Staten,  and  Long  Islands, 
hard  work  on  the  fortifications  was  kept 
steadily  up  during  the  winter,  for  another 
attack  was  expected  here  from  the  Ame- 
ricans and  French.  When  the  weather 
was  too  cold  for  digging,  fascines  and  other 
things  were  got  ready.  Each  German 
regiment  gave  daily  150,  or  even  200  men 
to  the  labor.'' 

'"On  the  8th  of  January,  the  regiment 
of  Body-Guards  and  Prince  Carl's  regiment 
marched  to  MacGowan's  Pass,  where  the 
newly-built  barracks  for  these  troops  had 
just  been  finished.  Here,  too,  intrenching 
went  on  without  cessation.  The  greatest 
activity,  however,  was  shown  in  and  around 
New  York.  'This  little  island' — says 
Dinklage's  diary— ;  is  being  completely 
turned  up.  On  every  hill  is  a  redoubt. 
No  other  trees  than  fruit  trees  are  to  be 
seen  upon  it,  and  even  these  are  no  longer 
spared.     The   beautiful  groves   an*1   walks 

are  no  more :  in  a  word,  the  exquisite 
loveliness  of  this  island  has  been  converted 
into  fearful  ruin.  It  pains  a  well-disposed 
man  to  see  destroyed  in  one  day  what  it 
will  take  generations  to  restore."  Pp.  166- 
7,  vol.  ii. 

We  have  already  expressed  our  desire 
that  this  work  may  be  translated.  We  also 
trust  that  it  may  be  well  edited.  It  is  full 
of  blunders  which  no  one,  perhaps,  but  a 
New  Yorker  is  capable  of  thoroughly  rec- 
tifying. Take,  for  instance,  the  passages 
last  quoted.  Without  dwelling  on  Eel- 
king's  comparatively  venial  ignorance  that 
MacGowan's  Pass  is  on  New  York  Island, 
at  the  northern  extremity  of  the  Central 
Park,  we  think  he  should  have  known  that 
the  Negro  Plot  of  1741  was,  like  the  Popish 
Plot  in  England  in  1678,  a  panic  rather 
than  a  reality.  The  only  burning  con- 
nected with  it  was  that  of  the  thirteen 
wretched  blacks  who  were  in  this  manner 
savagely  put  to  death  where  Pearl  (then 
Queen)  street  intersects  the  present  Chat- 
ham.* The  "  Province  House,''  so  called, 
the  building  referred  to  by  our  author  as 
in  ruins,  was  accidentally  consumed  at  mid- 
night, Dec.  17,  1773.  The  family  of  Gov- 
ernor Try  on,  who  occupied  it  as  his  official 
residence,  escaped  with  difficulty,  his 
daughter  leaping  from  the  second  story 
window,  and  her  maid,  who  was  afraid  to 
follow  her,  losing  her  life.  No  great  criti- 
cal stress  is  to  be  laid  on  his  mere  peculiari- 
ties and  mistakes  in  spelling,  though  laugh- 
able and  too  frequent :  Wallaboud  for 
Wallabout ;  Heights  of  Guiana  for  Heights 
of  Go  wan  us ;  Woodberrey  ;  Vallay-Forge ; 
New-Wark  ;  Terrytown  ;  Verglants-Point 
for  Verplanck's  Point ;  and  many  others. 
Who,  we  should  like  to  know,  was  the 
"treacherous  Oberst  John,"  or  Colonel 
John,  of  whom  we  find  the  following  tale, 
quite  new  to  us,  in  Eelking's  account  of  the 
battle  of  Long  Island  ?  Probably  a  Jones, 
whose  honesty  would,  it  seems,  have  been 
improved  if  Timothy  Titcomb's  letters  to 
that  numerous  family  had  been  in  his  days 
given  to  the  world : 

*  But  the  church  and  buildings  in  the  fort  were 
burned  at  the  time,  and  this  fire  as  well  as  others  laid 
to  the  Negroes.— En.  H.  M. 




"  Colonel  John,  of  the  rebels,  is  dead.  A 
grenadier  took  him  prisoner,  and  magnani- 
mously granted  him  his  life,  telling  him  to 
go  to  the  battalion  in  the  rear,  for  the 
grenadier  was  a  flanker.  The  colonel 
wanted  cunningly  to  murder  his  captor 
from  behind,  and  stealthily  drew  a  pistol, 
but  only  wounded  the  arm  of  the  gren- 
adier, whereat  the  latter  regaled  him  with 
three  or  four  bayonet  thrusts."  Pp.  40-1, 
vol.  i. 

But  this  writer  has  been  betrayed  into 
more  serious  inaccuracies.  Not  content 
with  one  great  fire  at  New  York  in  the 
autumn  of  1776,  the  same  conflagration 
which  we  have  already  mentioned,  he  treats 
us  to  another,  Nov.  20,  in  which,  as  he  as- 
serts, Trinity  church  was  destroyed.  This 
is  altogether  imaginary  and  surprisingly 
confused.  Trinity  church  was  burned,  with 
much  of  the  lower  part  of  the  city,  on  the 
night  of  Sept.  20-21;  and  the  patriots  on 
the  other  side  of  the  Hudson,  at  Paulus 
Hook,  now  Jersey  City,  are  said  to  have 
raised  a  loud  hurra  as  its  steeple  sank  into 
the  flames.  Our  friend  Eelking  gives  the 
following  strange  version  of  the  occur- 
rence : 

"  A  portion  of  the  exasperated  populace 
had  assembled  on  the  hill  of  St.  Paul's 
church,  and  contemplated  with  cannibal- 
like mirth  and  rough  jests  the  destructive 
progress  of  the  mighty  flames.  A  wild 
shout  of  joy  accompanied  the  fall  of  the 
tower  of  that  fine  old  English  house  of 
God."     P.  56,  vol.  i. 

"  Paulskirche"  and  "  Paulus  Hook"  are 
here  very  curiously  confounded.  Our  old 
St.  Paul's  still  stands  as  it  stood  before  the 
Revolution  ;  and  its  spire,  added,  we  think, 
since  that  period,  but  in  the  graceful  Eng- 
lish taste  of  Wren,  Gibbs,  and  their  school, 
really  shames  the  two  hideous  abortions  in 
white  stone  and  brown,  which  deform  the 
upper  part  of  the  Fifth  avenue. 

This  is  not  the  only  error  of  fact  we  have 
detected  in  the  work.  But  we  have  done 
with  censure.  The  book  is  a  good  book, 
valuable  as  well  as  entertaining,  and,  when 
carefully  translated,  revised,  and  anno- 
tated, will  be  acknowledged  by  the  Ameri- 
can public  to  contain  exact  as  well  as  ani- 

mated pictures  of  the  men  aad  things  of 


In  the  year  1785,  several  so  called  "  dark 
days"  occurred  in  Canada,  and  excited 
much  apprehension  among  the  ignorant 
and  speculation  among  the  learned.  Low- 
er Canada  only  was  peopled  by  civilized 
man  at  that  time,  so  that  we  have  no 
account  of  the  "dark  days"  in  Upper 

It  is  recorded  in  the  Quebec  Gazette  of 
October  20th,  1785,  that  on  Sunday,  Octo- 
ber 16th,  1785,  it  was  so  dark  soon  after 
ten  in  the  morning  that  printing  from 
ordinary  type  could  not  be  read.  The 
phenomena  are  described  with  some  degree 
of  minuteness  by  Chief  Justice  Sewell. 

"On  October  9th,  1785,  a  short  period 
of  obscurity  occurred  at  Quebec  about 
four  in  the  afternoon,  and  during  its  con- 
tinuance the  sky  in  the  north-east  quarter 
of  the  heavens  exhibited  a  luminous  appear- 
ance upon  the  line  of  the  horizon  of  a 
yellow  tinge.  On  the  15th  there  was  a 
repetition  of  the  same  phenomena  at  a  little 
earlier  hour,  with  violent  gusts  of  wind, 
lightning,  thunder,  and  rain,  accompanied 
as  on  the  9th.  The  morning  of  October 
16th  was  perfectly  calm,  and  there  was 
thick  fog.  Towards  nine  o'clock  a  light 
air  from  the  north-east  sprang  up,  which 
increased  rapidly.  The  fog  by  ten  o'clock 
was  entirely  dissipated  ;  black  clouds  were 
then  seen  rapidly  advancing  from  the 
north-east,  and  in  half  an  hour  print  could 
not  be  read.  The  darkness  lasted  for  about 
ten  minutes.  At  twelve,  a  second  period 
of  obscurity  took  place;  then  a  third,  and 
a  fourth,  and  fifth,  at  intervals :  at  half- 
past  four  it  was  dark  as  midnight." 

Four  distinct  accounts  of  similar  pheno- 
mena are  recorded  by  Chief  Justice  Sewell* 
as  occurring  on  July  3rd,  1814.     One  from 

*  "A  Few  Notes  on  the  Dark  Days  of  Canada." 
By  the  Honorable  Chief  Justice  Sewell,  President  of 
the  Library  and  Historical  Society  of  Quebec. 




the  pen  of  an  officer  of  the  Royal  Engi- 
neers, supposed  to  be  Captain  Payne,  taken 
from  Tulloch's  Philosophical  Magazine, 
describes  the  appearances  at  the  Bay  of 
Seven  Islands,  above  Anticosti,  on  July 
2nd  and  3rd.  A  second  describes  what 
occurred  on  the  2nd  at  Cape  Chat,  from 
observations  made  by  some  officers  who 
were  on  board  the  transport  "  Sir  William 
Heathcott,"  which  lay  the  whole  of  the 
day  at  anchor  in  the  river  St.  Lawrence  at 
that  point.  The  third  contains  some  addi- 
tional observations  respecting  the  appear- 
ances on  July  2nd,  made  on  that  same  day 
in  another  ship,  which  also  lay  off  Cape 
Chat.  And  the  last  relates  to  the  pheno- 
mena which  were  observed  by  the  Chief 
Justice  himself  upon  the  banks  of  New- 

On  July  3rd,  twenty  miles  from  the  Bay 
of  Seven  Islands,  the  clouds  appeared  to 
be  coming  rapidly  from  the  northward; 
the  atmosphere  was  thick  and  hazy,  and  at 
night  the  darkness  excessive.  About  9 
p.m.  a  sort  of  dust  or  ashes  commenced 
falling,  and  continued  during  the  night; 
towards  the  morning  the  whole  atmosphere 
appeared  red  and  fiery  to  a  wonderful 
degree,  and  the  moon,  then  at  the  full,  not 
visible  ;  the  appearance  through  the  cabin 
windows  and  crystal  lights  singular  in  the 
extreme,  as  if  surrounded  by  a  mass  of 
fire  ;  the  sea  sparkling  much,  and  in  a  man- 
ner not  usual  in  these  latitudes.  On  the 
following  day  the  sea  was  found  to  be 
covered  with  ashes,  the  wind  having  died 
away  to  a  dead  calm  early  in  the  morn- 

A  bucket  of  water  taken  up  appeared  as 
black  as  writing  ink ;  the  ashes,  from  the 
quantity  which  had  fallen,  "  appeared  as  if 
those  of  burnt  wood?"* 

On  July  4th  the  ashes  were  still  observed 
to  be  falling  in  small  quantity.  "  The  ashes 
collected  on  deck  appeared  to  be  those  of 
burnt  wood,  but  darker  and  more  heavy 
than  the  ashes  of  a  tobacco  pipe." 

The  narrative  of  the  officers  who  were 
on  board  the  transport  "Sir  William 
Heathcott''  states  that  on  July  2nd,  1814, 
there  was  a  heavy  fall  of  ashes  and  sand. 
The  wind  blew  gently  from  the  north  shore 

of  the  St.  Lawrence.  The  third  account 
states  that  on  July  2nd,  when  off  Cape 
Chat,  for  three  days  previously  some  ashes 
and  smoke  had  been  observed,  but  on  the 
second  no  symptoms  of  burnt  wood  were 
seen  ;  but  at  2.30  p.m.  of  that  day  the  sun 
was  obscured,  and  a  total  darkness  set  in, 
which  continued  until  about  sunset. 

The  Chief  Justice's  own  observations 
were  as  follows:  "July,  1814 — Sunday — 
A  most  extraordinary  day.  In  the  morn- 
ing dark  thick  weather,  and  fog  of  a  deep 
yellow  color,  Which  increased  in  density 
and  color  until  four  o'clock  p.m.,  at  which 
hour  the  cabin  w\as  entirely  dark,  and  we 
dined  by  candle-light ;  the  binnacle  also 
was  lighted  shortly  after." 

The  relative  positions  of  the  different 
observers  at  the  time  when  the  phenomena 
described  in  the  preceding  paragraphs 
occurred,  show  that  the  northerly  wind 
which  blew  on  July  2nd  carried  clouds  of 
ashes,  sand,  smoke,  and  vapor  across  the 
river  St.  Lawrence,  in  a  line  from  the  Bay 
of  Seven  Islands,  to  Cape  Chat,  and  then 
by  the  westerly  wind  wThich  set  in  on  the 
night  of  July  2nd  across  the  Gulf  of  St. 
Lawrence  and  the  island  of  Newfoundland 
to  the  great  banks,  and  on  July  3rd  enve- 
loped the  vessel  in  which  the  Chief  Justice 
was  sailing  in  the  same  obscurity  in  which 
the  other  ships  off  the  Canada  coast  were 
shrouded  on  the  preceding  day. 

Chief  Justice  Sewell  attributes  these 
phenomena  to  volcanic  action  rather  than 
to  an  extensive  conflagration.  He  says: 
"  As  to  the  conflagration  of  a  forest,  the 
facts  of  which  we  are  in  possession  do  not 
appear  to  warrant  a  belief  that  such  can  be 
the  cause.  It  seems  impossible  to  suppose 
that  the  conflagration  of  a  forest  could 
have  produced  a  mass  of  smoke  so  dense 
and  so  extensive  as  to  overspread,  as  it  did 
in  October,  1785,  the  surface  of  a  territory 
exceeding  certainly  300  miles  in  length, 
and  probably  200  miles  in  breadth,  and 
producing  at  its  utmost  longitudinal  extre- 
mity, and  at  mid-day,  the  obscurity  of  the 
darkest  night.  And  as  the  whole  of  the 
cause  of  this  obscurity  proceeded  appa- 
rently from  the  Labrador  country,  where 
forest   trees    are  few  in  number,   stunted 




in  size,  and  spread  in  isolated  patches  over 
a  general  surface  of  rock,  it  is  the  more 

The  Chief  Justice  inclines  to  the  view 
that  the  phenomena  of  the  "  Dark  Days  of 
Canada  "  are  to  be  attributed  to  an  active 
volcano  in  the  Labrador  Peninsula,  and 
he  draws  attention  to  the  coincidence  in 
the  narratives  of  the  different  observers 
quoted,  and  those  which  are  mentioned  by 
Charlevoix  in  his  description  of  the  earth- 
quake in  1663  :  "  A  Tadoussac,"  says  Char- 
levoix, "  II  pleut  de  la  cendre  pendant  six 
heures  " — torn.  i.  p.  367  ;  also  on  page  336, 
he  adds,  "Une  poussiere  qui  s'eleva  fut 
prise  pour  une  fumee  et  fit  craindre  un 
embrasement  universel.'' 

Tadoussac  was  situated  at  the  mouth  of 
the  Saguenay  River.  The  Chief  Justice 
also  states  that  among  the  Indian  tribes  on 
the  north  shore  of  the  St.  Lawrence  a 
traditional  belief  of  the  existence  of  a  vol- 
cano in  the  Labrador  country  is  said  to 

In  his  journal  of  a  voyage  in  the  country 
of  the  Papinachois,  a  Montagnais  tribe  on 
Lake  Manicouagan,  in  1664,  Henry  Nouvel, 
a  Jesuit  missionary,  states  that  on  May  11 
he  arrived  at  a  river  which  the  Indians 
called  Kouakueou,  and  saw  the  effect  of 
the  earthquake  on  the  rivers,  the  water 
which  flowed  in  them  being  quite  yellow, 
and  preserving  this  color  until  they  min- 
gled with  the  St.  Lawrence.  The  same 
effect  was  noticed  on  Bersamites  River,  and 
the  Indians  dare  not  venture  on  them  in 
their  canoes. 

He  also  relates  that  the  earthquake  had 
such  a  powerful  effect  upon  an  Indian  con- 
jurer named  Ouiskoupi,  that  he  renounced 
his  craft  and  gave  up  his  medicines  to  the 
missionary,  who  burnt  them.* 

Lieutenant  Ingall,  who  explored  the 
country  between  the  St.  Maurice  and  the 
Saguenay  in  1828,  states  that  the  opinion 
very  generally  prevails,  borne  out  by  tradi- 
tion, that  an  active  volcano  is  somewhere 
in  existence  among  the  mountains  south- 
east of  the  Saguenay,  but,  he  adds,  it 
wants  the  confirmation  of  ocular  proof,  for 

*  Relation  des  Jesuitcs. 

not  one  of  the  Indians  who  traverse  those 
regions  in  search  of  game  has  ever  seen 
the  slightest  appearance  of  fire  issuing  from 
the  earth,  nor  did  Lieutenant  Ingall  hear  of 
any  scoriae  or  vitrified  rock  having  been 
discovered  in  the  country.*  Without 
doubt  the  coast  between  Cape  Tourmente 
and  Malbay  is  frequently  troubled  with 
shocks  of  earthquakes,  but  whether  these 
shocks  are  occasioned  by  the  working  of 
some  neighboring  volcano  is  a  matter  of 
mere  speculation.  Nor  does  the  appear- 
ance of  the  land  bear  evidence  of  there 
having  ever  existed  a  volcano  to  the  south 
of  the  River  Saguenay,  as  from  the  well- 
known  fertility  of  decomposed  lava  we 
should  find  a  very  different  soil  from  that 
hitherto  discovered.  If  a  volcano  is  at  the 
present  period  in  a  state  of  active  opera- 
tion, I  should  be  much  more  inclined  to 
suppose  it  seated  among  the  unexplored 
mountains  of  Labrador,  to  the  north-east 
of  the  Saguenay  or  the  Gulf  of  St.  Law- 

In  October  1785  the  obscurity  extended 
so  as  to  comprehend  on  one  side  Frede- 
rickton,  New  Brunswick,  and  on  the  other 
Montreal.  A  ship,  the  Adamant,  was  on 
the  morning  of  Oct.  16th  off  the  end  of  the 
island  of  Anticosti.  There  it  was  then 
clear  weather;  but  towards  the  west  the 
ship's  company  saw  a  heavy  black  cloud, 
and  by  twelve  on  the  same  day  had  sailed 
into  it,  and  very  shortly  afterwards  found 
themselves  in  darkness. 

In  1828  Captain  F.  H.  Baddely,  R.  E., 
was  engaged  by  the  Canadian  government 
in  exploring  the  Saguenay  country,  and  in 
his  Report,  which  was  published  at  the 
time,  he  states  that  Malbay  or  Murray  Bay, 
on  the  St.  Lawrence,  90  miles  below  Que- 
bec, has  long  been  remarkable  for  the 
frequency  of  earthquakes. 

Shocks  are  most  frequent  in  January  or 
February ;  they  occur  about  nine  or  ten 
times  a  year.  "It  is  not,"  says  Captain 
Baddely,  "  perhaps  generally  known  that 

*  Remarks  on  the  Country  lying  between  the 
Rivers  St.  Maurice  and  Saguenay,  on  the  north  shore 
of  the  St.  Lawrence.  By  Lieutenant  Ingall,  1.1th 
Regiment.  Transactions  of  the  Literary  and  Philo- 
sophical Society  of  Quebec,  1830.     Vol.  II. 




there  exists  highly  respectable  evidence  of 
a  volcanic  eruption  having  happened  some- 
where in  the  rear  of  St.  Paul's  Bay,  not  far 
from  Murray  Bay.  No  one,  we  think,  will 
feel  disposed  to  doubt  the  fact  after  perusing 
the  following  account  of  it,  with  which, 
through  the  politeness  of  Messrs.  Gagnon 
and  Chaperon,  we  have  been  furnished.  It 
is  the  former  gentleman  who  writes  : 

"  In  the  place  of  a  journal,  which  hap- 
pens to  be  lost,  receive  the  following  : — 

"  Tuesday,  December  6,  1791. — At  St. 
Paul's  Bay,  and  at  other  neighbouring 
places,  at  about  a  quarter  after  seven,  a 
severe  earthquake  was  felt ;  the  whole  night 
was  disturbed  by  small  ones  repeated  at 
intervals,  and  by  a  sudden  shaking  running 
towards  the  east.  The  shocks  were  felt  for 
forty-one  days,  from  two  (shocks)  to  five  a 
day.  On  Monday,  December  5th,  the 
shocks  were  fully  one-third  weaker  than 
those  of  the  3rd  ;  the  others  were  only 
small  ones,  or  rumbling  noises,  the  weather 
being  always  gloomy.  Before  the  night  of 
the  26th,  27th,  I  had  not  yet  remarked  any 
eruption  or  thick  smoke,  at  times  curling 
into  a  flame.  The  temperature  at  a  quarter 
after  seven  in  the  evening  was  11°  above 
zero  by  the  thermometer  of  Reaumur  (plus 
56°.7  of  Fahrenheit)  ;  the  next  morning 
the  heat  had  risen  to  21°  (plus  79 J  of 
Fahrenheit).  Two  mountains  near  my 
dwelling  at  some  40°  north-west  have  a 
valley  between  them,  so  that  you  may  see 
beyond  them.  It  is  by  this  valley  or  pas- 
sage that  I  saw  a  continual  eruption,  mixed 
with  smoke  and  flame,  which  appeared 
very  plain  on  the  horizon,  at  other  times 
struggling  among  themselves,  as  if  too 
oppressed  in  their  issue.  I  have  remarked 
several  times  that  this  eruption  is  always 
followed  by  shocks  of  earthquake  the  same 
day,  and  when  it  fails  a  dark  and  yellowish 
day  follows.  ^  When  the  earthquake  arises 
you  can  predict  that  it  is  going  to  be  so 
much  the  nearer  as  this  agitated  smoke 
struggles  to  get  out.  Some  persons  to 
whom  I  had  shown  these  preparations  of 
the  earthquake,  warned  me  in  their- turn 
that  in  a  moment  the  earth  would  shake. 
And  the  effect  confirms  it.  Finally,  on  this 
night  of  the  26th,  27tb,  a  most  beautiful 

spectacle  was  produced.  The  whole  atmo- 
sphere was  in  flames  and  agitated,  one's  face 
suffered  from  the  heat,  the  weather  was 
very  calm,  the  eruption  continued  the 
whole  night  with  flames.  The  certain 
approach  of  the  earthquake  is  known, 
when,  by  the  passage  between  the  moun- 
tains, you  see  a  cloud,  or  smoke,  quiet  or 
agitated,  and  on  the  left  and  right  the 
horizon  is  perfectly  clear." 

"  A  fall  of  ashes  covering  the  snow  in 
1791  was  also  within  the  recollection  of 
many  of  the  inhabitants  of  St.  Paul's  Bay. 

The  list  of  earthquakes  on  the  next  page 
which  have  occurred  in  Canada  is  from  the 
Catalogue  prepared  by  Mr.  Mallet  for  the 
British  Association.* 

The  number  of  earthquakes  which  have 
visited  Canada  since  its  discovery  by  Euro- 
peans has  been  at  least  twenty-nine,f  but  it 
is  highly  probable  that  this  enumeration 
falls  far  short  of  the  actual  occurrences  of 
this  phenomenon.  Respecting  the  fire 
mountain  of  the  Nasquapees  north  of  Lake 
Manicouagan,  about  200  miles  from  the 
coast,  too  little  is  known  to  assert  posi- 
tively that  it  is  an  active  volcano.  The 
name  is  suggestive,  although  it  is  probable 
that,  from  the  long  intercourse  between 
many  families  of  this  people  and  the  fur 
traders,  such  a  remarkable  feature  of  the 
country  would  have  been  known  to  them. 

Lake  Manicouagan  was  visited  by  a 
Jesuit  missionary  in  1664,  but  although  he 
mentions  the  earthquakes,  he  does  not  men- 
tion the  fire  mountain. 

Assuming  that  there  existed  in  the  great 
peninsula  of  Labrador  no  other  combusti- 
ble material  besides  the  stunted  trees,  there 
would  be  good  ground  for  attributing  the 
u  Dark  Days  of  Canada"  to  some  other 
agency  than  that  of  burning  vegetable  mat- 
ter ;  but  when  we  reflect  that  the  country 
is  almost  everywhere  covered  with  a  thick 
coat  of  lichens  and  mosses  where  these 
have  not  been  burnt,  and  that  they  are  even 
better  adapted,  when  dry,  to  burn  with 
extraordinary  rapidity,  and  afford  during 

*  Quoted  in  Notes  on  the  Earthquake  of  October, 
1360.     By  J.  TV.  Dawson,  LL.D.,  F.G.S. 

\  Notes  on  the  Earthquake  of  October,  1860. 




their  combustion  a  greater  cloud  of  smoke 
than  forest  trees,  it  will  be  apparent  that 
the  precise  element  for  producing  the  phe- 
nomena of  smoke  and  ashes  existed  in  the 
Labrador  Peninsula  to  a  remarkable  degree. 
Dry  caribou  moss  burns  with  wonderful 
rapidity,  as  we  found  to  our  cost ;  it  also 
emits  dense  volumes  of  smoke,  and  leaves 
behind  a  great  quantity  of  ash  and  char- 
coal. There  is  no  reason  to  suppose  that 
the  table-land  of  the  Labrador  Peninsula 
was  covered  with  forests  centuries  ago,  for 
the  missionary  before  mentioned,  Henri 
Nouvel,  states  that  an  Oumamiois  chief 
told  him  that  in  the  country  north  of  Lake 
Manicouagan  the  trees  were  very  small, 
and  there  was  no  birch  bark  to  make 
canoes.     The  whole  of  the  burnt  country 

near  the  table-land  through  which  I  passed 
in  1861  is  still  covered  with  this  charcoal 
and  ashes,  where  sand  forms  the  sub- 
stratum :  from  the  rocks  they  have  been 
washed  away  by  rains,  but  on  the  sandy 
flats  they  form  still  a  black  cake.  The 
occurrence  of  sulphur  in  the  ashes,  as 
described  by  the  writer  in  the  Quebec 
Gazette  of  October  27th,  ]  785,  is  proble- 

After  having  witnessed  the  combustion 
of  caribou  moss  on  a  large  scale,  and  the 
appearance  of  the  burnt  country  on  the 
borders  of  the  great  table-land  of  Labrador, 
I  am  inclined  to  the  opinion  that  the  "Dark 
Days  of  Canada"  were  the  result  of  a  vast 
conflagration  in  the  interior  of  the  Labra- 
dor Peninsula,  and  that  the  materials  which 

Year.  Month.  Remarks. 

1663     February  5         .         .         .         •  Very  violent. 

1665  "24 Tadoussac  and  Murray  Bay,  violent. 

"         October  15 Violent. 

1672     March  and  April* 

1732     September5 

1744    May  16      .         .         .         .         .         .     Quebec. 

1755     October Unusual  rise  and  fall  of  the  water  of  Lake  Ontario. 

1791     December Severe  shocks  at  St.  Paul's  Bay. 

1796     February A  violent  shock. 

]816     September  9 A  severe  shock  at  Montreal. 

"  "         16 A  second  shock,  less  violent. 

1818  October  11 Felt  near  Quebec. 

1819  August  15 At  St.  Andrews. 

"      November  10 At  Montreal,  slight,  followed  by  an  awful  storm  with  rain — 

impregnated  with  matter  like  soot. 

1821     February  At  Quebec,  a  slight  shock. 

1823     May  30 On  shore  of  Lake  Erie. 

1828     August  20 

1831     July  14 At  Murray  Bay,  Beauport,  &c.  "Walls  and  chimneys  thrown 

down  at  the  former  place. 
1833     March  and  April         ....     Severe  shocks  at  Murray  Bay. 

1840  September  10  .         .         .         .At  Hamilton. 

1841  Spring Said  to  have  been  felt  at  Quebec. 

1842  November  8  and  9  Montreal,  Three  Rivers,  <fcc. 
1844           "                "            ....     Montreal. 

1847  "  "  " 

1856  May  1 At  Ottawa  and  its  vicinity. 

1857  October In  the  Upper  Province. 

1858  January  15 At  Niagara, 

"      May  10  .        .         .         .         .At  Richmond,  slight. 

1859  "  At  Metis  (Lower  St.  Lawrence). 

1860  October  17 Yery  violent  at  the  River  Ouelle,  and  other  places  in  the 

Lower  St.  Lawrence ;  chimneys  were  thrown  down,  and 
walls  damaged. 

1861  July  12 Violent  at  Ottawa,  throwing  down  chimneys. 

*  This  earthquake  was  observed  by  Pere  Francois  de  Crepieul,  in  the  country  north  of  Tadoussac,  and  is 
recorded  by  him  in  a  letter  dated  June  2,  1672.  The  Pere  says  that  it  was  the  continuation  of  the  terrible 
earthquake  of  1662,  "which  has  not  since  ceased  in  this  quarter  of  the  north,  although  it  is  felt  but  little 
and  at  intervals." — Relation  de  la  Nouvelle  France  en  VAnnee  1672.    , 




assisted  most  in  feeding  the  fires  were  the 
lichens  and  mosses  which  grow  in  such  rich 
and  extraordinary  luxuriance  and  beauty  in 
that   desolate    country.      The   astonishing 
speed  with    which  fire   runs  through  the 
moss  has  been  described  by  several  writers, 
and   tli ere  is   no  valid  reason  why  a  fire 
should  not  stretch  from  Hudson's  Bay  to 
the  Gulf  of  St.  Lawrence  in  a  few  days, 
as  far  as  the  combustible  nature  of  the  fuel 
is  concerned ;  but  its  progress  is  arrested 
by  the  presence  of  lakes,  many  and  broad, 
and  the   swamps  by  which  many  of  them 
are   terminated.     A  broad  sheet  of  flame 
stretching  for  many  miles  across  is  at  once 
divided  by  a  lake,  and  as  these  lakes  often 
occur  one  after  another  for  many  miles,  the 
fires  are  broken  and  become  local  in  their 
effects,  except  in  certain  cases  when  the 
direction  of  the   wind  changes  in  such  a 
manner  as  to  distribute  them  more  wildly. 
A  fire  in   the  Labrador  Peninsula,  where 
the  trees  are  few  and  far  between,  very 
much  resembles  a  fire  in  the  prairies ;  but 
owing  to  the  extraordinary  dryness  of  the 
caribou  moss  it  spreads  with  much  greater 
rapidity.     It  would  be  impossible  to  escape 
from   an   approaching   sheet  of   flame    in 
Labrador  by  speed.     The  only  plan  is  to 
scrape  the   moss  from  a  few  square  yards, 
which  is  done  with  the  utmost  ease,  as  it 
adheres  to  the  rock  or  soil  very  loosely, 
and  then  to  lie  down  upon  the  bare  earth. 
The  smoke  arising  from  a  fire  made  by  this 
material  is  very  penetrating.     The  air  is 
filled  with  6ne  dust  arising  from  the  ashes  ; 
and  on  sandy  plains,  where  the  lichens  and 
mosses  are  deep,  and  other  varieties  besides 
the  caribou  lichens  exist  in  abundance,  the 
charcoal  that   remains  behind  covers  the 
soil  with  a  uniform  mantle  of  black.     If  a 
volcanic  eruption  had  taken  place  since  the 
time  when  Canada  was   discovered,  it  is 
probable   that  the  early  missionaries,  the 
Couriers  des  Bois,  the  fur  traders,  or  the 
officers  of  the   Hudson's   Bay   Company, 
would  have   recorded   the  phenomena  or 
learnt  the  fact  from  Indians.     Still  it  must 
be    acknowledged    that   the    term    "fire 
mountains,"  common  among  the  Nasqua- 
pee  Indians,  taken  in  connection  with  the 
earthquakes  which  have  visited  the  region 

HIST.    MAG.      VOL    VIII.  8 

of  the  Lower  St.  Lawrence  from  time  to 
time,  and  the  testimony  of  Monsieur  Gag- 
non,  is  quite  sufficient  to  turn  attention  to 
the  probability  of  such  an  occurrence 
having  taken  place  in  recent  times  and  the 
possibility  of  its  renewal. 


To  the  Horible.  the  Mayor,  Recorder,  Al- 
dermen and  Commonalty  of  the  City 
of  New  York. 


I  received  your  address,  and  the  freedom 
of  the  city  with  which  you  have  been 
pleased  to  present  me  in  a  golden  Box, 
with  the  sensibility  and  gratitude  which 
such  distinguished  honors  have  a  claim  to. 
The  flattering  expression  of  both  stamps 
value  on  the  acts ;  and  calls  for  stronger 
language  than  I  am  master  of  to  convey 
my  sense  of  the  obligation  in  adequate 

To  have  had  the  good  fortune,  amidst  the 
vicissitudes  of  the  long  and  arduous  contest, 
"  never  to  have  known  a  moment  when  I  did 
not  possess  the  confidence  and  esteem  of  my 
country" — and  that  my  conduct  should  have 
met  the  approbation,  and  obtained  the 
affectionate  regard  of  the  State  of  New 
York  (where  difficulties  were  numerous 
and  complicated),  may  be  ascribed  more  to 
the  effect  of  divine  wisdom,  which  had  dis- 
posed the  minds  of  the  people,  harassed 
on  all  sides,  to  make  advances  for  the  em- 
barrassments of  my  situation,  whilst  with 
fortitude  and  patience  they  sustained  the 
loss  of  their  capital,  and  a  valuable  part  of 
their  territory — and  to  the  liberal  senti- 
ments and  great  exertion  of  her  virtuous 
citizens  than  to  any  merit  of  mine. 

The  reflection  of  these  things  now,  after 
the  many  hours  of  anxious  solicitude  which 
all  of  us  have  had,  is  as  pleasing  as  our 
embarrassments  at  the  moment  we  encoun- 
tered them  were  distressing,  and  must 
console  us  for  past  sufferings  and  per- 




I  pray  that  Heaven  may  bestow  its 
choicest  blessings  on  your  city.  That  the 
devastations  of  war,  in  which  you  found  it, 
may  soon  be  without  a  trace.  That  a  well 
regulated  and  beneficial  commerce  may 
enrich  your  citizens — and  that  your  State 
(at  present  the  seat  of  empire)  may  set 
such  examples  of  wisdom  and  liberality  as 
shall  have  a  tendency  to  strengthen  and 
give  permanency  to  the  Union  at  home, 
and  credit  and  respectability  to  it  abroad. 

The  accomplishment  whereof  is  a  remain- 
ing wish  and  the  primary  object  of  all  my 

G°*  Washington. 

gtofcs  mi  %ffl$n. 


The  Temple,  the  Hasbkouck  House, 
etc. — The  building  called  the  "  Temple," 
in  which  Washington  read  to  his  officers 
the  address  in  answer  to  the  "  Newburgh 
Letter"  (see  Historical  Magazine,  vol.  vii, 
page  351),  was  built  upon  the  ridge  east  of 
the  Cranberry  Meadow,  south  of  Snake 
Hill,  a  short  distance  back  of  Newburgh. 
The  land  on  which  it  stood  was  owned  by 
Jabez  Atwood,  and  now  by  the  heirs  of 
David  Moore.  It  was  constructed  of 
palisades  split  from  oak  logs,  and  was 
about  thirty-five  feet  square,  one  story 
high,  and  had  a  high,  square  roof.  The 
floor  was  close  to  the  ground.  It  remained 
in  good  condition  for  several  years  after 
the  close  of  the  war,  and  was  occupied  as 
a  dwelling  by  a  poor  family.  There  are 
no  traces  of  the  building  left,  and  have  not 
been  for  more  than  fifty  years.  At  the 
time  it  was  built  the  army  lay  in  three 
divisions  (though  the  first  and  third  might 
properly  be  called  but  one)  in  the  imme- 
diate vicinity  as  follows  : 

The  First  Division  on  the  upland,  west 
of  what  is  now  called  u  the  square,"  and  on 
the  land  owned  by  the  father  of  Isaac 
Hamilton,  Esq.,  of  Albany. 

The  Second  Division  (which  was  the 
main  force)  was  encamped  on  the  east  and 
west  of  the  Cranberry  Meadow,  and  south- 
west from  the  farm  of  James  Patten. 

The  Third  Division  on  the  east  portion 
of  the  farm  of  the  late  John  R.  Caldwell. 
After  the  army  was  disbanded,  a  num- 
ber of  families  took  possession  of  the 
barrack  which  had  been  erected  by  these 
divisions,  and  occupied  them  until  they 
became  unfit  by  reason  of  decay  for  further 
use.  No  portion  of  these  buildings  now 
remain.  The  material  of  their  construction 
was  the  same  as  that  of  the  Temple. 

At  the  time  the  divisions  were  so  encamp- 
ed, General  and  Mrs.  Washington  stayed  at 
the  stone  house  of  the  Hasbrouck  family,  in 
the  south  part  of  the  village  of  Newburgh. 
The  room  occupied  by  them  was  in  the 
north-east  corner  of  the  house.  It  is  said 
that  Col.  Pickering  died  in  the  north-east 
room,  but  I  have  never  been  able  to  trace 
the  tradition  satisfactorily.  Hamilton,  La- 
fayette, and  Burr  were  staying  there  also. 
Gen.  Knox  had  bis  quarters  at  the  time  in 
the  low,  long  stone  house  which  is  still 
standing  near  "  the  square."  Mrs.  Wash- 
ington remained  at  the  Hasbrouck  House 
more  than  a  year,  it  is  said.  I  was  so  in- 
formed by  the  late  Jonathan  Hasbrouck,  of 
Newburgh,  from  whom  the  State  of  New 
York  acquired  its  present  title  to  the  pro- 
perty. When  Mrs.  Washington  left  the 
house,  at  the  close  of  the  war,  she  presented 
to  Mrs.  Hasbrouck  her  chair,  which  she  had 
brought  from  Mount  Vernon.  It  is  very 
plain  and  simple,  has  quite  a  high  back  and 
low  seat,  and  was  painted  green.  It  has 
passed  to  the  fourth  generation,  and  is  now 
owned  by  Mrs.  William  R.  Eager,  of  Great 

Washington  took  final  leave  of  many  of 
his  officers  on  the  green  in  front  of  this  old 
house  at  the  close  of  the  war.  The  build- 
ing was  thoroughly  repaired  at  the  expense 
of  the  State  when  it  purchased  it.  The 
interior  is  substantially  as  it  was  at  the 
close  of  the  Revolution.  Many  valuable 
revolutionary  relics  have  been  presented 
and  deposited  in  the  rooms.  Some  of  the 
most  valuable  of  them  were  presented  by 
Enoch  Carter,  Esq.,  of  Newburgh.    One 




of  the  silver  spurs  of  Major  Andre,  a  lock.      The  6th  day  of  April,  old  style. 

of  the  hair  of  Washington,  and  many  other  This   is   the    mark   of  Wame  X   tappack, 

rare  curiosities  adorn  the  walls  and  shelves.  Sachem. 

The  gun  of  Harvey  Birch  (the  American  |  This  is  the  mark  of  X  Minnequahem. 

Spy,   who  gave  the   English  cow-boys  so  This  is  the  mark  of  x  Attewaram. 

much  trouble)  was  there  at  one  time/  j  This  is  the  mark  of  x  Oramysy. 

John  M.  Eager.      I  This  is  the  mark  of  X  Rammyeraen. 

N.  Y. 

This  is  the  mark  of  x  Pauwangum. 
This  is  the  mark  of  X  Kameneck. 

Indian    Deed     for    Canarise,    Long  [  This  is  the  mark  of  x  Wauaclyck. 
Island.— The  following  translation,  made ;      This  done  by  me,  the  constable,  as  witness, 
by  me,  from  the  Dutch  records  on  file  in  the  |  Minne  Johannes,  1665. 

Clerk's  office  in  Flatland,  Kings  Co.,  of  the  j  On  the  date  of  the  ||  April,  the  purchase 
Indian  purchase  of  Canarise,  and  of  the!  of  the  Indians,  the  first  payment  m 
amount  paid  for  the  Nicolls  and  Lovelace  |  _  wampum  .  .  600* 

patents,  I  send  to  you  for  publication,  if 

deemed  of  sufficient  importance. 

T.  G.  Bergen. 

On  this  23rd  day  of  April,  1665,  was 
agreed  as  follows,  to  wit: — Wametappack, 
Sachem  of  Canaryssen,  and  Rammieracy, 
Minneguahum,  Camenuck,  Panwangum, 
and  Attewaram,  lawful  owners  of  Canary- 
sen  and  the  appendages  thereto  appertain- 
ing, have  agreed  and  sold  to  the  inhabi- 
tants of  the  town  of  Amesfoort  a  parcel  of 
land  lying  on  Long  Island,  by  and  in  the 
vicinity  of  the  village  of  Amesfoort,  begin- 
ning by  the  west  side  of  "  Muskyttehool," 
at  a  certain  marked  tree  ;  thence  stretching 
to  where  the  end  of  the  Flats  come  by  the 
two  trees  situated  on  the  north  side  of  said 
Flats  to  a  certain  marked  tree ;  from  thence 
to  the  Fresh  Kill  meadows,  stopping  at  the 
path  from  the  Great  Flatts  to  the  Fresh 
Kill  meadows,  and  stretching  in  the  Flats, 
with  all  meadows,  kills,  and  creeks  therein 
contained  ;  and  that  for  the  sum  of  one 
hundred  fathoms  wampum,  one  coat,  one 
pair  stockings,  four  adz's,  two  cans  of 
brandy,  and  one  half  barrel  of  beer,  with 
condition  that  the  purchasers,  once  for 
always,  a  fence  shall  set  at  Canarysen  for 
the  protection  of  the  Indian  cultivation, 
which  fence  shall  thereafter  by  the  Indians 

One  coat  comes  to  .  .  .  .60 
One  pair  of  stockings     ...  6 

One  pair  shoes  .  .  .  .  .16 
Four  adz's     .         .         .         .         .  16 

Two  cans  brandy  ....  8 
One  half  barrel  beer       ...  15 

"  Paid  for  the  patent  of  Richard  Nickel- 
son  to  Matys  Nickel,  one  hundred  schepel 

"  Paid  for  the  patent  of  Franszoos  Loflys 
to  Matys  Nickelson,  twenty  schepel 
wheat."  f 

Southern  Currency. — The  following 
advertisement,  from  a  North  Carolina 
paper,  is  curious  as  a  proof  of  the  worth- 
lessness  of  the  money  there,  and  the  long- 
headed prudence  of  the  Friends  : 

New  Garden  Boarding  School. — The 
53d  session  of  New  Garden  Boarding 
School  opened  the  16th  day  of  11th  month 
instant,  and  will  continue  2.0  weeks. 
Board  and  washing  will  be  furnished  by  the 
month  for  133  pounds  of  flour,  25  pounds 
of  pork,  and  2^  bushels  of  corn,  or  the 
equivalent  in  money. 

The  tuition,  per  session  of  20  weeks,  may 
be  paid  by  250  pounds  of  flour,  35  pounds 
of  pork,  and  4  bushels  of  corn,  or  the 
equivalent  in  money. 

The  school  will  be  under  the  charge  of 
be  maintained,  and  the  land  which  becomes  |  N>reus  Mendenhall  as  principal  teacher, 
inclosed  in  fence  shall,  by  the  Indian  own-  j a,,d  Jonathan  E.  Cox  and  wife,  Superin- 
ers    above-mentioned,    all   their   lives,    be  j  tenderits. 

used,  to  wit,  by  Wametappack,  the  Sachem,  I      Hth  month  30,  1863. 

with  his  two  brothers.     All  done  without    ~  *  Probably  guilders  (40c). 

fraud  or  deceit.  f  Schepels  are  equal  to  bushels. 




Carondelet. — Vide  Poche. — Caronde- 
let,  in  Missouri,  was  formerly  called,  from  its 
povetry,  Yide  Poche  {Empty  Pocket),  and 
these  lines  commemorate  its  origin : 


In  seventeen  hundred  and  sixty-seven 

Delor  de  Tragette,  a  man  of  renown 
(To  his  name  all  honor  and  praise  be  given), 

Laid  out  the  foundation  of  Vide  Poche  town; 
And,  tho'  ninety  odd  years  have  passed  away, 
Vide  Poche  stands  there  at  this  very  day. 

Near  the  river's  brink,  'neath  a  young  elm  tree, 
The  Frenchman  erected  his  cabin  small, 

That  the  dancing  waters  his  eye  might  see, 
As  they  swept  the  base  of  the  white  bluff  tall ; 

And  could  hear  the  song  of  the  voyageur 

By  the  echoes  repeated  far  and  near. 

And  a  few  friends  went  with  the  good  Tragette, 
And  built  their  snug  cabins  hard  by  his  own, 

Made  of  rough-hewn  logs  that  on  end  were  set, 
With  roofs  that  ran  up  to  a  sharpened  cone ; 

"While  hazel  bushes,  mud,  gravel,  and  straw 

Stopped  the  cracks  secure  from  the  winter's  blow. 

They  planted  their  corn  in  the  month  of  May, 

Their  gardens  with  gumbo  were  green  in  the  spring ; 

They  caught  the  cat-fish  that  wallowing  lay 
At  the  river's  bottom,  with  horse-hair  string ; 

And  the  huge  bullfrog  that  croaked  in  the  pond 

Made  a  dish  of  which  they  were  very  fond. 

When  the  autumn  came  they  gathered  their  crops, 
And  Lent  being  over  they  had  a  dance ; 

And  tradition  says  that  those  Vide  Poche  hops 
Were  merry  as  any  e'er  seen  in  France ; 

For  a  King  and  Queen  were  managers  then, 

And  a  Vide  Poche  boy  was  the  prince  of  men. 

But  now  times  have  changed,  and  the  gay  Tragette 
Has  passed  from  the  earth  with  all  his  gay  friends  ; 

Their  grand-children  only  can  now  be  met, 
But  the  elm  tree  still  in  majesty  bends 

Like  a  mourner  drooping  o'er  friends  loved  well; 

Could  it  speak,  what  a  tale  that  elm  could  tell ! 

The  cabins  are  gone  of  these  early  days, 
The  fields  are  barren,  the  gardens  in  weeds; 

The  bullfrogs  no  more  from  the  green  pond  gaze, 
The  mud-cat  secure  in  the  water  feeds ; 

The  yellow  Des  Peres,  in  its  'hoarse  debouche, 

Sings  a  wild,  sad  dirge  for  the  old  Vide  Poche. 

The  bluff  which  the  French  boys  so  loved  to  climb 
Mas  been  cut  away  for  the  iron  steed ; 

The  river,  that  bristled  with  snags  sublime, 
Is  lashed  by  the  steamer  that  flies  with  speed ; 

And  the  railroad  car,  with  conductors  smart, 

Has  taken  the  place  of  the  old  French  cart. 

New  houses  of  brick,  and  "  ivory  "  streets, 

Are  seen  where  once  were  the  cabins  and  lanes ; 

And  one  of  the  finest  of  country  seats 
Is  Monti  Pice  with  its  Gothic  vanes ; 

The  dry  dock  is  there  by  the  river's  side, 

And  steamers  by  scores  to  the  shore  are  tied. 

'Tis  Vide  Poche  no  more,  but  Carondelet, 
With  its  city  council,  its  Marshal  and  Mayor ; 

How  would  it  astonish  good  old  Tragette, 

Could  he  come  to  life  and  once  more  be  there ; 

For  the  "  empty  pocket  "  is  filling  fast, 

And  ancient  Vide  Poche  has  itself  surpassed ! 

Dialects  of  the  Mutsun  Language  of 
California. — The  late  Mr.  Turner  called 
attention  to  this  language  in  the  Magazine 
some  years  since  ;  and  since  Ethnology  met 
so  severe  a  loss  by  his  death,  Arroyo's 
Grammar  and  Vocabulary  have  been  pub- 
lished. The  language  was,  for  a  Califor- 
nian  one,  wide-spread,  and  it  may  be  well 
to  preserve  in  the  Magazine  the  following 
vocabulary  of  the  Indians  at  the  Mission  of 
Santa  Cruz,  a  Mutsun  dialect.  It  was 
prepared  in  September,  1856,  by  Padre 
Juan  Cornelias,  for  A.  S.  Taylor,  Esq.,  and 
given  in  his  Indianology  paj)ers  in  the 
California  Farmer. 

The  words  are  evidently  to  be  pro- 
nounced as  Spanish. 







avelones  or 

wicked  spiril 

;  uten 








quitchguema  black 










infant,  child 



lachcamin  ' 







great,  big 




small,  little 
































live,  life 




dead,  death 








warm,  hot 


























neck  harcos 

arm  ysu 

hand  spalmish 
Indian  shoes   sholoc 

bread  missoy 
pipe,  calumet  torejo 

tobacco  macher 

sky,  heaven  chara 

sun  ishmen 

moon  char 

fingers  rarash 

nails  tur 

body  uara 

belly  ramaina 

leg  coro 

feet  hatash 

toes  rorash 

bone  chaie 

grasshopper  urua 
condor  or  vulture  cayas 

whale  chime 

heart  mini 

blood  payan 
town,  village  puebla 

chief  uit-tres 

friend  onient 

house,  hut  rua 

kettle  amamsha 

arrow  chemo 

bow  liti 

knife  chippi 

star  usi 

day  tujish 

light  charco 

night  muruch 

darkness  heuep 

morning  munsha 

evening  we-ac-say 

spring  etuenpire 

summer  elau 

autumn  puty 

winter  asir 

wind  taris 

lightning  uilep 

thunder  chura 

rain  amani 

snow  wacani 

hail  yopoc 

fire  yuelec 

crow  sharac 

bear  ores 
turkey-buzzard  humish 

water  si 

ice  ucani 

earth,  land  pire 

«ea  calay 

river  rumay 

lake  hoicol 

valley  ruum 

hills,  sierra  satos 

mountain  huya 

island  tepeol 


this  neppe 

that  hemit 

all  nappi 
many,  much  yasir 

who  atu 

near  amatica 

to-day  naja 

yesterday  uican 
to-morrow     munsa 

yes  eje 

no  ec  ka 

east  yachmu 

west  arras 

north  tamarte 

south  ramay 

one  impech 

two  uthin 

three  caphan 

four  catuash 

five  mishur 

six  saguen 

seven  tupuytuc 

eight  usatis 

nine  neu-ku 

ten  I-esh 
eleven        imheshwacaiish 

twelve  utheniish 

thirteen  capan-ush 

fourteen  catush  ush 

fifteen  mishur-iish 

sixteen  saquen  iish 

seventeen  tupuy-tac-iish 

eighteen  natis-tish 

nineteen  ni-koo-ish 

twenty  uthin-i-uesh 

thirty  cappan-iuesh 

forty  catuash-uiesh 

fifty  mishar-iuesh 

sixty  saquen-iuesh 

hundred  tappan 

eat  amay 

drink  uit 

run  uricay 

dance  chitte 

go  hui-coo 

sing  shane 

sleep  echen 

speak  aiua 

see  hiri  ri 

love  hasan 

kill  nimi 

walk  chaumespi 

salt  aues 

wild-cat  toroma 

elk  tibu 

deer  toch 
mud-tortoise  aunishmin 

fly  mumura 

eagle  nuppi 

musketo  cash  up 

feather  lipos 

wings  uima 


stone,  rock  e-ni 

tree  luspin 

leaf  tapash 

grass  guay 

herb  guay 

oak  arue 

pine-tree  gireni 

flesh,  meat  ris 

beaver  gupi 

wolf  umu 

coyote  mayan 

dog  hichas 

fox  yurig 
squirrel  (ground)  ejh 

rabbit  wiren 

hare  cheyes 

bird  winac 

goose  patch 

duck  epe 

pigeon  molmol 

Cal,  quail  acas 

hawk  cacrui 

sea-muscles  sharo 

fish  helai 


wild  oats        tapoc 
acorns  rapac 

salmon  hurac 

name  racat 

lime  uani 

affection         nunco 
sit  taurait 

stand  corhonmi 

come  uate 

earthquake    ymi 
eclipse  nanup 

name  racat 

morter  (to  pound 

acorns  etc.)semhoshmin 
sardines         tupur 
tule  or  bullrushes  haa-le 
cloud  risha 

fog  puhay 

humming-bird  umanu 
chenati,  or 

blackbird    sucrin 
serpent,  or  snake  mumana 
culebra,  or 

rattlesnake  hinchirua 

The  rancherias  of  Indians  near  this  Mis- 
sion, all  within  eight  or  ten  miles  of  Santa 
Cruz,  among  which  this  vocabulary  was 
spoken,  were :  Aulintac,  the  rancheria  pro- 
per to  the  Mission ;  Chalumii,  one  mile 
north-west  of  the  Mission;  Hottrochtac, 
two  miles  north-west  of  the  Mission  ;  Wal- 
lanmi ;  Sio  Cotchmin  ;  Shoremee ;  Onbi ; 
Choromi ;  Turami ;  Payanmin  ;  Shiuguer- 
mi  :  Hauzaurni. 

Historical  Reminiscence  of  Buffalo. 
— The  patient  research  of  our  townsman, 
L.  K.  Haddock,  Esq.,  has  brought  to  light 
many  historical  events  connected  with  the 
early  settlement  of  the  country  bordering 
on  the  lakes.  The  commerce  then  and  now 
compared  shows  the  giant  strides  that  have 
been  made  in  the  onward  march  of  pro- 
gress, and  the  incidents  given  in  the  fol- 
lowing communication  will  be  of  general 
local  interest : 

Mr.  Editor — At  your  request  I  copy 
from  my  note-book  some  items  respecting 
the  now  "  Great  West."  I  have  corre- 
sponded with  many  of  our  historical  cele- 
brities with  a  view  to  make  this  narrative 
more  complete,  but  have  gained  no  addi- 
tional facts.  It  is  possible  that  the  descen- 
dants  of  the   persons   named    may    have 




papers  or  letters  which  will  give  us 
valuable  information.  I  presume  Gen. 
Amherst's  and  Bradstreet's,  and  Henry 
White's  papers  are  still  extant.  Can  any 
of  your  readers  oblige  me  with  an  inspec- 
tion of  Evan's  Essays,  or  Mante's  history 
of  the  late  war  ? 

I  find  mention  made  of  the  Gladwin 
Chippewa,  Capt.  Robinson,  Lady  Charlotte, 
and   the   Beaver  being  on  Lake   Erie  in 


Sterling  &  Porteus,  merchants  of  De- 
troit, sent  down  the  lake  on  board  the 
Charlotte,  in  September,  fifty  packs  of  fur. 

The  Beaver  was  a  new  vessel,  belonging 
to  Commodore  Grant.  She  was  lost  in 
May,  near  Sandusky,  with  £3,000  of  furs, 
and  17  men. 

It  is  quite  probable  that  Lewis  Gage, 
who  was  appointed  Ensign  35th  Regt., 
20th  February,  1766,  when,  and  ever  since 
he  had  been  in  command  of  the  lakes,  was 
Captain  of  the  Beaver,  and  was  lost  with 

This  year  Campbell,  Phyn  &  Ellice,  of 
Schenectady,  with  Sterling  &  Porteus,  of 
Detroit,  built  the  Angelica,  of  45  tons.  J. 
&  A.  Stewart,  of  New  York,  furnished  the 


Richard     Wright,      of   Wood 

Bridge,  near  New  York  City,  was  the 
Captain.  Wages  £120  per  annum.  She 
was  a  very  successful  vessel,  and  Grant  & 
Robinson  were  very  angry,  and  tried  to 
purchase  Campbell's  interest,  which  was 
one-sixth.  Upon  Lake  Ontario  was  the 
Charity,  conveying  stores  to  Edward  Pol- 
lard, sutler,  at  Niagara,  and  flour  for  the 
use  of  the  garrison,  which  was  ground  by 
"  Jilles  Funda."  Amongst  the  supplies 
ordered  from  New  York  was  a  hat  from 
Jewes,  the  Comstock  of  New  York,  two 
firkins  of  butter,  and  three  pounds  of  green 
tea.  James  Munier,  Postmaster  at  Al- 

In  1772,  the  Charity,  on  Lake  Ontario, 
John  Leighton,  master,  did  not  earn  enough 
to  pay  her  crew.  The  freight  on  sheep 
across  Lake  Ontario  was  7  shillings.  Mr. 
Pollard,  sutler,  at  Niagara,  is  making 
money,  and  sends  Nancy  to  New  York, 
which  she  "  likes  very  well,"  and  Masters 
Ned  and  Bob  to  that,  then  as  now,  famous 

seat  of  learning — Schenectady.  T.  De 
Couagne,  interpreter  at  the  Fort,  sends 
his  son  to  the  same  place.  "  He  is  a  very 
decent  lad."  Mr.  Pollard  consoles  himself 
for  the  absence  of  his  children  by  playing 
billiards.  Is  advised  to  make  butter  and 
cheese  if  the  expense  of  keeping  cows  is 
not  too  great.  Writes  to  New  England 
for  a  Yankee  laborer.  Is  not  able  to  get 
newspapers — the  ^Express  was  not  then  in 
existence,  I  think.  Major  Ethrington  is  in 
command  at  Niagara.  "  He  is  an  old 
soldier,  and  the  depth  of  his  understanding 
past  finding  out." 

Pfister  and  Stedman  have  come  to  some 
accommodation.  The  latter  having  the 
carrying  trade  around  the  Falls.  Duffin  is 
to  engage  the  men  and  Stedman  is  to  keep 
tavern.  At  Fort  Erie,  Rutherford  is  in 
command.    Norman  McLeod,  Commissary. 

General  Gage  has  given  permission  to 
build  a  store-house  at  Fort  Erie. 

Two  of  the  King's  vessels  are  to  remain 
at  Fort  Erie  till  the  10th  regiment  goes 
up.  Binnerman  and  Graves  command 
these.  The  sloop  Betsy  is  sailed  by  Captain 
Friend.  This  is  her  third  year  on  Lake 

At  Detroit  are  James  Porteus,  formerly 
from  Crieff,  Perth  Co.,  Scotland  ;  James 
Sterling,  Gordon,  and  McComb,  Hugh 
Boyle,  Lieuts.  George  McDougal  and 
John  Hay,  Abbott,  and  Edgar. 

John  Thompson,  of  New  York,  sends  a 
Negro  to  Detroit  to  be  sold  on  his  account. 
Upon  his  arrival  methinks  I  hear  the  hon- 
est old  Scotchman  James  Porteus  exclaim  : 

"We  start  to  think  that  hapless  race 
Must  shape  our  good  or  ill ; 
That  laws  of  changeless  justice  bind 
Oppressor  with  oppressed; 
And,  close  as  sin  and  suffering  joined, 
We  march  to  Fate  abreast." 

Alexander  Grant  winters  at  Detroit ;  he 
has  usually  spent  his  winters  in  New  York. 
Rumor  will  have  him  entangled  in  the 
meshes  of  a  net  set  by  the  beautiful  Miss 
Thereasea  Barth. 

John  Askin  is  located  at  Mackinaw. 

Mr.  Norbury,  a  Russian,  holding  a  com- 
mission in  the    GOth  -Reffiment    at  Maeki- 



11  aw,   goes    to    Lake    Superior    with    A. 
Henry. — Buffalo  Express. 

The  Last  Wild  Buffalo  in  Ohio. — 
In  the  last  century  this  animal  ranged  ex- 
tensively over  the  southern  half  of  the  ter- 
ritory, now  embraced  in  the  State  of  Ohio. 
Two  were  killed  in  the  forks  of  Symmes 
Creek,  near  the  south-eastern  corner  of 
Jackson  Co.,  in  the  year  1800,  and  were 
the  last  ever  discovered  within  these 
limits.  Up  to  that  period  extensive  fields 
of  the  wild  cane  or  gigantic  reed  were 
common  in  the  valleys  of  the  Great  and 
Little  Miamia  rivers,  and  the  paroquett 
and  swallow-tailed  hawk  were  then  com- 
mon birds.  All  of  them  have  long  since 
disappeared  from  these  localities.  k. 

Cleveland,  O.,  Jan.  8, 1864. 

Poughkeepsie. — In  a  volume  of  Dutch 
records,  entitled  "Notarial  Paperz,  1677- 
1695,"  preserved  in  the  office  of  the  Clerk 
of  Albany  County,  is  to  be  found  a  deed  of 
gift  under  date  of  5th  May,  1683,  of  which 
the  following  is  an  extract : —  *  *  "  Een 
seeckere  hooglantsche  Wilt  (genaemtMas- 
sany)  De  welcke  bekent  midts  deesen  uyt 
een  Vrye  gift  gegeeven  to  hebben  Een 
Bouwery  aen  Pieter  Lassingh  (Lassen), 
Ende  Een  Bouwery  den  Jan  Smeedes 
Jonge  glasemaeker  En  Een  Val  aen  Strant 
ora  een  Moolen  op  te  setten, — de  Val  is 
gcnaemt  Pooghkepesingh, — ende  het  Landt 
is  genaemt  Minnissingh,  geleegen  aende 
Oost  Wal  van  de  Rivier"  (Hudson) ;  *  * 
which  may  be  translated  as  follows  : 

*  *  A  certain  Highland  Indian  (named 
Massany),  who,  by  these  (present),  acknow- 
ledges that  he  has  given  as  a  free  gift,  a 
bouwery  to  Peter  Lassingh  (or  Lassen), 
and  a  bouwery  to  John  Smeedes  Jonge, 
glass  maeker  (glazier) ; — and  a  fall  on  the 
shore  to  set  a  mill  upon  ;  the  fall  is  named 
Pooghkepesingh  ;  and  the  land  is  named 
Minnissingh,  lying  on  the  east  bank  of  the 
River  (Hudson). 

This  seems  to  be  the  original  conveyance 
from  the  native  proprietor  of  the  plot  of 
ground  now  occupied  by  the  city  of 

This  fact  may  be  familiar  to  the  local 

antiquaries  of  the  place,  but  to  most  of  the 
readers  of  the  Magazine,  doubtless,  it  is 
new.  The  noisy  water-fall  may  appro- 
priately be  called  Pooghkeepesingh,  but 
surely  the  beautiful  word  Minnissingh 
should  not  have  been  lost ;  it  should  have 
been  retained  as  the  name  of  the  city. 

J.  p. 

Schenectady,  June  4, 1864. 

Curious  Origin  of  a  Christian  Name. 
— In  Canada,  Delima  is  a  common  and 
rather  pretty  name  for  girls.  Its  origin 
would  not  easily  be  suspected.  A  clergy- 
man from  France  had  a  child  brought  to 
him  to  baptize,  and  was  requested  to 
christen  it  by  this  name.  "  This  is  not  a 
fit  name,"  was  his  reply.  "You  should 
give  her  the  name  of  some  saint."  *'  But,  M. 
le  Cure,  it  is  a  saint's  name."  "  No,  there 
is  no  such  saint  in  the  calendar."  M  Why, 
M.  le  Cure,  don't  you  know  Ste.  Rose  de 
Lima?"  He  certainly  did,  and  found  that 
people  finding  Rose  de  Lima  too  long, 
dropped  Rose,  and  ran  Delima  together. 


The  American  Editions  of  the  Re- 
deemed Captive,  condensed  from  Hist. 
Mag.,  vol.  vii.  p.  382-4,  with  additions  and 

1.  (Copies  in  library  of  Mass.  Hist.  Soc, 
Am.  Antiq.  Soc,  etc.)  Boston,  1707. 

2.  ufThe  second  edition."  Boston:  T. 
Fleet,  for  Samuel  Phillips. 

3.  Spoken  of  by  6r.,  but  not  seen  or 

4.  Edited  by  T.  Prince  (not  seen).  Bos- 
ton, 1758. 

5.  "  The  fourth  edition."  New  London : 
T.  Green  (N.D.),  1772. 

6.  uThe  fifth  edition."  Boston:  John 
Boyle,  1774. 

7.  "  The  fifth  edition."  New  London : 
T.  Green  (N.D.),  1780. 

8.  "The  fourth  edition."  Greenfield: 
T.  Dickman,  1793. 

9.  "The  sixth  edition."  Boston:  Sam- 
uel Hall,  1795. 

10.  "The  sixth  edition."  Greenfield: 
T.  Dickman,  1 800. 

11.  New  Haven :  W.  W.  Morse,  1802. 




12.  Brookfield:  Hori  Brown,  1811. 

13.  Greenfield:  C.  J.  J.  Ingersoll,  1837. 

14.  Northampton  :   1853. 

We  have  some  reason  to  suppose  that 
one  or  more  editions  were  printed  in 
Philadelphia  or  New  York  before  the  year 
1800,  but  we  have  not  seen  them. 

A  pamphlet  with  the  following  title  be- 
longs to  the  same  family  as  the  Redeemed 
Captive  : 

"A  Sermon  preached  at  Mansfield 
(Conn.),  August  4th,  1741,  at  a  time  set 
apart  for  Prayer  for  the  Revival  of  Religion ; 
and  in  behalf  of  Mrs.  Eunice  (the  Daughter 
of  the  Reverend  Mr.  John  Williams), 
who  was  there  on  a  visit  from  Canada, 
where  she  has  been  in  a  long  captivity. 
By  Solomon  Williams,  A.M.,  Pastor  of  the 
First  Church  in  Lebanon." 

Boston :  Printed  by  S.  Kneeland  and 
T.  Green,  1742. 

It  appears  from  the  sermon  that  Eunice 
Williams,  her  Indian  husband,  and  two 
children  were  present  on  the  occasion 
which  drew  together  "  such  a  numerous 
audience,"  and  the  aim  was  (Eunice  being 
a  Catholic)  "  to  find  some  way  for  her  de- 
liverance from  the  snares  and  thick-set 
stratagems  of  the  Devil,  and  make  her  a 
monument  of  Glorious  and  Almighty 

But  tradition  says  that  Eunice  would  not 
be  converted,  but  preferred  to  return  to  (in 
the  language  of  the  preacher)  "  the  bar- 
barous and  heathen  people  among  whom 
she  had  lived  for  thirty-eight  years ;  a 
people  bred  up  in  Popish  superstitions, 
blindness  and  bigotry." 

h.  o. 

Borrowing  Names  of  Places — In- 
teresting Letter  from  Doctor  O'Cal- 
laghan. — At  a  late  meeting  of  the  Onon- 
daga Historical  Association,  the  following 
interesting  letter  by  Dr.  O'Callaghan  was 

Albany,  Nov.  19,  1863.  * 

Dear  Sir — I  received  only  late  last  even- 
ing your  kind  invitation  to  attend  the  first 
meeting  of  the  Onondaga  Historical  So- 
ciety, which  is  to  take  place  this  evening, 
at  Historical  Hall,  Syracuse. 

I  beg  to  congratulate  you,  as  I  do  most 
sincerely,  on  the  event ;  and  I  have  no  doubt 
of  the  future  prosperity  of  your  Society  and 
of  its  success  in  rescuing  from  oblivion 
much  that  will  prove  valuable  both  to  the 
local  and  general  historian.  Already  New 
York,  Buffalo,  Brooklyn,  Kingston,  and 
Ulster  county  are  engaged  in  the  good  work, 
and  the  county  of  Westchester  is,  as  I  am 
informed,  about  to  organize  a  similar 
society  to  yours.  Livingston  county,  too, 
has,  I  am  told,  its  Historical  Society. 
Through  the  labors  of  these  several  as- 
sociations, public  opinion  will  be  so  enlight- 
ened, and  public  taste  so  directed  as  to 
relieve  our  maps  and  geographies,  in  time, 
I  hope,  from  many  of  the  out-of-place  names 
which  have  been  imposed  on  our  cities  and 
towns,  when  a  false  hankering  after  Euro- 
pean and  classical  nomenclature  distorted 
and  vitiated  rules  that  ought  properly  to 
have  been  observed  at  the  time. 

Our  mountains,  our  hills,  our  lakes,  our 
valleys,  and  our  streams  are  purely  and 
exclusively  American.  God  gave  them  in 
all  their  sublimity  and  beauty  to  America. 
It  seems  to  me  that  they  ought  to  be  dis- 
tinguished by  names  identified  with  the 
history  of  the  country. 

Europe  borrows  not  names  for  her  classic 
lands  from  America.  Why  then  go  to 
Italy,  Greece,  or  elsewhere  for  names  to 
designate  the  hunting  grounds  and  homes 
of  the  Iroquois  of  New  York,  or  to  dis- 
tinguish the  spot  where,  as  Mr.  Street 
beautifully  expresses  it,  the  pioneer  felled 
the  forest  and  let  in  the  first  ray  of  sunlight 
on  the  soil? 

Your  labors  will  avail  much  in  correct- 
ing the  false  taste  here  indicated. 

It  would  afford  me  great  pleasure  to 
attend  your  meeting,  but  want  of  leisure 
and  pressure  of  duties  which  cannot  be 
neglected,  must  plead  my  excuse. 

With  best  wishes  for  your  success  and 
kind  regards  to  each  member  of  your  so- 

I  remain,  Dear  Sir, 

Yours  very  respectfully, 
E.  B.  O'Callaghan. 

R.  F.  Trowbridge,  Esq.,  Rec.  Sec,  On. 
Hist.  Soc,  Syracuse,  N.  Y. 




Immigration  from  New  England  to 
the  State  of  New  York. — Surveyor- 
General  De  Witt  to  Governor  Clinton. — 
[Land  Papers,  See's  Office,  Alb.,  vol.  1., 
p.  79.] 

'Albany,  15th  April,  1791. 

Sir — Almost  every  day  the  New  Eng- 
land People  make  application  to  me  for 
Lands,  in  the  20  Townships — some  of  them 
witli  Money  in  their  pockets  raised  for  the 
purpose  of  purchasing.  I  can  neither  get 
rid  of  their  Questions  or  give  them  satis- 
factory answers.  I  am  obliged  to  tell  them 
that  these  lands  will  be  shortly  advertised 
for  sale,  but  that  the  mode  and  terms  are 
left  by  Law  to  the  discretion  of  the  Com- 
missioners of  the  Land  Office.  Many  of 
them  will  settle  immediately  and  run  the 
risque  of  purchasing  afterwards.  Numbers 
of  them  who  have  gone  thither  with  the  ex- 
press view  o£  making  pitches  and  prepare 
places  to  which  to  remove  their  families, 
are  exceedingly  anxious  to  have  the  oppor- 
tunity of  buying.  I  think  it  will  be  the 
interest  of  the  State  to  give  them  two  or 
three  years  time  for  the  payment  of  a  part 
of  the  purchase  money. 

I  am,  Sir,  your  Excy.'s 
Most  obedt.  Servant, 

M.  De  Witt. 

Governor  Clinton. 

[The  20  townships  above-mentioned  are 
principally  in  the  present  counties  of  Madi- 
son and  Chenango.  The  words  in  italic 
are  so  marked  in  the  original. — e.  b.  o'c] 

Syracuse. — This  is  the  most  ancient 
white  settlement  west  of  Albany.  It  dates 
as  far  back  as  1056,  in  which  year  a  num- 
ber of  Frenchmen  planted  a  colony  on  the 
margin  of  Lake  Onondaga,  whose  salt 
springs  had  been  discovered  in  1654.  The 
site  of  this  colony  is,  we  understand,  a  spot 
of  remarkable  prettiness ;  and  what  is  par- 
ticularly interesting  is  the  fact  that  the 
spring  mentioned  in  the  French  account  of 
the  settlement,  still  flows  from  the  side  of 
the  hill  upon  which  the  missionaries  erect- 
ed their  chapel  and  the  soldiers  their  little 
fort.  It  is  known  at  this  day  as  the  "Je- 
suit Well." 

It   is  now  in  contemplation  to  erect  a 

hist.  mag.     vol.  vin.         9 

monument  over  this  spring,  in  commemo- 
ration of  the  discovery  of  the  Salt  Springs 
and  the  founding  of  the  first  European  set- 
tlement in  Central  New  York.  Those 
familiar  with  the  enterprise  and  public 
spirit  of  the  citizens  of  Syracuse  have  no 
doubt  that  an  undertaking  so  laudable  will 
be  worthily  carried  out, 

e.  b.  o'c. 

Resolved  Waldron. — In  the  paragraph 
in  the  last  number  of  the  Historical  Maga- 
zine on  this  person  the  words  Strong  Creek 
ought  to  have  been  printed  "  Stony  Creek." 

John  Brown's  Tract. — This  famous 
summer  resort  for  sportsmen  and  tourists 
lies  partly  in  Lewis,  but  mostly  in  Herkimer 
County.  It  is  a  wild,  mountainous  re- 
gion, interspersed,  however,  with  lakes 
and  deep  valleys.  When  first  laid  out 
under  the  directions  of  Simon  De  Witt, 
Surveyor-General,  it  was  divided  into  eight 
townships,  which  were  made  in  a  manner, 
by  their  names,  representatives  of  all  the 
virtues  required  by  the  inhabitants  of  that 
region  to  realize  a  living  there ;  for  they 
were  called  Unanimity,  Frugality,  Per- 
severance,  Sobriety,  Regularity,  Enterprise^ 
Economy,  and  Industry. 

Letter  of  Lafayette  to  Gen.  Knox 
in  1781. — The  original  of  the  following 
letter  is  in  the  hands  of  W.  F.  Bacon,  Esq., 
Theological  Seminary,  Bangor,  Maine : 

Forks  of  York  River,  August  18, 1781. 

My  dear  Sir— In  spite  of  the  24r's,  the 
mortei  s,  and  the  whole  noisy  Hellish  train 
of  your  siege  artillery,  I  want  you  to  hear 
the  voice  of  a  friend  whose  attachment  to 
you  deserves  some  share  in  your  affection. 
I  realy  Believe  I  possess  it,  my  good  friend, 
and  notwithstanding  your  silence,  I  am 
sure  you  feel  for  me  in  every  transaction  of 
this  most  difficult  command. 

last  campaign  I   was  sighing  for    .... 

j  This  campaign  I  was  trembling  for  them  as 

!  in  the  Beginning. 

There  was  no  difference  between  a  skir- 

j  mish    and  a   Battle — a  Battle  and  a  total 

I  defeat,  we   were  so  lucky  as  to  escape  an 
action   and    keep   ourselves  clear   of  that 



mounted that  wasgallopping 

around  us.  Then  we  had  our  turn,  and 
for  many,  many  mile  had  the  pleasure  to 
occupy  his  lordship's  Hd.  quarters.  You 
had  accounts  of  the  two  skirmishes.  I 
thought  all  was  over,  and  owing  to  your 
siege  of  New  York,  I  anticipated  great 
deal  of  ease  and  happiness.  Indeed,  I 
could  not  help  growing  jealous,  and  began 
to  think  of  a  visit  to  your  Batteries,  But 
soon  found  there  was  in  this  quarter  work 
enough  for  me,  great  deal  to  much  indeed 
for  my  youth  and  the  means  that  I  have. 

Lord  Cornwallis  Having  not  succeeding 
in  land  journeyings,  has  undertaken  a  water 
voyage.  I  thought  first  the  man  was  going 
to  New  York,  then  to  Pottomack,  or  Bal- 
timore, But  on  a  sudden  he  entered  York 
River,  and  is  at  York  and  Gloster  out  of 
our  reach,  refreshing  his  troops  and 
meditating  mischief.  York  is  on  high 
ground,  surrounded  with  creeks  and 
marshes  available  by  one  high  a  .  .  .  . 
this  to  my  surprise  he  does  not  fortify. 
Gloster  is  a  neck  of  land  projecting  into 
the  River,  and  very  useful  to  the  defeat  of 
shipping,  these  my  lord  is  fortifying.  Ports- 
mouth is  not  evacuated,  so  that  he  is 
divided  in  three  points,  two  of  which  I 
confess  are  the  same  thing.  But  should  a 
naval  superiority  come  great  advantages 
might  be  obtained  in  this  quarter.  I  wish 
my  dear  friend  our  conduct  may  have 
met  with  your  approbation.  I  wish  both 
from  esteem  and  friendship. 

At  the  present  I  am  trying  to  conjure  up 
a  cavelry  to  collect  levies,  to  arm  and  as- 
semble militia,  to  replenish  our  few  con- 
tinentals,— to  have  a  part  of  them  in  re- 
diness  to  Reinforce  General  Green,  and  am 
waiting  at  that  fork  of  York  River  to 
oppose  either  way  His  lordships  ma- 
nuievers  .     p     .     . 

Lord  Cornwallis  abilities  are  to  me  more 
alarming  than  his  superiority  of  forces.  I 
ever  had  a  great  opinion  of  him,  our  papers 
call  him  a  Mad  Man.  But  was  any  ad- 
vantage taken  of  him  when  he  commanded 
in  person  ?  To  speak  plain  English,  I  am 
devilish  afraid  of  him. 

Major  Cush  Having  gone  to  the  North- 
ward, we  are  in  want  of  an  artillery  field 

officer.  Had  Ctn-  Lamb  been  only  a 
Major,  I  should  have  asked  for  him.  I 
wish  Ctn-  Stephens  might  make  it  con- 
venient to  return. 

My  most  respectfull  and  affectionate 
compliments  to  Mrs.  Knox.  I  am  so  im- 
prudent as  to  take  the  liberty  to  address  a 
kiss  to  Lucy  and  a  paternal  one  to  my  son. 

Yours  for  ever, 


General  Knox. 

Quebec  in  1*701. — In  a  manuscript  en- 
titled "  Lettres  Canadiennes"  is  the  follow- 
ing description  of  Quebec  in  1701  : 

The  curiosity  of  learning  and  knowing, 
so  common  to  all  mankind,  made  me  ex- 
amine Kebec  closely  on  my  arrival.  This 
town  is  situated  2000  leagues  from  France. 
It  is  divided  into  the  upper  and  lower 
town.  In  the  latter  reside  the  merchants 
and  those  who  trade  by  sea.  The-  houses 
are  all  built  quite  comfortably  of  a  black 
stone  as  fine  and  hard  as  marble.  The 
roadstead  is  defended  by  a  large  platform 
in  the  middle,  which  is  level  with  the  water, 
so  that  hostile  vessels  could  not  be  at 
anchor  without  being  badly  handled  as 
well  by  the  cannon  of  this  platform  as  by 
those  of  a  fort  which  commands  the  city 
and  harbor,  on  one  of  the  most  precipitous 

From  the  lower  to  the  upper  town  there 
is  a  road  which  winds  around  imperceptibly 
for  carts  and  waggons,  which  have  never- 
theless much  difficulty  in  ascending.  The 
upper  town  is  situated  at  an  extraordinary 

The  house  of  the  viceroy  or  governor- 
general  is  in  the  upper  town  in  the  most 
prominent  point.  It  is  one  hundred  and 
twenty  feet  long,  and  two  stories  high, 
with  several  pavilions  which  form  additions 
in  front  and  behind,  with  a  terrace  of 
eighty  feet  overlooking  the  lower  town 
and  the  river  below,  whence  you  can  de- 
scry all  that  you  desire  to  see. 

The  governor-general  who  now  resides 
in  this  castle  is  called  M.  C.  Chevalier  de 
Caillieres,  formerly  governor  of  the  city  of 
Montreal,   sixty    leagues    above    Quebec. 




This  gentleman  is   respected  and  beloved  New    York:    T.    and    J.   Swords,    1796, 
both  by  the  French  and  the  Indians,  who  8vo.   16  pp.  ;  of  the    visits    in    1798,  Mr. 

equally  regard  him  as  the  common  father 
of  all  the  inhabitants  of  Canada.  To  him 
we  are  indebted  for  all  the  fortifications  of 
the  country,  which  have  been  erected  by 
his  care.  All  persons  of  distinction  also 
reside  in  the  upper  town.  There  is  a 
bishop  and  canons  whose  chapter  is  com- 
plete. There  is  also  a  fine  seminary  and 
several  churches,  among  which  that  of  the 
Jesuits  and  that  of  the  Recollects  are  the 
first.  This  last  faces  the  castle,  and  is  the 
most  modern  in  the  country.  The  cloister 
of  these  good  fathers  is  lighted  on  all  sides 
with  stained  glass  windows  bearing  the 
arms  of  several  benefactors  of  the  house. 
The  intendant's  office  alone  is  badly  situated 
on  a  low  spot  near  the  little  river. 

The  city,  upper  and  lower,  is  situated 
between  two  considerable  mountains,  one 
higher  than  the  other.  One  is  called  Cap 
au  Diamants,  because  an  extraordinary 
quantity  is  found  on  the  rocks,  which  are 

Hardie  published  an  account  that  I  have 
not  seen;  of  those  in  1799  and  1803,  I 
know  no  accounts  published  at  the  time  ; 
of  that  of  1805,  there  is  "  An  Account  of  the 
Malignant  Fever  which  prevailed  in  the 
city  of  New  York,  during  the  Autumn  of 
1805."  By  James  Hardie.  New  York : 
South  wick  and  Hard  castle,  1805,  8vo. 
196  pp. ;  of  the  last  great  visit  there  is 
"  An  Account  of  the  Yellow  Fever  which 
occurred  in  the  city  of  New  York  in  the 
year  1822,  to  which  is  prefixed  a  brief 
sketch  of  the  different  pestilential  diseases 
with  which  this  city  was  afflicted  in  the 
years  1798,  1799,  1803,  and  1805,"  <fec.,  by 
James  Hardie.  New  York :  Samuel 
Marks,  1822,  12mo.,  120  pp. 

The  reports  of  Dr.  Miller  to  the  governor 
in  1803  and  1805,  contain  accounts  for  those 
years,  but  I  do  not  know  that  they  were 
printed  separately. 

Many   medical    treatises    on    the   fever 

not  surpassed  in  beauty  by  real  diamonds,  appeared  during  these  visitations,  or  after 

and  only  lack  hardness.  The  other  moun 
tain  is  called  Saut  au  Matelot,  so  termed, 
because  during  the  first  times  of  the  esta- 
blishment of  the  French  in  this  colony,  a 
sailor  who  went  too  near  the  brink  went 
down  in  spite  of  himself.  Around  this  last 
mountain  a  little  river  runs  by  the  inten- 
dant's.— JOAbeille. 

Accounts  or  the  Yellow  Fever  in 
New  York. — The  city  of  New  York  was 
several  times  visited  by  this  dreadful 
scourge,  which  had  become  habitual  at 
New  Orleans  till  a  beast  removed  the 
beastly  things  which  engendered  it.  Of 
the  first  visit,  in  Aug.,  Sept.,  and  Oct., 
1791,  there  is  a  dissertation  by  Dr.  J.  S. 
Addom  ;  of  that  of  1 793,  I  know  no  special 
account ;  of  that  of  1795,  there  is  "  A  brief 
Account  of  the  Epidemical  Fever  which  late- 
ly prevailed  in  the  city  of  New  York,"  <fcc., 
by  M.  L.  Davis.  New  York:  1795,  8vo. 
66  pp. ;  and  also,  "  An  Account  of  the 
Epidemic  Fever  which  prevailed  in  the 
city  of  New  York  during  part  of  the  Sum- 
mer and  Fall  of  1795,"  by  Richard  Bayley. 

them,  as  "  Inquiry  into  the  cause  of  the 
prevalence  of  the  Yellow  Fever  in  New 
York,"  by  Dr.  Valentine  Seamen ;  "  Ori- 
gin of  the  Pestilential  Fever,"  by  Dr. 
E.  Smith  ;  "  Manley's  Dissertation  on  the 
Yellow  Fever,"  etc.  A. 

"Sir  Christopher  Gardiner,  Knight 
of  the  Golden  Melice. — Hon.  Robert 
C.  Winthrop,  in  his  remarks  at  a  meeting 
of  the  Massachusetts  Historical  Society,  in 
1858,  was,  I  believe,  the  first  to  suggest 
that  the  "melice,"  which  has  puzzled  so 
many  readers  of  Winthrop's  Journal,  and 
given  occasion  to  much  fanciful  specula- 
tion, was  nothing  more  than  the  Italiati 
milizia,  or  French  miliee,  applicable,  in 
either  language,  to  any  order  of  knight- 
hood. Thus,  the  vocab.  della  crusca,  with 
other  significations  of  milizia,  gives  "  per 
ordine  di  grade  cavalleresco." 

Mr.  Winthrop  does  not,  however,  appear 
to  have  been  aware  that  the  title  assumed 
by  this  English  adventurer  was  literally 
translated  from  the  Italian  "  Cavaliere 
della  milizia  aureata,"  or  the  correspond- 
ing   French,    M  Chevalier    de    la     miliee 




doreef  the  proper  designation  of  a  Papal 
order  formerly  in  high  repute,  and  which 
is  more  popularly  known  as  "  Knights  of 
the  Golden  Spur"  (Cavalieri  dello  Sperone 
d'oro).  The  diploma  of  a  knight  of  this 
order  names  him  "  Auratae  niilitise  equitem, 
ac  Aulae  Lateranensis  et  Palatii  Apostolici 
comitem,"  etc.,  with  permission  to  bear 
"  torquem  aureum,  et  ensem,  et  aurata 
calcaria  (Bonanni,  Catalog o  delli  Ord. 
JEquest.  e  Milit.,  16).  This  honor  was 
conferred  by  the  Pope  in  person  (or  some- 
times by  a  nuncio,  or  prelate  of  the  highest 
Papal  court),  "  on  official  persons,  learned 
men,  artists,  and  other  persons  who  had 
rendered  service  to  the  State,  or  whom  the 
Holy  Father  selected  for  such  distinction, 
and  even  upon  foreigners.  Neither  rank 
nor  station,  but  simply  the  profession  of 
the  Roman  Catholick  Religion,  is  required 
as  a  qualification  to  receive  it"  (Carlisle's 
Orders  of  Knighthood,  p.  292).  Anciently 
this  ranked  first  among  the  Papal  orders 
of  merit,  and  Knights  of  the  Golden  Militia 
took  precedence  of  Knights  of  Malta.  But 
even  in  Sir  Christopher's  time,  the  suspi- 
cion that  the  honor  was  to  be  obtained  for 
money  had  somewhat  depreciated  its 
value  ;  and  now  the  rights  and  privileges  of 
the  knights  are  merely  nominal.  Some 
twenty  years  ago  the  Abbe  Glaire  was 
created  "Chevalier  de  la  Melice  doree" 
by  Gregory  XVI.,  in  recognition  of  his 
services  to  the  Church,  in  the  compilation 
of  the  "Encyclopedic  Catholique." 

It  is  not  probable  that  the  name  of  the 
order  or  its  source  was  known  to  Gov.  Win- 
throp  and  his  fellow-magistrates,  which  was 
well  for  Sir  Christopher's  interests,  perhaps. 
So  patent  evidence  of  his  being  a  favorite 
son  of  Rome  would  hardly  have  been  regard- 
ed as  a  title  of  honor  by  the  good  people  of 
the  Bay,  or  induce  them  to  judge  the 
English  knight  more  leniently  in  the  mat- 
ters whereof  he  was  accused. 

J.    H.  T. 

Hartford,  Conn. 

[There  are,  we  think,  knights  of  this 
order  in  the  United  States  at  present ; 
among  others,  the  Rev.  Charles  Constan- 
tine  Pise,  of  Brooklyn,  well  known  as  a 
poet  and  polished  writer,] 

Semmes  on  Privateering. — The  famous 
captain  of  the  Alabama,  whose  career  has 
been  so  destructive  to  our  shipping  and 
may  prove  so  expensive  to  England,  thus 
discourses  of  privateering  in  his  "  Service 
afloat  and  ashore  :" 

"  General  Salas  made  strenuous  efforts  to 
get  afloat  a  number  of  privateers  which 
should  prey  upon  our  commerce.  If 
Mexico  had  been  a  maritime  people,  this 
would  have  been  her  true  policy,  A  few 
fast-sailing  vessels,  distributed  in  different 
seas,  and  officered  and  manned  by  bold 
fellows  in  the  pursuit  of  plunder,  might 
have  inflicted  incalculable  injury  upon  us. 
This  system  of  predatory  warfare,  more 
than  any  other,  equalizes  the  strength  of 
nations  on  the  wrater.  Fleets  and  heavy- 
armed  ships  are  of  no  avail  against  the 
lighter  heels  and  more  erratic  wanderings 
of  this  description  of  force.  But  Mexico 
had  no  materials  whereon  "to  operate.  To 
render  privateering  available  to  her,  under 
the  laws  of  nations,  it  was  necessary  that 
at  least  a  majority  of  the  officers  and  crew 
of  each  cruiser  should  be  citizens ;  not 
citizens  made  ad  hoc,  in  fraud  of  the  law, 
but  bona  fide  citizens ;  and  any  vessel 
which  might  have  attempted  to  cruise 
under  a  letter  of  marque  and  reprisal,  with- 
out this  essential  requisite,  would  have  be- 
come, from  that  moment,  a  pirate.  As 
Mexico  had  never  possessed  any  marine, 
military  or  commercial,  worth  the  name, 
and  as  what  little  she  had  at  the  commence- 
ment of  the  war  had  been  taken  from  her 
by  our  cruisers,  she  found  it  impossible  to 
fulfil  this  condition,  except  to  a  very  limited 
extent.  President  Salas,  in  order  to  over- 
come the  difficulty,  endeavored,  contrary 
to  the  good  faith  which  should  exist  among 
nations,  even  when  at  war,  and  in  violation 
of  the  plainest  principles  of  common  sense, 
to  manufacture  citizens  for  the  occasion. 
For  this  purpose  he  issued  blank  certificates 
of  naturalization  to  the  Mexican  consuls  at 
Havana  and  other  places,  with  directions 
to  these  officers  to  fill  them  up  with  the 
names  of  any  adventurers  that  might  offer, 
irrespective  of  those  great  principles  so  well 
understood  and  practised  upon  by  all  civil- 
ized  nations,  in  a  procedure  of  such  mo- 




ment Every  foreigner  "who 

might  have  undertaken  to  prey  upon  our 
commerce  would  have  been  deemed  to  be, 
and     would     have    been     treated,    as     a 

pirate There  is  a  growing 

disposition  among  civilized  nations  to  put 
an  end  to  this  disreputable  mode  of  war- 
fare under  any  circumstances.  It  had  its 
origin  in  remote  and  comparatively  bar- 
barous ages,  and  has  for  its  object  rather 
the  plunder  of  the  bandit  than  honorable 
warfare.  The  cruisers  being  private  vessels, 
fitted  out  for  speculation,  and  officered  and 
manned  generally  by  unscrupulous  and  un- 
principled men,  it  is  impossibe  for  the 
government  which  commissions  them  to 
have  them  under  proper  control.  Bonds 
and  penalties,  forfeiture  of  vessel,  etc.,  are 
entirely  powerless  to  restrain  the  passion 
of  cupidity  and  revenge  when  once  fairly 
aroused.  From  the  nature  of  the  materials 
of  which  the  crews  of  these  vessels  are 
composed — the  adventurous  and  desperate 
ot  all  nations — the  shortness  of  their  cruises, 
and  the  demoralizing  pursuit  in  which  they 
are  engaged,  it  is  next  to  impossible  that 
any  discipline  can  be  established  or  main- 
tained among  them.  In  short,  they  are 
little  better  than  licensed  pirates ;  and  it 
behoves  all  civilized  nations,  and  especially , 
nations  who,  like  ourselves,  are  extensively 
engaged  in  foreign  commerce,  to  suppress 
the  practice  altogether." 

Early  Spanish  Missionaries  in  Texas. 
— I  find,  in  a  curious  account,  mention  made 
of  the  following  Texas  missionaries :  Fa- 
ther Jose  del  Rio,  52  years  on  the  mission, 
chiefly  in  Texas  and  Sonora ;  F.  Cayetano 
Aponte  y  Lis  (a  native  of  Pontevedra, 
came  to  America  in  1730,  died  May  25,  | 
1791,  aged  93),  ten  years  in  Texas;  F. 
Esteban  de  Salazar,  a  native  of  Cascajares, 
a  missionary  in  Texas  and  Sonora,  died 
August  6,  1797,  aged  77;  Father  Juan 
Saenz  de  Gumiel,  a  native  of  Mendavia, 
eight  years  in  Texas,  twice  Guardian  of] 
the  College  of  Queretaro,  died  March  11, 
1807,  aged  83 ;  Father  Antonio  Perera 
died  at  Queretaro,  April  16,  1698;  Father 
Antonio  Margil  died  August  6,  1726;  Fa- 
ther Felipe  Guillen,  a  native  of  Piles  in  the 

kingdom  of  Valencia,  came  to  America  in 
1770,  two  years  in  Texas,  killed  by  the  In- 
dians in  Sonora,  April  27,  1778;  Father 
Francis  Casanas  de  Jesus  Maria,  born  at 
Barcelona  in  1656,  entered  the  order  at 
the  age  of  14  ;  was  one  of  the  founders  of 
the  College  of  Queretaro ;  missionary  in 
Campeachy,  Texas,  and  New  Mexico  ;  killed 
by  the  Apaches  in  New  Mexico  in  1696  ; 
Father  Jose  Guadalupe  Ramirez  dePrado, 
born  at  the  mission  de  las  Palmas  in  the 
Sierra  Gorda,  near  Mexico,  27  years  in 
Texas,  died  at  Queretaro,  August  19,  1777, 
aged  72,  having  been  55  years  in  the  order ; 
Father  Juan  Salvador  de  Amaya,  sent  to 
Texas  about  1728,  remained  24  years;  died 
there  November  17,  1752.  J.  de  c. 

Slavery  in-  New  York. — It  is  some- 
what curious  to  find  slavery  recognised  as 
existing  in  New  York,  in  the  ordinances 
revised  in  1845,  and  in  force  till  1859,  yet 
such  is  the  fact ;  and  a  fine  of  $25  imposed 
upon  any  pawn-broker,  dealer  in  second- 
hand articles,  or  keeper  of  a  junk  shop, 
dealing  with  a  slave. 

Michel  Gauvin. — In  his  tour  from 
Hartford  to  Quebec,  Professor  Silliman 
says : — 

"  Our  driver  (to  the  Falls  of  Montmo- 
rency) was  Michel  Gauvin,  a  very  intel- 
ligent and  obliging  young  man,  a  French. 
Canadian,  who  spoke  both  English  and 
French  ;  and  his  horse  (an  iron  grey)  was 
one  of  that  small  but  hardy  breed  which, 
being  in  this  country  left  in  their  natural 
state,  are  extremely  stout  and  courageous, 
and  carry  the  heavy  calash  and  three  men 
apparently  with  more  ease  than  our  horses 
draw  our  chaises  and  two  grown  per- 

Mr.  Michel  Gauvin,  who  is  now  ad- 
vanced in  age,  is  one  of  the  most  respect- 
able citizens  of  Quebec.  He  has  fully  re- 
alized the  good  prognostics  of  the  worthy 
professor,  has  been  at  the  head  of  a  large 
livery  stable  for  many  years,  and  is  still 
one  of  the  proprietors  of  the  winter  stage 
line  between  Quebec  and  Montreal,  on 
the  north   shore,  a  concern  which  is  not, 




however,  so  flourishing  since  the  opening 
of  the  railroad  on  the  north  shore. 

p.  c. 


Brothers-german — Capt.  John  Camp- 
bell petitions  for  a  grant  of  land  for  his 
"  brothers-german,"  Archibald  and  Alexan- 
der Campbell.  I  do  not  find  the  word  in 
Webster's  Dictionary.  Is  it  synonymous 
with  step-brother  ?  o'c. 

Pater  Vaer. — A  suit  was  brought  in 
the  court  at  New  Amsterdam  in  1646  by 
Pater  Vaer  for  the  possession  of  a  negro 
wench  he  had  purchased  from  one  John 
Wilcox.  The  judgment  of  the  court  was 
that  Wilcox  should  satisfy  the  Swedish 
Governor  and  Pater  Vaer.  In  what  sense 
is  Pater  used  here,  and  who  was  he  ?     o'c. 

Webster  and  Smith's  Journal  of  the 
Voyage  of  the  Hankey. — In  1796  or 
thereabout,  Noah  Webster  and  Dr.  E.  H. 
Smith  published  at  New  York  a  journal  of 
the  voyage  of  the  ship  Hankey  from  Bu- 
lam  to  Grenada.  Where  can  a  copy  be 
found  ?  s. 

the  City  of  New  York  (ed.  1845,  p.  342, 
ed.  1859,  p.  330),  I  find  this  word  in  this 
phrase  :  No  person  shall  cast  any  anchor, 
grappling  or  killick  (ed.  1859,  killock)  into 
or  near  any  of  the  docks,  &c.  What  does 
it  mean,  and  what  is  its  origin  ? 

Henry  Francisco. — In  his  interesting 
tour  from  Hartford  to  Quebec  (New 
Haven,  1820),  Professor  Silliman  has  a 
chapter  under  the  title  the  "  Old  Man  of 
the  age  of  Louis  XIV." 

When  did  Henry  Francisco,  the  person 
referred  to,  die  ?  Where,  and  in  what 
manner  ? 

When  Professor  Silliman  saw  him  on 
the  Salem  road,  two  miles  from  White- 
hall, he  was  said  to  be  134  years  of  age, 
and  said  he  was  born  in  France,  in  a  place 
which  he  pronounced  something  like  Essex. 

Was  Francisco  (which  is  not  a  French 
name)  his  real  name  ?  Was  it  not  rather  a 
nick-name  from  his  being  French  ? 

In  that  case,  what  was  his  real  name, 
and  where  and  when  was  he  really  born  ? 

Horseheads. — This  is  the  name  of  a 
new  town,  erected  in  Chemung  county  in 
1854.  Can  any  of  the  readers  of  the  Hist. 
Mag.  explain  its  origin  ? 

Thariolin. — The  last  Huron  of  pure 
blood  at  the  mission  of  Lorette,  near  Que- 
bec, bore  the  name  of  Thariolin.  His 
portrait  was  painted  about  1840  by  Pla- 
mondon.  Can  any  reader  inform  us  where 
it  is  preserved  ? 

Barbastro's  Account  of  Sonora. — 
The  Franciscan  Father,  Francis  Antonio 
Barbastro,  who  was  one  of  the  first  Fran- 
ciscans in  Sonora  after  the  expulsion  of  the 
Jesuits,  and  who  died  June  22,  1800,  at 
Aconchi,  among  the  Opatas,  left  a  history 
of  Sonora.     Does  it  still  exist  ? 

Introduction  of  the  Honey  Bee. — 
When  and  by  whom  was  the  first  colony 
of  honey  bees  introduced  into  North  Ame- 

They  evidently  were  cultivated  in  New 
Jersey  as  early  as  the  year  1683  (vide 
Hist.  Mag.,  vol.  vi.,  page  268)  ;  and,  ac- 
cording to  Peter  Kalm,  in  1748,  they  had 
become  wild  in  Pennsylvania,  but  had  not 
then  extended  their  flights  westward  be- 
yond the  Blue  Ridge,  which  is  the  eastern 
range  of  the  Alleghanies. —  Vid.  Halm's 
Travels,  vol.  i.,  page  22 6. 


Cleveland,  O.,  January  8, 1864. 

Killick-Killock. — In  the  Ordinances  of 

Doctor  Cowpry's  Journal. — A  diary 
kept  by  Dr.  Cowdry,  Surgeon  of  the  U.  S. 
frigate  Philadelphia  during  the  captivity 
and  enslavement  of  her  officers  and  crew 
by  the  Tripolitans,  from  October  21st, 
1803,  to  June  3d,  1805,  was  published  in 
a  series  of  numbers  in  the  American  Mer- 
cury, at  Hartford,  Ct.,  in  the  autumn  of 
the  last-named  vear. 



Was  it  subsequently  republished  in  a 
more  permanent  form,  and  has  it  been 
preserved  ? 


Cleveland,  O.,  January  8th,  1864 

Authors  of  Whim  Whams. — In  1828, 
a  collection  of  sketches  in  prose  and  poetry 
was  published  under  the  following  title  : — 
"  Whim  Whams.     By  Four  of  Us." 

•  So  prolyficke  is  our  penne 
Ye'll  think  therre  be  a  score  of  us  ; 
But,  on  ye  wordes  oi*  gentilmenne, 
Therre  be  only  Four  of  Us. 

"We'll  make  ye  smyle,  or  make  ye  sighe, 
Thenne,  what  can  ye  want  more  of  us? 
Ye  can't  doe  better  than  to  buye 
This  littell  Boke,  by  Four  of  Us. 

Madrigals  of  Ancient  Mynstrelsie. — 
Boston :  Published  by  S.  G.  Goodrich, 
1828.  18mo.  pp.  204.  I  would  like  to 
ascertain  the  names  of  the  authors  or 
author  of  this  volume. 

About  the  same  time  that  this  book  ap- 
peared, a  volume  of  about  the  same  size, 
and,  if  I  recollect  aright,  of  a  similar  cha- 
racter, was  published  by  Bowles  and  Dear- 
born, of  Boston,  under  the  title  of 
u  Ps  and  Qs."  This  latter  work  is  said,  in 
the  Booh  of  the  Zockes,  p  114,  to  have 
been  the  joint  production  of  Charles  H. 
Locke,  Joseph  H.  Buckingham,  Edwin 
Buckingham,  and  Siles  P.  Holbrook.  All 
of  these  gentlemen,  except  the  second,  are 
now  dead,  I  think. 


any  of 

op  the  Northern  Whig. — Can 
your  correspondents  inform  me 
whether  a  file  of  the  "Northern  Whig," 
or  any  other  paper  published  in  Hudson, 
N".  Y.,  during  the  year  1814,  is  in  existence, 
and  if  so,  where  can  it  be  found?  The 
knowledge  of  this  is  of  great  importance  to 
the  querist ;  and  he  would  be  much  oblig- 
ed for  any  communication  throwing  light 
upon  this  question.  w.  l.  s. 

tion  of  this  little  work?  I  have  one  pub- 
lished at  Newark  in  1826,  by  Benjamin 
Olds,  and  have  seen  a  later  one  printed  at 
Brooklyn,  but  desire  an  exact  description 
of  the  first  edition  or  account. 

Curious  Hexameters  (vol.  v.  p.  188). 
— The  translation  seems  to  be  by  supply- 
ing est  in  some  places  and  quod  in  one. 
What  was  to  be  is  what  is ;  what  was  not 
to  be,  is  what  is  to  be ;  to  be,  what  is  not 
to  be  ;  what  is,  is  not  to  be  what  shall  be. 

The  Wonderful  History  of  the 
Morristown  Ghost. — Can  any  one  give 
a  bibliographical  account  of  the  first  edi- 

Peck  on  Universalis^:  (vol.  vii.  p. 
380). — We  cannot  give  X.  Y.  Z.  any  in- 
formation concerning  the  author,  but  the 
title  of  his  work  is  as  follows : 

"A  Short  Poem  containing  a  Descant 
on  the  Universal  Plan,"  etc.  Second  edi- 
tion. Keene,  N.  H.  Printed  by  John 
Prentiss,   1802. 

Also,  third  edition:  And  over,  N".  H.  : 
Printed  by  E.  Chase,  1820. 

Also,  Boston.  Printed  for  Nathl.  Cov- 
erley,  1818. 

It  is  intended  as  a  satire  on  the  doctrine 
of  Universal  Salvation,  and  the  following 
extract  will  give  an  idea  of  the  style  of  the 
author : 

"  Huzzah  I  brave  boys — loud  be  our  joys, 
Your  sins  shall  be  forgiven  ; 
O  skip  and  sing,  our  God  and  King 
Will  bring  us  all  to  heaven. 

0  charming  news  to  live  in  sin, 
And  die  to  reign  with  Paul ; 

'Tis  so,  indeed,  for  Jesus  bled 
To  save  the  devil  and  all." 

B.    S. 

Kentaienton  (vii.  p.  380).— Will  P. 
show  from  what  book  he  makes  his  query  ? 
There  is  no  place  in  Ohio  having  any  such 
name,  but  the  context  may  show  where  it 



Butternuts  (vii.  122,  197.) — The  expla- 
nation on  page  122  is  correct  as  to  the  ap- 
plication of  the  name,  but  wrong  as  to  the 




reason.  Household  manufactures  have 
been  preserved  at  the  South  to  a  much 
greater  extent  than  at  the  North,  and  hence 
the  source  of  supply  for  clothing.  The 
bark  of  the  black  walnut  tree,  but  more 
generally  the  hulls  of  the  nuts,  are  used  for 
coloring  brown  ;  the  butternut  is  not 
much  used  ;  for  making  a  yellow  color 
the  bark  of  the  hickory  is  used. 

In  1822,  when  it  was  still  a  common 
thing  for  farmers  and  country  laborers  to 
go  down  to  New  Orleans  in  flat-boats  with 
their  own  crops,  or  on  a  trading  voyage,  it 
was  easy  to  tell  from  what  State  the  boatmen 
came,  by  the  color  of  their  linsey.  Ohio 
was  blue  and  white ;  Kentucky,  blue  mixed 
with  black  and  white,  and  twilled ;  Indi- 
ana was  yellow  ;  Illinois  and  Missouri 
were  not  so  much  known. 

When  the  Northern  soldiers  saw  the 
brown  color  of  the  Confederate  dress, 
they  supposed  that  it  was  butternut,  and 
so  called  them.  j.  h.  j. 

LFkbana,  Ohio,  Jan.  25, 1864. 

is  not  exactly  a  term  of  endearment,  though 
that  feeling  may  sometimes  enter  into  it. 
The  term  denotes  power,  trustiness,  and 
something  more.  Of  a  man  who  is  vigor- 
ous and  efficient,  it  will  be  said  :  "  He's  a 
hoss" — "  he\s  all  hoss."  It  enters  also  into 
the  common  phrase  of  the  Mississippi  Boat- 
men in  old  time  :  "  half  horse,  half  alliga- 
tor:'' j.  h.  j. 

Ukbana,  Ohio,  Jan.  23, 1864. 


"Jo  Daviess"  (viii.  p.  38). — In  Decem- 
ber, 1831,  I  was  at  Baltimore,  as  a  member 
of  the  Clay  Convention,  and  sitting  with 
Col.  Samuel  W.  Davies,  who  was  a  delegate 
from  Cincinnati,  he  told  me  this  :  That  the 
first  time  he  ever  went  to  New  York,  and 
the  Eastern  cities  (I  think  he  said  Philadel- 
phia), he  was  sitting  alone  in  his  room  at 
the  Hotel ;  a  man  entered  his  room  and  said, 
"  You  spell  your  name  Davies  ?"  "  Yres, 
that  is  the  way  my  father  always  spelled  it, 
and  I  follow  him."  "  By  God,  I  almost 
knew  that  I  was  wrong.  I  was  sure  that  it 
ought  to  have  an  e  in  it,  but  I  have  got  it 
wrong."  This  was  Joseph  Hamilton  Da- 
viess ;  this  was  the  beginning  of  an  acquaint- 
ance between  them  which  continued  during 
the  life  of  that  eccentric  genius,      j.  h.  j. 

Ukbana,  Ohio,  Jan.  1864. 

"Old  Hoss"  (vii.  p.  98).— J.  F.  J. 
asks  if  this  word  is  really*  a  corruption  of 
the  word  horse.  The  pronunciation  was 
very  common  at  the  South,  and  was  and 
is  still  preserved  in  the  epithet  "  Old 
Hoss,"  which  may  have  been  applied  to 
Washington,  but  not  to  him  peculiarly.     It 

Patrons  of  Literary  Enterprises  in 
New  York,  etc.,  about  One  Hundred 
Years  ago. — The  return  of  Captain  James 
Cook  from  his  first  famous  voyage  of  dis- 
covery, in  1771,  caused  as  great  a  stir 
among  the  curious  as  almost  any  event 
since  the  return  of  Sir  Francis  Drake  from 
his  voyage  of  circumnavigation.  The 
whole  world  was  impatient  to  learn  the 
events  of  the  great  expedition,  and  means 
were. at  once  taken  to  gratify  so  laudable  a 
curiosity.  In  Colonial  America  there  was 
quite  as  much  anxiety  to  learn  the  details 
of  the  great  voyage  as  in  the  mother  coun- 
try, and  we  might  venture  to  say  even 
more.  It  was  very  important  that  a  man 
qualified  should  be  employed  to  draw  up 
the  account.  Dr.  John  Hawkesworth  was 
then  enjoying  considerable  literary  reputa- 
tion ;  from  making  watches  he  turned  his 
attention  to  study,  and  soon  acquired  an 
extensive  reputation  by  the  "  Adventurer," 
and  Archbishop  Herring  had  conferred  on 
him  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Laws.  He 
was  applied  to  to  write  the  history  of  the 
voyage,  and  he  undertook  it  for  the  snug 
sum  of  six  thousand  pounds.  We  think  it 
was  a  snug  sum,  because  he  had  every  aid 
from  the  well-kept  journal  of  Captain  Cook, 
with  the  help  of  the  papers  of  the  learned 
Joseph  Banks,  afterwards  Sir  Joseph 
Banks,  F.R.S. 

How  well  Dr.  Hawkesworth   executed 




his  task  does  not  come  within  the  scope  of 
this  paper  to  consider ;  but  our  impression 
is,  that  it  did  not  come  fully  up  to  what 
was  expected  ;  and  that  after  a  lew  years 
it  found  but  few  readers.  However,  it 
was  full  and  minute,  and  that  was  what 
was  at  tirst  desired.  Therefore,  no  sooner 
had  a  copy  of  Dr.  Ha wkes worth's  two 
ponderous  quartos  reached  the  hands  of 
the  well-known  publisher,  James  Rivington, 
than  he  made  preparations  for  reissuing 
the  work  in  New  York.  Mr.  Rivington 
at  once  issued  his  proposals  to  print  the 
work  by  subscription,  in  two  moderate 
sized  octavos.  A  copy  of  his  edition  is 
now  before  us,  as  evidence  that  he  carried 
out  his  intention.  There  is  further  evi- 
dence that  Mr.  Rivington  was  pretty  well 
patronized  in  the  undertaking,  for  his  list 
of  patrons'  names,  published  immediately 
after  the  title-page,  occupies  seventeen 
pages.  This  brings  us  to  the  main  object 
of  this  paper,  which  was  to  say  something 
upon  the  patronage  of  literary  enterprises 
about  one  hundred  years  ago. 

The  imprint  of  Rivington's  edition  is 
simply  "New  York:  Printed  by  James 
Rivington,  1774."  The  first  four  pages  of 
subscribers'  names  are  taken  up  with  those 
■  living  in  the  city  and  vicinities  of  New 
York,  and  in  New  Jersey."  This  part  of 
the  list  is  of  great  historical  interest,  as 
indeed  are  the  names  on  all  the  seventeen 
pages  ;  but  to  an  old  resident  of  New  York, 
those  at  the  commencement  of  the  list  must 
be  peculiarly  so.  Some  one  might  do  good 
service  by  preparing  notices  of  them  for 
the  Historical  Magazine.  There  are  one 
hundred  and  fifty-six  names  on  the  four 
pages,  a  few  of  which  follow  : — "  The  Rev 
Myles  Cooper,  LL.D.,  President  of  King's 
College ;  Capt.  Anthony  Rutgers,  Isaac 
Ogden,  Esq.,  of  New-Ark ;  the  Honourable 
Charles  Apthorpe,  Esq.,  Mr.  Richard 
Deane,  Capt.  John  Montresor,  Mr.  Peter 
Keteltas,  Capt.  Cornelius  Haight,  Mr. 
Theophilact  Bache,  Mr.  Samuel  Verplank, 
Mr.  Nicholas  Hoffman,  Mr.  Jacobus  Van 
Zandt,  Rev.  Charles  Inglis,  Dr.  Mitchell, 
of  his  Majesty's  Hospital ;  James  Delancy, 
Esq.,  Mr.  Bernard  Romans,  Mr.  John 
Andrew  Johnston,  of  Perth  Amboy ;  Mr. 

HIST.    MAG.       VOL.    VIII.  10 

William  Smith,  printer  ;  Mr.  John  Serjeant, 
of  Stockbridge ;  Mr.  James  Havens,  of 
Shelter  Island ;  Capt.  John  Freebody,  of 
Rhode  Island  ;  John  Livingston,  Esq.,  the 
Rev.  T.  B.  Chandler,  D.D.,  Mr.  Okey 
Hoogland,  of  Bordenton ;  Mr.  Benjamin 
Ledyard,  Mr.  Francis  Allison,  Practitioner 
of  Physick  in  New  London ;  Dr.  John 
Sparhawk,  of  Philadelphia ;  Lindley  Mur- 
ray, Esq.,  the  Rev.  John  Ogilvie,  D.D., 
Capt.  Alexander  Grant,  commanding  his 
Majesty's  vessels  on  the  great  Lakes ;  John 
Tabor  Kemp,  Esq.,  his  Majesty's  Attorney 
General  for  the  Province  of  New  York ; 
Ensign  John  Blennerhassett,  of  his  Majes- 
ty's 10th  Regiment ;  Dr.  James  Mont- 
gomery, Surgeon  to  ditto ;  Mr.  Commissary 
McLean,  at  Niagara;  Mr.  Ephraim  Van 
Veghton,  of  Albany;  Mr.  Alexander 
Fraser,  of  Niagara ;  Mr.  John  Stedman, 
of  ditto ;  Mr.  Philip  Stedman,  of  ditto ; 
Elisha  [Elias?]  Boudinot,  Esq.,  of  New 
York ;  Jacob  Le  Roy,  Esq.,  John  Foxcroft, 
Esq.,  his  Majesty's  Post  Master  General ; 
Col.  Cleveland,  commanding  his  Majesty's 
Royal  Artillery  in  North  America ;  Abra- 
ham Ogden,  Esq.,  of  Morristown ;  the 
Hon.  William  Axtell,  Esq.,  Mr.  Vivian 
Davenport,  Mr.  Abraham  Beekman,  the 
Right  Hon.  the  Earl  of  Sterling,  Dr. 
Ogden,  of  Long  Island  ;  Mr.  Henry  Cuyler, 
Col.  Barnard,  commanding  the  Royal 
Regiment  of  Welch  Fusileers ;  Mr.  Thomas 
Udall,  of  Islip  ;  Nicholas  Gouverneur,  Esq., 
at  Mount  Pleasant,  New  Jersey ;  Hector 
St.  John,  Esq.,  of  Orange  County ;  Richard 
Washington,  Esq."  These  are  all  we  have 
space  for.  Of  course  many  passed  over 
have  as  good  claim  for  notice  as  these. 
Those  will,  doubtless,  at  some  time  receive 
due  attention. 

We  next  have  "List  of  Subscribers' 
Names  at  Philadelphia  and  its  Vicinities," 
occupying  two  pages.  Then  "Names  at 
Newbern,  North  Carolina,"  in  number 
fifty-seven.  This  list  looks  much  like  one 
made  up  at  random  in  N.  C.  a  few  years 
past.  Then  comes  a  long  list  of  four  pages 
"from  Kingston,  in  Jamaica."  Then  a 
short  list  "  from  Westmoreland,  in  Savan- 
nah Le  Mar,  in  Jamaica."  Next  a  list  "  at 
Antigua,"  of  about  thirty.    A  small  list  of 




five  from  Pensacola.  Then  a  list  "  in  Bos- 
ton, in  the  Province  of  Massachusetts,  and 
its  Vicinities."  It  would,  doubtless,  gratify 
many  if  we  could  give  the  list  entire,  but 
we  can  only  say  it  consists  of  forty-two 
names,  the  first  of  which  is  "  Honoura- 
ble John  Adams,  Esq."  We  see,  also,  Mr. 
Lewis  Deblois,  Tristram  Dalton,  Esq.,  of 
Newbury  Port ;  William  Tudor,  Esq., 
Captain  Jabez  Hatch,  Mr.  William  Bur- 
beck,  Col.  John  Erving,  Col.  Phips,  Cam- 
bridge ;  William  Witmore,  Esq.,  Salem ; 
Rev.  Aaron  Whitney,  Northfield  ;  Josiah 
Quincy,  Esq.,  Braintree ;  Rev.  Zabdiel 
Adams,  Lunenburg;  Hon.  James  Hum- 
phreys, Esq.,  Weymouth;  Mr.  Nathaniel 

Among  the  Connecticut  subscribers  we 
notice  the  names  of  Silas  Deane,  Esq.,  of 
Weathersfield ;  Christopher  Leflingwell, 
Esq.,  of  Norwich ;  and  the  Rev.  Simon 
Waterman,  of  Wallingford. 

"  At  Quebec"  there  was  a  goodly  num- 
ber of  patrons,  as  also  uin  the  Great  Nine 
Partners."  On  the  seventeenth  and  last 
page  of  the  subscribers  is  a  list  "  at 
Dominica,"  among  which  are  some  well- 
known  surnames,  as  Tench,  Tyson,  Bernard, 
Cameron,  Fowle,  and  Wentworth.  The 
"  Rev.  Mr.  Zubly  lived  then  in  Savannah, 
Ga.  He  subscribed  for  '  six  sets.'  "  "  Mr. 
John  Anderson,  Printer,  New  York,"  and 
"  Mr.  Thomas  Updike  Fosdick,"  close  the 
list.  It  may  be  difficult  for  readers  in 
general  to  locate  the  "  Great  Nine  Part 
ners,"  as  modern  Gazetteers  do  not  men- 
tion such  a  place.  It  was  in  the  Province 
of  New  York,  adjacent  to  Connecticut, 
extending  to  the  Hudson  river,  in  which 
were  afterwards  the  towns  of  Amenia, 
Clinton,  Stanford,  and  Washington. 

Nothing  has  been  said  about  the  sub- 
scribers in  several  places.  It  may  be  well 
to  remark  that  the  list  of  Philadelphians  is 
quite  respectable,  and  would  probably  con- 
siderably out-number  the  present  list  of 
subscribers  to  the  Historical  Magazine. 
The  first  name  is  that  of  "  His  Excellency 
William  Franklin,  Esq.,  Governour  of  New 
Jersey."  The  next  is  "  the  Honourable 
James  Hamilton,  Esq.,"  then  "  Joseph  Gal- 
loway, Esq.,  Speaker  of  the  Honourable 

House  of  Assembly."  Oddly  enough  we 
find  among  the  "  Kingston,  Jamaica"  names, 
"  Benjamin  Franklin,  Esq." 

In  this  connection  we  will  inquire  what 
is  the  earliest  work  published  in  this  coun- 
try containing  a  list  of  its  patrons  ?       G. 

Soxiriies  an&  iljttr  f  imtop. 


Chicago  Historical  Society. — January  19, 
1864,  the  regular  monthly  meeting  was  held, 
the  President,  W.  L.  Newberry,  Eq.,  in  the 

The  additions  to  the  Library  for  the  past  two 
months  (2,289,  of  which  206  were  bound  books) 
included  extensive  publications  from  Rev.  Joseph 
Allen,  D.D,,  of  Massachusetts,  from  Mr.  Consul 
Eastman,  of  Bristol,  England,  in  behalf  of  mem- 
bers of  the  Society  of  Friends,  in  Great  Britain, 
embracing  comprehensive  serials  and  pamphlets 
of  religion,  benevolence,  and  reform ;  and  nume- 
rous other  sources. 

To  the  cabinet,  among  others,  were  contributed 
a  piece  of  canvass,  believed  to  be  a  relic  of  the  dis- 
astrous expedition  of  Sir  John  Franklin,  brought 
by  Mr.  R.  Kennicott,  from  a  scientific  tour  in 
the  extreme  North.  Mr.  J.  A.  McAlister  obli- 
gingly presented  a  copy  of  the  print  entitled 
"Congressional  Pugilists,"  Philadelphia,  1798. 
Mr.  Consul  Eastman  forwarded  specimens  of  sea- 
weeds from  "  Bristol  Channel,"  and  a  beautiful 
piece  of  carved  wood  from  the  "  Screen"  sepa- 
rating the  choir  and  the  chancel  of  the  parish 
church  in  Wrington,  Somerset,  England,  where 
Hannah  More  worshipped — believed  to  be  500 
years  old. 

Files  of  the  "  Deseret  News,"  vol.  2  to  12th 
inclusive,  bound,  were  received  from  Great  Salt 
Lake  City  ;  also  the  Mormon  Bible,  first  edition, 
Palmyra,  1830. 

The  correspondence  for  two  months  (49  let- 
ters received,  and  128  written)  was  submitted. 
Mr.  A.  J.  Hill,  U.  S.  A.,  announced  his  intended 
publication  of  an  exclusively  "  aboriginal"  map 
of  Minnesota,  designating  mounds,  Indian  vil- 
lages, trails,  &c,  with  a  complete  restoration  (as 
far  as  possible)  of  aboriginal  names  of  localities, 

W.  H.  Smith,  Esq.,  of  Nashville,  Tenn.,  for- 
warded for  the  Society's  collections,  two  origi- 
nal letters  of  Andrew  Jackson ;  in  one  of  which 




the  writer  freely  expressed  (in  1845)  his  impres- 
sions of  a  late  President  of  the  United  States. 

A  letter  was  read  asking  aid  to  an  intended 
i  history  of  the  "  Kankakee  Valley,"  in  Illinois. 

Hon.  H.  S.  Baird,  of  Green  Bay,  presented  to 
the  Society  manuscript  copies  of  two  papers  pre- 
pared by  him,  one  on  the  Settlement  of  Green 
Bay,  the  other  on  the  North  American  Indians. 

A  monograph  on  the  u  Siege  and  Capture  of 
Island  No.  10,"  prepared  by  Mr.  G.  P.  Upton, 
an  eye-witness,  was  obligingly  presented  by  that 
gentleman.  It  gives  a  complete  view  of  the 
principal  operations  resulting  in  the  reduction  of 
that  formidable  post. 

The  Hon.  J.  B.  French,  of  Lowell,  Mass.,  for- 
warded the  annual  report  for  1863,  of  the  month- 
ly and  yearly  rain-fall  at  Laconia,  at  the  outlet 
of  Lake  Winnipiseogee,  N.  H.,  also  at  Lake  Vil- 
lage, four  miles  south,  on  the  s  me  stream. 
The  yearly  aggregate  was  at  the  former  52.35 
inches ;  at  the  latter,  48.31  inches.  (Blodgett 
gives  the  mean  annual  rain-fall  at  Chicago,  at  30 

The  Treasurer's  report  for  the  last  year  sub- 
mitted, exhibited  a  total  expenditure  for  the 
year  of  $1,363.94,  leaving  a  balance  in  hand  of 
$172.61.  Outstanding  indebtedness  would  pro- 
bably be  met  by  the  balance  in  the  treasury  and 
the  collection  of  unreceived  dues. 

The  Society's  "  Investment  Fund,"  recently 
commence  1,  now  amounts  to  $1,800. 

George  F.  Eumsey,  Esq.,  was  elected  Trea- 


Boston  Numismatic  Society. — Boston,  Mass., 
January  7. — The  annual  meeting  of  this  Society 
was  held  on  Thursday,  and  was  very  well  attend- 
ed. Several  donations  were  received,  and  the 
annual  reports  of  the  officers  were  presented. 
The  Treasurers  report  showed  a  balance  of 
money  to  the  credit  of  the  Society,  and  the  Cura- 
tor stated  the  number  of  coins  and  medals  to 
be  about  one  thousand,  among  which  are  seve- 
ral rare   pieces.  A  committee  was  appointed  to 

present  a  list  of  officers  for  the  present  year ;  |  paid  the  ordinary  expenses,  leaving  the 
they  reported  the  former  board  for  re-election,  '  entirely  free  from  debt,   and  a  balance  in  the 
which  was  the  pleasure  of  the  Society.     The  offi-  treasury  of  $45.25.     The  permanent  funds  dur- 

knovvn ;  a  half-dime  of  1802,  one  of  five,  the 
whole  number  believed  to  exist  at  present,  or 
rather  known  to  collectors  to  exist,  and  a  New 
York  copper  of  1787,  with  the  head  of  George 
Clinton,  which  is  by  far  the  finest  of  the  half- 
dozen  known.  The  collection  also  contained 
other  rare  varieties  of  New  York  coppers,  unu- 
sually perfect  specimens  of  early  dimes,  and  rare 
patterns  prepared  at  the  U.  S.  Mint,  but  never 
adopted  for  the  coinage.  Mr.  Seavey  also  show- 
ed the  two  half-eagles  by  the  acquisition  of  which 
he  had  completed  his  series  of  the  issues  of  gold 
of  the  United  States.  Other  gentlemen  exhibit- 
ed coins  of  less  value  and  interest.  The  meeting 
was  an  unusually  pleasant  and  successful  one. 

Dorchester  Antiquarian  and  Historical 
Society. — Dorchester,  Jan.  22. — At  the  twenty- 
second  annual  meeting  of  this  Society,  on  Friday, 
officers  were  elected  as  follows : 

President — Edmund  P.  Tileston.  Curators — 
Edmund  J".  Baker,  Charles  M.  S.  Churchill,  Sam- 
uel Blake.  Corresponding  Secretary — Ebenezer 
Clapp.  Librarian — Edward  Holden.  Assistant 
Librarian — Samuel  Blake.  ChronoJogist — Na- 
thaniel W.  Tileston.  In  the  increase  of  the  library 
and  cabinet  and  in  finances,  the  Society  was 
shown  to  be  in  good  condition. 

New  England  Historic  Genealogical  Socie^ 
ty. — Boston,  Jan.  6. — The  annual  meeting  was 
held  at  three  o'clock  this  afternoon,  at  the  So- 
ciety's rooms,  No.  13  Bromfield-street,  President 
Lewis  in  the  chair. 

The  report  of  the  Corresponding  Secretary 
showed  that  since  the  last  meeting  letters  accepts 
ing  membership  had  been  received  from  Charles 
O.  Whitmore,  of  Boston,  D.  P.  Corey,  of  Mai- 
den, Augustus  Thorndike  Perkins,  of  Boston,  as 
resident  members ;  and  Hon.  Win.  M.  "Wilson,  of 
Greenville,  Ohio,  Buckingham  Smith,  of  New 
York,  as  corresponding  members. 

The  report  of  the  Librarian  showed  that  since 
the  last  annual  meeting  there  had  been  received 
327  volumes,  1192  pamphlets,  and  44  manu- 
scripts, maps,  and  charts. 

The  report  of  the  Treasurer  showed  that 
during  the  past  year  the  ordinary  receipts  have 


cers  are  therefore  as  follows :  President — Dr. 
Winslow  Lewis.  Vice-President  and  Curator — 
Jeremiah  Colburn.  Treasurer — Henry  Daven- 
port.    Secretary — Wm.  S.  Appleton. 

Mr.  Seavey  exhibited  a  sma'l  parcel  of  very 
choice  and  valuable  American  c  >ins.  Among 
them  were   a   silver  dollar  of  1794,  the  finest 

ing  the  same  period  have  been  increased  $2500, 
all  of  which  has  been  or  may  properly  be  placed 
in  the  hands  of  trustees,  and  the  income  thereof 
only  annually  expended. 

The  Committee  on  Lectures  and  Essays  re- 
ported that  there  had  been  fourteen  papers  read 
before  the  Society  at  its  monthly  meetings  dur- 




ing  the  past  year,  seven  of  which  have  been 
published,  and  most  of  the  others  will  soon  ap- 
pear in  print,  all  of  which  were  read  by  members 
of  the  Society. 

The  Committee  on  Life  Memberships  reported 
that  thirty-four  life  members  have  been  added 
during  the  past  year,  and  proposed  that  the 
proceeds  thereof  be  made  a  permanent  fund,  the 
principal  and  interest  and  any  additions  to  be 
devoted  to  procuring  a  permanent  location  for 
the  Society. 

The  Trustees  of  the  Bond  Fund  reported  that 
the  property  remained  much  the  same  as  last 

The  Trustees  of  the  Barstow  Fund  reported 
that  the  Society  during  the  past  year  had  again 
been  indebted  to  the  liberality  of  John  Barstow, 
Vice-President  of  this  Society  for  Rhode  Island, 
for  a  donation  of  five  hundred  dollars.  The 
prudence  and  foresight  of  the  donor  have  been 
such  that  no  change  in  the  investments  has  been 
made.  With  the  income  of  this  fund,  which  is 
devoted  to  the  preservation  of  the  library,  150 
volumes  have  been  bound  during  the  past  year, 
a  fact  of  real  value  to  the  society,  and  there  is 
now  a  balance  unappropriated  of  $21.81. 

The  committee  appointed  to  prepare  biogra- 
phies of  deceased  members  reported  that  the 
work  was  progressing  favorably,  and  that  in  the 
course  of  the  present  year  the  society  would 
probably  have  within  its  archives  properly  pre- 
pared memoirs  of  all  or  nearly  all  its  deceased 

The  report  of  the  Historiographer  showed 
that  during  the  past  year  there  had  deceased 
fifteen  members  of  the  society ;  of  these  the 
memoirs  of  fourteen  had  been  read  before  the 

The  report  of  the  Finance  Committee  showed 
the  society  free  from  debt  and  its  finance,  in  a 
flourishing  condition. 

A  donation  of  $1000  was  received  from 
William  B.  Towne,  of  Brookline.  Whereupon 
the  following  resolutions  were  adopted : — 

Resolved,  That  the  thanks  of  this  Society  be 
tendered  to  Wm.  B.  Towne,  Esq.,  for  his  liberal 
donation  of  one  thousand  dollars,  and  that  in 
accordance  with  his  request  this  money  be 

Resolved,  That  this  fund  be  called  the  Towne 
Memorial  Fund,  and  that  the  proceeds  be  applied 
in  the  manner  suggested  by  the  donor.  The 
Trustees  of  the  Barstow  Fund  were  made  Trus- 
tees of  this  fund. 

Appropriate  resolutions  were  offered  by  Fre- 
deric Kidder,  and  adopted  by  the  society,  to  the 
memory  of  the  late  Lieut.-Governor  H.  W. 
Cushman,  of  Bernardston,  who  it  is  understood 

has  made  a  bequest  of  his  library  an<J  the  balance 
of  the  edition  of  the  Cushman  Genealogy  to  the 

On  motion  of  Mr.  Whitmore,  it  was  voted 
that  a  committee  of  five  be  appointed  by  the 
Chair,  with  full  power  to  solicit,  in  the  name  and 
in  behalf  of  the  Society,  information  in  regard 
to  the  early  settlers  of  New  England,  to  arrange 
and  preserve  such  information,  and  to  mature  a 
plaa  for  its  publication  by  the  Society ;  also, 
that  the  committee  be  empowered  to  fill  all 
vacancies  and  to  elect  additional  members. 

Wm.  H.  Whitmore,  Wm.  B.  Trask,  Rev.  F. 
A.  Whitney,  Abner  C.  Goodell,  and  John  W. 
Dean,  were  appointed  a  committee  by  the  Chair 
for  that  purpose. 

The  President,  Dr.  Lewis,  then  delivered  an 
elaborate  and  very  interesting  address,  which 
will  probably  be  published. 

The  following  officers  were   elected  for  the 

ensuing  year: — 

President — Winslow  Lewis, 


,,..,,.,,  M.D.,  of 
Boston.  Vice-Presidents — Massachusetts,  Rev. 
Martin  Moore,  A.M.,  of  Boston ;  Maine,  Hon. 
John  Appleton,  A.M.,  of  Bangor;  New  Hamp- 
shire, Hon.  Samuel  D.  Bell,  LL.D.,  of  Manches- 
ter ;  Vermont,  Henry  Clark,  of  Poultney ; 
Rhode  Island,  John  Barstow,  of  Providence; 
Connecticut,  Rev.  F.  W.  Chapman,  A.M.,  of 
Ellington.  Honorary  Vice-Presidents— New  York, 
Hon.  Millard  Fillmore,  LL.D.,  of  Buffalo;  New 
Jersey,  Hon.  Joseph  C.  Hornblower,  LL.D.,  of 
Newark ;  Pennsylvania,  N.  Chauncey,  A.M.,  of 
Philadelphia;  Maryland,  S.  F.  Streeter,  A.M., 
of  Baltimore  ;  Ohio,  Hon.  Elijah  Hayward,  A. 
B.,  of  McConnelsville ;  Michigan,  Hon.  Lewis 
Cass,  LL.D.,  of  Detroit;  Indiana,  Hon.  Ballard 
Smith,  of  Terre  Haute;  Illinois,  Hon.  John 
Wentworth,  A.M.,  of  Chicago  ;  Wisconsin,  Hon. 
I.  A.  Lapham,  LL.D.,  of  Milwaukee ;  Iowa,  Rt. 
Rev.  Henry  W.  Lee,  D.D.,  of  Davenport;  Dis- 
trict Columbia,  Hon.  G.  P.  Fisher,  of  Washing- 
ton. Corresponding  Secretary — Rev.  Caleb 
Davis  Bradlee,  A.M.,  of  Roxbury.  Recording 
Secretaries — Edward  S.  Rand,  Jr.,  A.M.,  of 
Boston ;  H.  Alger,  Jr.,  A.B.,  of  Cambridge, 
Assistant.  Treasurer — William  B.  Towne,  of 
Brookline.  Historiographer — William  B.  Trask, 
of  Dorchester.  Librarian — John  H.  Sheppard, 
A.M.,  of  Boston. 

Directors  —  Rev.  Martin  Moore,  A  M.,  of 
Boston  ;  Joseph  Palmer,  A.M.,  M.D.,  of  Boston  ; 
Hon.  George  W.  Messinger,  of  Boston ;  John 
Barstow,  of  Providence,  R.  I. ;  Rev.  H.  M. 
Dexter,  A.M.,  of  Boston.  Committee  on  Lec- 
tures and  Essays — William  Reed  Deane,  of  Brook- 
line ;  Rev.  F.  W.  Holland,  A.M.,  of  Cambridge ; 
Rev.  Washington  Gilbert,  A.M.,  of  West  New- 




ton;  Hon.  C.  Hudson,  A.M.,  of  Lexington; 
Rev.  E.  F.  Slnfter,  of  Boston.  Committee  on 
Finance — Frederic  Kidder,  of  Boston;  Hon. 
George  W.  Messinger,  of  Boston ;  John  M 
Bradbury,  of  Boston ;  J.  W.  Candler,  of  Brook- 
line.  Committee  on  the  Library — Jeremiah  Col- 
burn,  of  Boston ;  Rev.  Abner  Morse,  A.M.,  of 
Boston;  E.  R.  Humphreys,  LL.D.,  of  Boston; 
G.  Mountfort,  of  Boston. 

Tite  American  Statistical  Association. — 
Boston,  January  15. — The  twenty-fourth  annual 
meeting  of  this  Association  was  held  this  after- 
noon, the  President,  Dr.  Jarvis,  in  the  chair. 

Mr.  Walley  made  some  statements  relative  to 
the  condition  of  the  banks  in  the  United  States 
during  the  past  year,  and  concluded  with  a  few 
remarks  upon  the  probable  working  of  the  new 
National  Banking  System. 

Mr.  Walker  spoke  of  the  value  of  diagrams  in 
illustrating  statistics,  and  exhibited  some  that  he 
had  prepared  himself  to  show  the  bank  statistics 
of  this  country  in  the  year  1856. 

Mr.  Mason,  the  Treasurer,  made  his  annual 
report,  by  which  it  appeared  that  the  receipts 
for  the  last  year  had  exceeded  the  expenditures 
by  $83.90,  and  that  there  was  a  balance  in  the 
treasury  of  $297.03.  This  does  not  include  the 
legacy  of  George  C.  Shattuck,  M.D.,  LL.D., 
formerly  president  of  the  Association,  which  re- 
mains invested  as  when  received. 

The  following  gentlemen  were  then  chosen  as 
officers  for  the  current  year : 

President — Edward  Jarvis,  M.D.,  of  Dorches- 
ter. Vice-Presidents — Hon.  Amasa  Walker,  A.M., 
of  North  Brookfield,  and  J.  Wingate  Thornton, 
A.M.,  of  Boston.  Corresponding  Secretary — 
Joseph  E.  Worcester,  LL.D.,  of  Cambridge. 
Recording  Secretary — John  Ward  Dean,  of  Bos- 
ton. Treasurer — Lyman  Mason,  A.M.,  of  Bos- 
ton. Librarian — David  Pulsifer  of  Boston. 
Counsellors — Hon.  Samuel  H.  Walley,  A.M.,  of 
Boston ;  Ebenezer  Alden,  M.D.,  of  Randolph ; 
and  George  S.  Hale,  A.M.,  of  Boston. 

After  the  adjournment  of  the  Society,  the 
Board  of  Directors  held  a  session,  at  which  Ed- 
ward Jarvis,  M.D  ,  J.  Wingate  Thornton,  A.M., 
and  Rev.  Rufus  Anderson,  D.D.,  were  chosen 
the  Publishing  Committee  for  1864. 

The  Old  Colony  Historical  Society. — Taun- 
ton, January  4. — At  the  annual  meeting  of  the 
Society,  reports  were  presented,  by  the  Corre- 
sponding Secretary  of  the  acceptance  of  mem- 
bership by  several  gentlemen,  and  by  the  Com- 
mittee on  the  Library  of  the  completion  of  a 
catalogue  of  its  books,  pamphlets,  and  MSS.,  and 
of  the  donations  of  several  valuable   volumes. 

Officers  for  the  year  were  chosen  as  fol- 
lows : 

President — Hon.  John  Daggett,  of  Attleboro. 
Vice-Presidents — Rev.  Mortimer  Blake,  and  Hon. 
Samuel  L.  Crocker,  of  Taunton.  Directors — Abi- 
jah  M.  Ide,  Esq.,  Hon.  Horatio  Pratt,  of  Taunton ; 
John  S.  Brayton,  Esq.,  and  Hon.  P.  W.  Leland, 
of  Fall  River;  Ellis  Ames,  Esq.,  of  Canton,  Col. 
Ebenezer  W.  Pierce,  of  Freetown.  Correspond- 
ing Secretary — Rev.  Charles  H.  Brigham,  of 
Taunton.  Recording  Secretary — Edgar  H.  Reed, 
Esq.,  of  Taunton.  Treasurer — Hodges  Reed, 
Esq.,  of  Taunton.  Librarian — Ezra  Davol,  Esq., 
of  Taunton. 

Rev.  M.  Blake  presented  a  paper  on  u  The 
Ante-Hollandic  History  of  the  Pilgrims,"  in 
which  were  discussed  the  recent  contributions 
to  that  history  by  Rev.  Dr.  Waddington,  of  Lon- 
don, H.  C.  Murphy,  the  late  George  Sumner, 
and  others.  The  topic  received  a  lengthy  and 
interesting  consideration. 

After  arrangements  for  the  next  meeting, 


Buffalo  Historical  Society. — Buffalo,  No- 
vember.— At  the  meeting  for  November,  M.  Fill- 
more, President  in  the  Chair,  and  Guy  H.  Salis- 
bury, Secretary,  Mr.  Salisbury,  as  Corresponding 
Secretary,  made  a  written  report : 

The  deaths  that  have  occurred  during  the  past 
month  in  the  families  of  old  residents,  are  as  fol- 
lows :  Oct.  7th,  Mrs.  Mary  Mulford  Mills,  aged 
74,  widow  of  Rev.  James  H.  Mills.  In  1818, 
she  accompanied  her  husband  to  his  field  of  mis- 
sionary labor,  in  the  infant  settlements  of  West- 
ern New  York.  Oct.  29th,  James  G.  Hoyt, 
aged  58,  a  Judge  of  the  Supreme  Court.  Judge 
H.  was  a  member  of  this  Society,  and  the  third 
that  has  deceased  since  its  organization.  Nov. 
7th,  Charles  Howland,  aged  63. 

There  have  been  500  copies  of  the  amended 
constitution  and  by-laws  printed,  with  a  list  of 
the  officers  and  names  of  the  members  of  the 
Society,  which  are  ready  for  delivery  to  the 
members,  who  can  procure  them  of  Guy  H.  Sal- 
isbury, Secretary,  at  its  rooms,  No.  7  Court 

Dr.  Jas.  P.  White,  from  the  committee  to 
whom  was  referred  the  subject  of  resuming  the 
weekly  Club  meetings  of  the  Society,  submitted 
a  report  recommending  that  such  meetings  be 
held  at  the  residence  of  some  member,  on  every 
Monday,  except  the  Monday  preceding  the 
I  second  Tuesday  of  each  month.  The  President, 
I  Vice  President,  or  a  Chairman  pro  tern.,  to  pre- 




side  at  each  meeting,  and  the  Secretary  to  keep 
a  brief  record  of  its  proceedings,  with  a  list  of 
members  present,  and  preserve  the  papers  read 
for  the  archives  of  the  Society.  The  regular 
business  to  commence  at  8  o'clock,  and  consist  in 
the  reading  of  papers,  by  appointment  at  a  pre- 
vious meeting,  or  voluntary  written  communica- 
tions, by  any  member,  of  which  notice  shall  have 
been  given  at  the  last  previous  meeting,  and  in 
such  discussions  as  may  be  elicited  by  such 
paper  or  communications.  There  is  also  to  be, 
at  each  meeting,  some  subject,  appropriate  to  the 
objects  of  the  Society,  named  for  consideration 
and  discussion  by  the  Club,  at  its  next  meeting 
— religious  or  political  topics  being  expressly 
excluded.  Every  member  is  desired  and  expect- 
ed to  attend  all  the  meetings,  and  any  member 
may  invite  to  any  of  the  meetings  a  non-resi- 
dent friend.  The  report  of  the  committee  was 
adopted,  and  on  motion  of  0.  G.  Steele,  the  first 
meeting  of  the  Club  was  appointed  to  be  held  at 
the  residence  of  M.  Fillmore,  on  Monday  even- 
ing, Nov.  16. 

At  the  request  of  Mr.  Fillmore,  Lewis  F. 
Allen  consented  to  prepare  a  paper  to  be  read 
at  the  first  meeting  of  the  Club,  on  the  Rise  and  J  places  it  is 
Fall  of  the  Great  Lakes.  Mr.  Fillmore  suggest-  institutions, 
ed  as  a  subject  for  discussion  incidental  thereto 
— "  Did  those  Lakes  ever  empty  their  waters 
into  the  Mississippi ;  and  what  are  the  evidences 
as  to  such  fact  ?" 

The  President  mentioned  that  Peter  Force,  at 
Washington,  had  a  very  large  and  important  col- 
lection of  papers  and  documents  relative  to  the 
history  of  public  events  and  national  affairs, 
which,  not  being  in  a  fire-proof  depository,  are 
liable  at  any  time  to  be  destroyed,  and  the  de- 
struction of  which  would  be  a  public  loss,  wholly 
irreparable.  He  thought  it  would  be  proper  for 
the  Historical  Societies  of  the  country  to  unite 
in  a  petition  to  Congress,  that  this  collection  be 
purchased  by  the  Government,  if  Mr.  Force 
could  be  induced  to  thus  dispose  of  it. 

On  motion  of'L.  F.  Allen,  the  President  of  this 
Society  was  requested  to  address  a  letter  to  Mr. 
Force  on  the  subject,  and  report  his  reply,  when 

The  President  made  some  remarks  on  the 
importance  of  obtaining  additional  subscriptions 
from  fifty  members,  for  a  term  of  five  years,  to 
ensure  adequate  funds  for  the  objects  of  the 
Society.  Oa  a  resolution,  introduced  by  Mr. 
Fillmore,  the  subject  was  referred  to  a  commit- 
tee of  three,  to  report  at  the  next  monthly  meet- 
ing. The  President  named  as  such  committee 
Dr.  Jas.  P.  White,  G.  G.  Steele,  and  Dennis 

N.  K.  Hall,  from  the  committee  to  which  was 
referred  the  subject   as  to  the  time  when   the 

annual  dues  of  members  shall  commence,  report- 
ed that  the  payment  of  the  initiation  fee  should 
be  deemed  sufficient  for  the  calendar  year  in 
which  the  member  is  elected,  and  his  dues  should 
therefore  not  commence  until  the  January  next 
succeeding  such  election  ;  and  when  a  member 
is  elected  after  the  1st  of  October,  his  initiation 
fee  shall  be  in  full  for  the  next  calendar  year. 

On  motion  of  L.  F.  Allen,  Mr.  Fillmore,  Geo.  W. 
Clinton,  and  Jno.  B.  Skinner  were  constituted 
a  committee  to  procure  the  Annual  Address 
to  be  delivered  before  the  Society  on  the  second 
Tuesday  in  January  next,  as  required  by  the 

December, — At  the  meeting  for  December,  M. 
Fillmore,  President,  in  the  Chair,  and  Guy  H. 
Salisbury,  Secretary,  the  following  were  among 
the  proceedings  had : 

Mr.  Salisbury,  as  Corresponding  Secretary, 
made  a  written  report. 

There  have  been  recent  applications  made  to 

the  Secretary  for  copies  of  the  Constitution  and 

By-laws   of   this    Society,   from   the   cities   of 

Schenectady,  Oswego,  and  Cleveland,  at  which 

contemplated   to    organize  similar 

It  is  a  fact  now  scarcely  known,  that  as  early 
as  1844,  an  Historical  Society  was  initiated  in 
this  city,  by  a  few  spirited  young  men,  who  had 
weekly  meetings,  and  kept  the  Society  alive  for 
a  year  and  a  half.  Alexander  J.  Sheldon,  who 
was  the  first  President  of  the  "  Red  Jacket  His- 
torical Society,"  as  it  was  styled,  has  deposited 
with  the  Buffalo  Historical  Society  the  record 
book  of  this  earlier  institution,  containing  its 
Constitution  and  By-laws,  the  names  of  its  mem- 
bers, the  proceedings  had  at  its  meetings — pre- 
senting matters  of  much  interest.  Among  the 
names  of  its  members,  who  are  yet  living  and 
residing  here,  are — A.  J.  Sheldon,  Wm.  H.  Walk- 
er, Edward  Bristol,  DeWitt  C.  Weed,  Wm.  C. 
Sweet,  Chas.  R.  Walker,  Geo.  Truscott,  Jas.  G. 
Dudley,  Robert  Williams,  Wm.  T.  Wardwell, 
Bronson  C.  Rumsey,  Henry  Bristol,  Dexter  P. 
Rumsey,  Franklin  Williams,  Stephen  D.  Cald- 
well, George  B.  Webster,  Everard  Palmer.  A 
committee  was  appointed  by  the  u  Red  Jackets" 
to  write  up  a  history  of  Buffalo,  but  no  progress 
was  reported. 

The  first  of  the  weekly  meetings  of  the  His- 
torical Club,  for  the  present  season,  Avas  held  at 
the  residence  of  the  President,  Mr.  Fillmore,  on 
the  17th  of  November,  at  which  Lewis  F.  Allen 
read  a  paper  on  the  "  Rise  and  Fall  of  the  Great 
Lakes."  The  second  meeting  was  at  0.  G. 
Steele's,  November  23d,  when  a  paper  was  read 
by  C.  F.  S.  Thomas,  entitled  "Reminiscences  of 
the  Press  of  Buffalo  from  1835  to  18G3."     The 




third  meeting  was  at  Thomas  C.  Welch's,  Novem- 
ber 30th,  when  Guy  H.  Salisbury  read  a  paper 
on  the  "Early  History  of  the  Press  of  Erie 

The  President  reported  that  he  had  addressed 
a  letter  to  Peter  Force,  Esq.,  of  Washington,  in 
reference  to  a  sale  of  his  Historical  Collection  to 
the  Government,  but  had  received  no  answer. 

The  President  also  reported  that  Rev.  Dr. 
Hosmer  had  kindly  consented  to  deliver  the 
Annual  Address  before  the  Society,  on  the  12th 
of  January  next. 

N.  K.  Hall,  from  the  committee  to  whom  it  had 
been  referred  to  consider  what  measures  should 
be  taken  to  obtain  a  Local  History  of  each  town 
in  the  county,  submitted  a  report,  recommend- 
ing that  suitable  efforts  be  made  to  procure  the 
organization  of  such  Societies.  The  report  was 
accompanied  by  the  draft  of  a  circular,  to  be 
signed  by  the  President  and  Corresponding  Se- 
cretary, which  the  committee  suggest  be  sent  to  a 
number  of  the  prominent  citizens  of  each  town 
in  the  county,  with  copies  of  the  Constitution 
and  By-laws  of  the  Society.  The  report  and 
circular  were  adopted. 

The  President  suggested  that  the  map  made  by 
the  late  Judge  Augustus  Porter,  of  the  "  Phelps 
and  Gorham  Purchase,"  should  be  procured  for 
the  Society,  and,  on  motion  of  L.  F.  Allen,  the 
President  was  requested  to  address  Hon.  A.  S. 
Porter,  of  Niagara  Falls,  for  the  purpose  of 
obtaining  such  of  the  papers,  etc.,  of  Judge  Por- 
ter as  may  be  properly  preserved  by  this 

On  motion  of  L.  F.  Allen,  Judge  Clinton  was 
requested  to  endeavor  to  procure  for  this  Socie- 
ty the  stone  intended  by  Major  Noah,  in  1825, 
as  the  corner-stone  of  his  proposed  city  of 
"  Ararat,"  on  Grand  Island. 

The  President  thought  that  Mr.  Allen  should 
write  a  history  of  the  stone,  and  matters  con- 
nected, for  the  Society;  and,  on  motion  of 
Judge  Clinton,  Mr.  A.  was  requested  to  prepare 
such  a  paper. 

On  motion  of  L.  F.  Allen,  the  Treasurer  and 
Corresponding  Secretary  were  appointed  a  com- 
mittee to  make  arrangements  for  the  delivery  of 
the  Annual  Address,  and  the  election  of  officers, 
on  the  12th  of  January  next. 

Long  Island  Historical  Society. — Brooklyn, 
January  7,  1864. — At  a  regular  meeting  of  the 
Society  held  at  its  rooms,  the  Rev.  Dr.  West 
presided.  The  Librarian,  Dr.  H.  R.  Stiles, 
announced  the  receipt  of  79  works,  and  a  por- 
trait of  Gen.  Meade.  The  paper  of  the  evening 
was  an  interesting  one  on  "  President  Monroe, 
his  Administration    and    Doctrine,"    by    Rev. 

I  Joshua  Leavitt,  D.D.  The  officers  of  the  Socie- 
ty are,  President — James  Carson  Brevoort.  First 
Vice-President — John  Greenwood.  Second  Vice- 
President — Charles  E.  West.  Foreign  Corre- 
sponding Secretary — Henry  C.  Murphy.  Home 
Corresponding  Secretary — John  Winslow.  Re- 
cording Secretary — A.  Cook  Hull.  Treasurer — 
Charles  Congdon.    Librarian — Henry  R.  Stiles. 

New  York  Historical  Society. — New  York, 
January  5. — The  annual  business  meeting  of  the 
Society  was  held  in  its  building  on  Second  Ave- 
nue. As  usual,  the  reports  were  made  by  the 
different  officers  and  by  the  Executive  Commit- 
tee. The  treasurer's  report  showed  receipts  dur- 
ing the  year  to  the  amount  of  $13,600.  The 
Society  is  thus  seen  to  be  in  a  highly  flourishing 
condition,  the  number  of  resident  members,  who 
pay  the  annual  fee  of  five  dollars,  and  life  mem- 
bers, being  1800  ;  of  correspondent  and  hono- 
rary members  there  are  3803  more. 

During  the  year  1400  books  and  pamphlets 
were  added  to  the  library. 

The  annual  election  then  took  place,  and  the 
following  officers  were  chosen  : 

President — Frederic  De  Peyster.  First  Vice- 
President — Thomas  De  Witt,  D.D.  Second  Vice- 
President — Benjamin  R.  Winthrop.  Foreign  Cor- 
responding Secretary — George  Bancroft,  LL.D. 
Domestic  Corresponding  Secretary — Samuel  Os- 
good, D.D.  Recording  Secretary — Andrew  War- 
ner. Treasurer — Benj.  H.  Field.  Librarian — 
George  H.  Moore. 


Rhode  Island  Historical  Society. — The  an- 
nual meeting  of  the  Rhode  Island  Historical 
Society  was  held  at  the  Cabinet,  the  President 
in  the  chair. 

The  reports  of  the  Cabinet  Keepers  of  the 
Northern  and  Southern  Districts  were  presented, 
read,  and  placed  on  file. 

A  letter  relative  to  the  exhumation  of  Indian 
bones  on  the  line  of  the  Newport  Railroad  was 
read  and  ordered  to  be  placed  on  file. 

The  annual  report  of  the  Treasurer  was  pre- 
sented and  ordered  to  be  placed  on  file. 

Upon  motion  of  the  Rev.  Mr.  Stone,  the 
thanks  of  the  Society  were  presented  to  J. 
Wingate  Thornton,  of  Boston,  for  a  donation 
of  original  manuscripts  relative  to  the  priva- 
teer Yankee  ;  also,  to  the  Second  Employment 
Society,  for  a  manuscript  history  of  that  institu- 
tion from  its  commencement,  and  to  Miss  Eva 
Owen  for  the  beautiful  manner  in  which  the 
manuscript  is  presented. 



[Feb.  1864. 

The  following  named  gentlemen  were  elected 
officers  for  the  ensuing  year  : 

President — Albert  G.  Green.  First  Vice-Pre- 
sident— Samuel  Gr.  Arnold.  Second  Vice-Presi- 
dent— George  A.  Brayton.  Secretary — Sidney  S. 
Rider.  Treasurer — Welcome  A.  Greene.  Cabi- 
net Keeper  and  Librarian  for  the  Northern  Dis- 
trict— Edwin  M.  Stone.  Cabinet  Keeper  and 
Librarian  for  the  Southern  District — Benj.  B. 
Howland.  Committee  on  the  Nomination  of  Mem- 
bers— E.  M.  Stone,  Wm.  Gammell,  J.  A.  How- 
land.  Audit  Committee — Amherst  Everett, 
Wm.  H.  Helme.  Committee  on  Buildings  and 
Grounds — Albert  G.  Green,  S.  W.  Lothrop, 
John  A.  Howland.  Committee  on  Lectures — Sid- 
ney S.  Rider,  Thos.  A.  Doyle,  R.  P.Everett. 

States  0n  $Mhs. 

Sketch  of  Education  in  Upper  and  Lower  Ca- 
nada, 1864.  By  J.  George  Hodgins,  LL.B., 

A  vert  valuable  sketch ;  comprises  much  in  a 
small  space.  Of  recent  matters  it  furnishes 
many  valuable  tables  and  statements  well  worthy 
the  examination  of  those  interested  in  the  his- 
tory of  education  here.  In  Canada  religious 
schools  have  been  maintained,  and  have  answered 
well.  Late  revelations  in  New  York,  and  more 
extensive  suppressions,  seem  to  show  that 
we  have  excluded  Christianity  to  introduce 

On  page  12  we  find  the  following :  "  The 
Franciscans  had  a  good  many  elementary  schools 
for  boys  before  the  conquest."  What  is  the 
authority  for  this  ? 

Island  down  to  the  period  when  the  letters 

The  whole  work  is  most  creditable,  written 
with  grace  and  spirit,  and,  to  all  appearances,  as 
impartial  as  it  is  dignified.  It  is  one  of  the  most 
interesting  personal  narratives  of  the  war,  and 
reflects  great  credit  on  Mr.  Stone. 

The  value  of  the  work  is  enhanced  by  an 

The  appendix  contains  an  abridged  history  of 
all  the  R.  I.  regiments,  prepared  with  great  care. 

Rhode  Island  in  the  Rebellion.  By  Edwin  W 
Stone,  of  the  First  Regiment  Rhode  Island 
Light  Artillery.  Providence  :  G.  H.  Whitney, 
1864.     120,  398. 

Were  we  to  be  critical,  we  should  object  to 
this  title  for  the  sake  of  the  State,  for  we  believe 
that  Rhode  Island  had  no  part  or  lot  in  the 
Rebellion,  and  has,  as  Mr.  Stone  shows,  given 
the  said  Rebellion  pretty  hard  knocks  for  so 
small  a  state. 

The  work  is  mainly  a  series  of  letters,  from 
December,  1861,  to  the  summer  of  1863,  com- 
prising a  full  account  of  the  operations  of  the 
Army  of  the  Potomac,  and  especially  of  the 
Rhode  Island  regiments.  The  introduction, 
which  is  extremely  well  written,  embraces  a 
succinct    history   of    the    services   of     Rhode 

The   Annals  of  Iowa ;    a  Quarterly  Publication, 
by   the  State  Historical   Society   at  Iowa    City. 
~No.  V.    January,  1864.    Davenport. 
This  periodical  opens  its  second  year,  still  con- 
tinuing, however,  the  first  volume.  It  contains  a 
sketch    of   Colonel    D.   J.    Wilson,    6th  Iowa 
Cavalry,  and  of  Brig.-Gen.  B.  S.  Roberts,  a  hero 
of  two  wars ;  a  continuation  of  the  history  of 
Scott  County ;  a  portrait  and  sketch  of  Hon. 
Hiram    Price;    and    many    other    interesting 
articles.     We   are  happy   to   see   that  Iowa  is 
sustaining  this  creditable  record  of  its  history. 

The  house  of  Dr.  J.  S.  M.  Ramsey,  at  Meck- 
lenbutg,  near  Knoxville,  Tenn.,  was  destroyed 
by  fire  recently,  and  with  it  the  only  collection 
of  materials  from  which  a  complete  history  of 
Tennessee,  from  its  earliest  settlement,  could  be 
written.  Dr.  Ramsey  made  the  collection  with 
great  care. 

Mr.  Charles  S.  Fellows,  of  Bangor,  Maine, 
is  preparing  a  Genealogy  and  Biography  of  the 
Fellows  family,  and  invites  correspondence  from 
all  who  bear  the  names  of  Fellows,  Fellowes,  or 
Felloe,  and  especially  copies  of  family  records, 
monumental  inscriptions,  etc. 

A  Historical  Society  has  been  formed  at 
Yankton,  in  Dakota  Territory,  under  the  name 
of  the  Dakota  Historical  Society.  We  hope  to 
receive  its  charter  and  issues  to  announce  to  our 

We  were  recently  surprised  to  find  an  article 
from  our  columns  translated  into  a  periodical 
printed  at  Rome,  TJie  Chronicles  of  the  Francis- 
can Missions. 

We  are  indebted  to  the  new  and  superior 
literary  paper,  The  Round  Table,  for  the  article 
on  the  Hessians,  and  to  The  British  American 
Magazine  for  an  article  on  Earthquakes. 



Vol.  VIII.] 

MARCH,  1864. 

[No.  3. 

©mral  §Mprtnunt. 


BY    W.    ALFRED    JONES,    A.  M., 
Librarian  of  Columbia  College. 

Read  before  the  Long  Island  Historical  Society,  November  5, 

It  may  seem  almost  an  act  of  presumption 
to  attempt  an  historical  sketch,  much  less 
a  detailed  account,  of  Long  Island,  topo- 
graphical and  statistical,  within  the  ordinary 
limits  of  a  lecture, — as  a  full  consideration 
of  any  one  of  the  numerous  topics  of  this 
paper  would  exhaust  the  time  and  patience 
of  the  most  complaisant  audience.  Any- 
thing like  copiousness  of  detail  or  thorough- 
ness of  treatment  is,  consequently,  quite 
out  of  the  question.  Our  utmost  endeavor 
wrill  be  to  aim  at  presenting  a  very  brief, 
very  rapid,  and  yet  tolerably  comprehen- 
sive, sketch  of  the  notabilia,  men  and 
things,  of  Long  Island, — a  portion  of  the 
Empire  State  far  too  little  known,  except 
to  native  Long-Islanders,  residents  of  long 
standing,  or  those  who,  from  business  con- 
nections, social  ties,  or  pleasure  excursions, 
have  become  somewhat  acquainted  with  her 
varied  resources  and  manifold  attractions. 

It  is,  moreover,  with  no  affectation  of 
modesty,  that  we  undertake  this  task  (a 
labor  of  love  though  it  be),  when  we  reflect 
on  our  avowed  incompetence,  compared 
with  certain  gentlemen  here  present,  who, 
from  birth,  ampler  information,  and  the 
nature  of  their  researches,  are  far  better 
litted  to  treat  this  subject,  and  yet  wmose 
Vavorable  suffrages  we  should  be  most  anx- 
ious to  gain.  Since  no  one  has,  however, 
thought  it  expedient  to  present  such  a  mere 
summary  as  we  propose  to  give — unwilling, 

HIST.  MAG.       VOL.  VIII.  11 

perhaps,  to  be  at  the  pains  to  condense 
within  a  sketch,  what  might  be  so  much 
more  attractively  amplified  into  a  volume— 
we  beg  the  forbearance,  and  deprecate  in 
advance  the  criticism,  of  any  student,  his- 
torical or  antiquarian,  who  might  complain 
of  the  very  superficial  and  discursive  nature 
of  this  essay. 

Though  a  native  New-Yorker,  yet,  as 
the  descendant  of  Long-Islanders,  we  take 
a  special  pride  and  interest  in  the  Island, 
and  all  that  relates  to  it.  On  this  ground, 
too,  we  seem  to  feel  a  certain  claim  on 
your  kindness,  and  confess  a  desire  to  con- 
nect our  name,  again,  with  the  home  of 
our  fathers. 

The  historical  importance  of  Long  Island 
has  never  been  overrated.  Next  to  the 
city  of  New  York,  it  is  the  oldest  portion 
of  the  State  that  had  been  visited  and 
settled  by  Dutch  and  English.  Previous  to 
the  Revolution,  Long  Island  constituted 
the  oldest  and  most  important  part  of  the 
colony.  A  century  ago  the  population  of 
Long  Island  (says  Prime)  was  more  than 
that  of  the  city  of  New  York,  and  more 
than  one-third  that  of  the  province.  At 
the  commencement  of  this  century,  Long 
Island  was  still  a  most  important  part  of 
the  State. 

To  the  student  of  political  history,  the 
antiquary,  the  humorist,  the  sportsman, 
the  invalid,  and  the  traveller  for  pleasure, 
Long  Island  holds  out  many  and  various 

Pier  history,  colonial  and  revolutionary  ; 
the  Indian  tribes  (her  original  proprietors) ; 
the  settlement  of  her  towns;  their  quaint 
nomenclature ;  her  old  churches  and  houses ; 
the  manorial  grants  of  the  Suffolk  and 
Queens  County  patentees ;  the  quaint  Eng- 
lish reminiscences  of  the  east  end,  and  the 




picturesque  relics  of  the  Dutch,  in  the 
western ;  the  romantic  hardships  of  the 
whale  fishery,  and  the  bold  race  of  men  it 
nurtures— are  all  topics  of  interest. 

The  celebrated  men,  too,  who  first  drew 
breath  in  this  favored  region,  and  those 
who  in  later  life  retired  here  to  enjoy  a 
calm  and  happy  old  age,  are  worthy  of 
being  recorded. 

We  shall  attempt,  concisely  enough,  to 
touch  upon  all  these  points,^for  we  can 
do  little  more, — and  we  must  again  declare 
that  the  present  paper  is  but  introductory 
to  the  historical  course  that  will  follow,  and 
is  intended  to  bear  the  same  relation  to 
it  as  a  preface  to  the  volume  of  history. 

On  the  arrival  of  the  European  colonists, 
thirteen  tribes  of  native  Indians  were 
found  in  possession  of  the  Island.  At  pre- 
sent a  mere  handful  of  half-breeds  remain 
(more  negro  than  Indian)  of  the  once 
powerful  and  predominant  Montauks,  and 
but  a  meagre  remnant  of  the  Shinnecock 
tribe,  settled  on  a  Government  reservation 
at  Shinnecock.  The  only  skirmish  of  any 
consequence  between  the  Indians  and  the 
white  inhabitants  occurred  in  1653,  at  Fort 
Neck  (the  seat  of  the  Floyd  Jones  family), 
the  famous  Captain  John  Underhill  being 
the  victor. 

The  colonial  history  of  Long  Island  to 
the  period  of  the  Revolution  is  occupied 
(in  its  earlier  records)  with  Indian  difficul- 
ties; afterwards  with  civil  protests  of  the 
Dutch  against  the  Duke  of  York's  govern- 
ment ;  with  party  politics  and  local  dis- 
putes. On  the  establishment  of  the  English 
colonial  dominion  on  Long  Island,  the 
Duke's  laws  (which  tradition  declares  to 
have  been  drawn  up  by  no  less  a  personage 
than  Lord  Chancellor  Clarendon,  the  great 
historian)  were  promulgated  for  the  go- 
vernment of  the  province,  and  became  the 
established  code.  The  Dutch  bad  pre- 
viously governed  the  western  end  for  near- 
ly half  a  century. 

During  the  era  of  the  Revolution — 
throughout  almost  the  entire  war — the 
Island  was  held  by  the  British.  It  contained 
many  patriotic  citizens,  however,  who  se- 
cretly gave  "  material  aid  "  to  their  fellow- 
countrymen,  in   nearly  its  whole  extent; 

and  on  its  soil  at  least  one  important  action 
was  fought — the  Battle  of  Long  Island,  at 
Govvanus — from  which  the  masterly  retreat 
to  New  York  was  conducted  with  such 
signal  success. 

The  principal  towns  on  Long  Island 
Were  settled  almost  contemporaneously  by 
the  Dutch  and  English,  at  either  end  of  the 
Island,  about  the  middle  of  the  seventeenth 
century.  South  old  was  the  first  town 
settled  on  Long  Island — 1640.  Memorials 
of  the  original  colonists  are  to  be  found  in 
the  very  few  old  houses  and  churches  still 
remaining — antiquarian  relics  of  that  early 

The  principal  of  these  (so  far  as  we  can 
learn)  are  the  Cortelyou  house  atGowanus 
— the  headquarters  of  Lord  Stirling  at  the 
Battle  of  Long  Island;  the  old  stone  house 
at  New  Utrecht,  in  which  General  Wood- 
hull  died ;  the  Bowne  house  at  Flushing ; 
the  Young's  place  at  Southold;  the  old 
stone  cottage  at  Ravenswood ;  and  the 
Fort  Neck  mansion,  built  by  Judge  Thomas 
Jones,  the  loyalist,  just  previous  to  the 

In  Flatbush  and  in  Brooklyn  were  stand- 
ing, at  the  commencement  of  the  present 
century,  and  even  later,  houses  of  equal  or 
greater  antiquity,  not  to  omit  the  old  brick 
house  built  by  Major  Thomas  Jones,  at 
Massapequa,  1696,  and  removed  1835, — 
the  property,  at  that  time,  of  Hon.  David 
S.  Jones.  At  South  Hampton  and  at  East 
Hampton  several  very  old  houses  are  yet 

A  few  quite  ancient  houses  of  worship 
are  still  to  be  found.  The  Presbyterian 
meeting-house  at  East  Hampton ;  the  Caro- 
line Church  at  Setauket  (the  oldest  Epis- 
copal church  on  Long  Island) ;  and  the 
Quaker  meeting-house  at  Flushing — the 
oldest  house  of  worship  on  Long  Island, 
built  1690 — are  the  principal. 

The  Long  Island  Historical  Library  is 
still  limited.  Its  history  and  antiquities 
have,  to  be  sure,  been  explored  and  dis- 
cussed, compiled  and  commented  upon, 
but  not  as  they  should  be.  A  brief  yet 
comprehensive,  a  classical  but  yet  familiar, 
narrative  remains  to  be  written.  Thomp- 
son's volumes  contain  the  material  for  a 




history,  and  disclose  the  sources  for  further  I  Cobbett's  Year  on  Long  Island,  as  might 

be  expected,  is  fresh  and  racy  in  point  of 
style  and  sarcasm  ;  most  readable  for  agri- 
cultural remarks  and  general  observations 
on  character  and  manners.  He  saw  com- 
paratively little  of  the  Island;  chiefly  the 
neighborhood  of  North  Hempstead,  where, 
at  Hyde  Park,  the  seat  of  the  Ludlows, 
this  book  was  written,  1817,  as  well  as  his 
English  Grammar,  the  most  popular  work 
of  its  class  ever  published. 

The  late  Wni.  P.  Hawes,  a  lively  writer 
and  a  genuine  humorist,  has  left  capital 
Long  Island  sketches — local,  sporting,  and 
familiar.  His  biographer,  the  late  Wm. 
Henry  Herbert,  the  accomplished  scholar, 
litterateur,  and  sportsman,  has  left,  in  Notes 
on  Fishing  to  the  American  reprint  of  the 
Complete  Angler,  some  pleasant  references 
to  Long  Island,  as  well  as  in  his  larger 
works  on  fishing,  shooting,  and  the  horse. 

The  Rev.  Mr.  Prime's  compilation  is 
chiefly  important  as  an  outline  of  the  ec- 
clesiastical history  of  Long  Island,  though 
it  also  presents  the  fruit  of  antiquarian 
research.  This  work  is  replete  with  im- 
portant facts,  and  is  drawn  up  with  accu- 
racy in  a  compact  form. 

Mr.  Onderdonk's  valuable  book  of  cut 
tings,  the  "Incidents  of  the  Revolution  on 
Long  Island,"  may  be  regarded  as  interest- 
ing MSS.  for  the  future  historian,  if  indeed 
that  classical  scholar  and  loving  chronicler 
of  the  past  does  not  himself  perform  a 
duty  to  which  he  is  fully  competent — that 
of  condensing  his  vivid  facts  and  historical 
illustrations,  running  through  three  or 
four  compact  historical  chapters,  into  a 
succinct  narrative. 

Mrs.  Sigourney  has  essayed  a  poetical 
flight,  we  believe,  off  Montauk — a  species 
of  spirit-of-the-cape  episode — and  with  her 
we  conclude  the  list  of  literary  and 
historical  illustrations  of  Long  Island. 
From  time  to  time,  newspaper  correspon- 
dents send  a  letter  up  to  town  from  their 
summer  retreats,  but  into  this  extensive 
class  of  literature  we  want  both  time  and 

research  ;  but  they  do  not  present  history 

in  the  high  and  strict  sense.     They  include 

an  ample  store  of  facts,  not  philosophically 

digested,  nor  yet  skilfully  arranged.     The 

compiler,  as  the  historian  always  modestly 

calls  himself,  transferred  too  many  docu- 
ments and  records,  valuable  as   evidence, 

or  illustrative  of  the  text,  but  burdensome 

to  the  reader.     He  is,  perhaps,  too,  in  his 

biographical  sketches,  which   form  a  sort 

of  Long  Island  family  history  (by  far  the 

most  interesting  portion  of  his  work  to  all 

interested  in  the  details),  too  much  of  a 

genealogist,  and  not  enough  of  a  biogra- 
pher.    With    these   obvious    defects    (and 

notwithstanding  other  defects  of  style  and 

manner),  full  of  matter  as  it  undoubtedly 

is,  and  the  work  of  an  honorable  man  and 

zealous  inquirer,  it  is  thus  far  the  best — 

the  accredited  history  of  Long  Island. 

Wood's  History  of  the  Settlement  of  the 
Towns  of  Long  Island,  and  Furman's  Notes 
on  Brooklyn,  both  of  which  tracts  preceded 
it,  are  truly  valuable  sketches,  careful  in 
research  and  clear  in  style.  Dr.  Strong's 
History  of  Flatbush,  Mr.  Riker's  History 
of  Newtown,  Judge  Benson's  Memoranda, 
and  occasional  historical  sermons,  afford 
useful  material  for  local  history. 

The  earliest  printed  account  of  Long 
Island  is  to  be  found  in  Denton's  Descrip- 
tion of  New  York,  of  which  Long  Island 
was  then  the  part  best  known  and  most 
compactly  peopled,  after  the  Island  of 
Manhattan  itself.  It  has  been  reprinted 
by  Gowans,  the  well  known  bibliopole  of 
New  York  City,  with  interesting  notes  by 
Judge  Furman.  It  is  a  quaint  and  curious 
description  of  the  city  and  the  Island,  very 
literal  and  very  bald  as  to  style,  written  in 
a  vein  of  remarkable  naivete.  The  author 
of  this  pamphlet  of  twenty  pages,  published 
in  1670,  was  the  son  of  the  first  clergyman 
of  Hempstead,  who  came  to  this  country 
in  1644.  It  is  a  literary  and  historical 

Dr.  Dwight,  in  his  journal  (a  little  pro- 
lix, yet  generally  sensible,  and  valuable  as  i  inclination  to  enter 

a  faithful  picture  of  manners  at  the  begin 
ning  of  this  century — 1804),  gives  some 
pleasant  descriptions  of  places  and  customs. 

A  topographical  sketch  of  the  Island 
will  present  a  general  picture — a  bird's-eye 
view  of  a  most  interesting  country. 




Suffolk  County  occupies  nearly  two- 
thirds  of  Long  Island,  the  county  of  so- 
called  "pine  barrens"  (1)  and  sand,  yet 
abounding  in  rich  "necks"  on  both  sides 
of  the  Island,  and  teeming  trout  streams. 
It  is  the  county  of  the  great  patents  of  the 
Nicolls,  the  Smiths,  the  Gardiners,  the 
Floyds,  the  Lawrences,  the  Thompsons,  the 
Lloyds,  and  other  leading  families — estates 
equal  in  extent  almost  to  some  of  the 
great  old  North  River  manorial  grants; 
as,  for  instance,  the  Nicoll  patent  of  origi- 
nally nearly  a  hundred  square  miles ; 
Richard  Smith's  patent  of  30,000  acres; 
Fisher's  Island ;  Gardiner's  Island;  Shelter 
Island ;  Lloyd's  Neck — the  county  contain- 
ing the  two  greatest  natural  curiosities  of 
Long  Island — Ronkonkoma  Pond  and  Mon- 
tauk  Point.  Ronkonkoma  is  a  lake  three 
miles  in  circumference,  with  the  peculiarity 
of  a  sand  beach,  although  an  inland  lake — 
itself  the  very  Omphale  of  Long  Island. 
For  a  long  while  it  was  supposed  to  be 
unfathomable,  because  no  plummet  had 
sounded  its  depths — (in  this  respect  similar 
to  Success  Pond  and  other  sheets  of  water) 
— claimed  in  part  by  four  towns,  Smith- 
town,  Setauket,  Islip,  and  Patchogue.  Ac- 
cording to  Judge  Furman,  the  Indians 
refused  to  eat  the  fish  of  Ronkonkoma, 
regarding  them  as  superior  beings,  placed 
there  by  the  Great  Spirit,  like  the  enchant- 
ed lake  of  the  Arabian  Nights. 

Montauk,  a  vast  common,  as  well  as  a 
bold  promontory,  with  its  shining  light, 
has  its  9000  acres,  owned  by  a  company, 
who  hold  its  pasturing  privileges  as  stock, 
and  buy  and  sell  it  in  shares. 

Suffolk  has  the  healthiest  air  (2)  on  Long 
Island,  especially  in  its  extreme  eastern 
portion.  We  speak  from  experience  of 
frequent  visits,  of  from  weeks'  to  months' 
duration,  some  years  since.  More  old  per- 
sons, we  believe,  are  to  be  found  there  than 
in  any  county  in  the  State — even  if  a  fatal 
case  of  tetanus  (3)  and  of  chorea  does  oc- 
casionally occur.  According  to  Prime, 
Suffolk,  in  1846,  could  show  one  in  forty 
of  her  population  over  seventy  years  of 
age.  The  father,  we  believe,  of  General 
Halleck,  died  lately,  a  centenarian. 

It  was  an  old  slander  against  Suffolk, 

that  her  people  were  a  benighted  race, 
because  they  preserved  much  of  the  primi- 
tive habits  of  the  original  settlers ;  yet  if 
statistics  are  to  be  credited,  more  of  her 
population  can  read  and  write  than  that  of 
any  other  county  in  the  State.  The  very 
first  academy  in  the  State — Clinton  Acade- 
my— was  established  at  East  Hampton 
1784-7,  and  since  the  commencement  of 
the  century  she  has  had  her  fair  proportion 
of  schools  and  academies. 

She  has  another  just  boast — that  of 
producing  the  handsomest  women  of  the 
State.  On  this  point  it  would  be  invidious 
to  discriminate ;  but,  from  personal  obser- 
vation, I  can  honestly  declare  that,  if  the 
wives  and  daughters  of  Kings  and  Queens 
are  equally  beautiful,  they  cannot  be  more 
amiable  or  intelligent. 

We  cannot  leave  Suffolk  without  a  few 
remarks  on  the  whale  fishery,  forming  its 
most  characteristic  feature.  Whaling,  from 
the  earliest  period  of  her  annals,  has  been 
one  of  the  chief  sources  of  wealth  to  the 
hardy  islanders ;  and  a  bold,  manly  occupa- 
tion for  the  inhabitants  of  the  eastern  end 
of  the  Island  in  particular.  From  some  of 
the  towns  on  the  north  side,  and  early 
settlements  on  the  shore  of  the  South  Bay 
(on  a  smaller  scale),  vessels  have  been  from 
time  to  time  dispatched  ;  but  Sag  Harbor 
may  be  properly  recognised  as  the  head- 
quarters of  the  whaling  enterprise  of  Long 
Island, — a  port,  too,  ranking  (after  New 
Bedford  and  one  or  two  other  places),  in 
former  days,  as  one  of  the  most  important 
whaling  stations  in  the  country.  Fur  this 
hazardous  business  the  Hamptons  furnished 
both  officers  and  men.  Of  late  years,  since 
the  use  of  gas  as  a  means  of  illumination, 
the  whale  fishery  and  oil  trade  have 
materially  decreased. 

In  contemplating  the  venturous  toils  in- 
curred by  the  vigorous  race  of  men  nur- 
tured in  this  manly  pursuit,  we  are  forcibly 
reminded  of  Burke's  vivid  description  of 
the  hardy  pioneers  of  the  New  England 
whale  fishery  as  literally  applicable  to  that 
of  Long  Island,  with  which  in  spirit,  and, 
in  a  less  degree,  in  extent,  it  is  identical. 
After  many,  and  dangerous,  and  profitable 
voyages,  the  daring  navigator,  and  no  less 




daring  fisher,  returns  to  his  native  place 
with  a  moderate  independence,  revives  in 
middle  lite  the  youthful  occupations  of  the 
farmer,  and  settles  down  into  the  domestic 
character  of  a  pater-familias.  Originally  a 
farmer's  boy,  a  third  of  his  life  perhaps 
spent  at  sea,  he  never  loses  a  certain  am- 
phibious character  readily  noticed  in  his 
dress  and  demeanor,  his  walk  and  talk, 
habits  and  feelings.  A  more  kindly,  intel- 
ligent, frank  race  of  men  cannot  be  found 
anywhere  than  the  better  portion  (and 
that  a  prominent  majority)  of  the  sea-faring 
men  of  Suffolk  County.  Simple-hearted 
but  clear-headed,  ingenious,  industrious, 
and  upright,  they  make  excellent  neigh- 
bors, true  friends,  and  valuable  citizens. 
Their  mode  of  life  is  eminently  republican, 
almost  universal  social  equality  existing  in 
their  towns,  based  upon  a  pretty  uniform 
equality  of  pecuniary  condition  and  intel- 
lectual acquirement  The  whale  fishery  is 
the  most  democratic  of  employments ; 
every  man  has  his  proportional  share  of 
profits,  and  a  few  voyages  raise  the  com- 
petent sailor  and  skilful  hunter  of  the  seas 
from  the  condition  of  an  ordinary  seaman 
to  the  post  of  captain.  It  is  a  pleasing 
sight  of  a  Sunday  to  remark,  at  meeting, 
the  number  of  truly  respectable,  sometimes 
patriarchal,  men,  whose  venerable  locks 
are  whitened  by  the  frosts  of  many  win- 
ters, as  their  honest  faces  are  embrowned 
by  the  salt  air  and  a  tropical  sun.  As  we 
have  said,  they  make  good  farmers,  but 
never  lose  their  nautical  ideas.  Thus,  in 
ordinary  speech,  they  never  throw,  but  al- 
ways heave  ;  a  pail  is  always  a  bucket;  the 
reins  are  lines  /  they  go  east  or  west, 
instead  of  up  or  down  a  street;  they  head 
or  steer  north  or  south,  whether  on  foot  or 
in  a  vehicle,  as  if  on  water;  they  love  to 
live  near  the  sea,  to  have  plenty  of  sea- 
room  and  space  about  them — to  go  a-fish- 
ing  and  breathe  their  native  air. 

The  Hamptons  are  the  towns  where  you 
find  most  of  this  race.  J.  Howard  Payne, 
the  dramatist,  whose  immortal  song  is  as 
cosmopolitan  as  the  English  tongue,  wrote, 
many  years  ago,  an  admirable  description 
of  East  Hampton  in  one  of  the  magazines. 
South  Hampton  is  in  much  the  same  style, 

with  its  quaint  old  houses  and  their  dimi- 
nutive windows,  their  immense  chimneys 
and  massive  timbers,  its  wide  street,  and 
wind-mill,  and  meeting-house.  These  are 
towns  more  than  two  centuries  old,  with 
something  of  Old  England,  and  a  great 
deal  more  of  New  England,  in  them. 

The  names  of  places  are  often  queer  and 
outlandish,  sometimes  significant,  but  often 
selected  without  any  apparent  good  reason ; 
e.  g.  Hardscrabble  (now  Farmingdale), 
Hoppogues,  Greenland,  Mount  Misery, 
Old  Man's,  Rum  Point  (Greenwich) — the 
scene  of  Dr.  Valentine's  richly  farcical 
description  of  a  fete — Commock,  Buckram, 
Wolver  Hollow,  Canoe  Place,  Good 
Ground,  Bedlam,  Drowned  Meadow,  Fire 
Place,  and  Fire  Island ;  Scuttle-hole,  Wam- 
stead,  North  Sea,  Speonk,  Moriches,  Mas- 
tic, Crab  Meadow,  Cow  Neck,  Cow  Bay, 
Musquito  (Glen)  Cove,  Plandome,  Dosoris, 
Bating  Hollow,  Quoque,  Wading  River, 
Hashmommock,  Flanders,  Upper  Aque- 
bogue  or  High  Hockabock.'  Most  of  these 
are  in  Suffolk.  A  few  scripture  names 
occur  in  Queens  and  Suffolk ;  e.  g.  Jerusa- 
lem, Jericho,  Babylon,  Bethpage,  Mount 

The  English  settlements  were  chiefly  in 
Suffolk  and  Queens  during  the  civil  war 
and  the  Protectorate,  as  the  names  of 
places  show — Hampton,  Huntington, 
Hempstead,  Islip,  Gravesend,  for  example. 
The  Dutch  settlements  were  almost 
wholly  in  Kings,  adjacent  to  the  city  of 
New  Amsterdam,  as  names  of  places  there 
evince — Breuklyn,  Mid  wont  (Flatbush), 
Amersfort  (Flatlands),  New  Utrecht, 
Gowanus.  The  English  settled  but  one 
town  in  Kings — Gravesend.  In  Queens, 
the  Dutch  also  settled  Ylisscngen  (Flush- 
ing), in  1645,  and  Rusdorp  (Jamaica),  but 
went  no  further  east  than  Oyster  Bay. 

The  national  characteristics  are  still 
preserved,  in  some  respects,  and  to  this 
I  day  the  towns  of  Kings  retain  something 
I  of  the  aspect  of  Holland,  and  a  great  deal 
'of  her  thrift  and  quiet  industry;  while  East 
[Hampton,  in  particular,  has  a  good  deal  of 
the  air  of  an  old  English  village.  In  fact, 
i  except  in  New  England,  there  are  few  or 
i  no  places  in   our  country  resembling  the 




old-fashioned  English  villages  of  a  past 
date  (of  which  we  read  in  the  English 
classics  of  the  eighteenth  century — neat 
and  comfortable,  pretty  and  picturesque), 
save,  in  a  comparatively  slight  degree, 
some  of  the  oldest  villages  on  Long  Island, 
where  time  and  cultivation,  the  presence 
of  gentry  and  the  possession  of  wealth, 
have  done  a  good  deal  to  refine  the  face  of 
the  country  as  well  as  the  manners  of  the 

The  distinguishing  features  of  Queens 
County  are  the  strait  at  Hell  Gate,  immor- 
talized by  the  classic  description  of  Irving  ; 
Hempstead  Plains ;  and  the  Great  South 
Bay, — the  last  entrenched  behind  a  great 
bar  or  beach,  nearly  100  miles  long,  a 
natural  breakwater  and  sure  barrier  against 
the  fury  of  the  Ocean,  forming  a  bay  five 
miles  wide ;  while  the  second,  a  species  of 
prairie  and  heath  combined,  includes  some 
25,000  acres  of  uncultivated  ground,  with- 
out a  tree  growing  naturally  upon  it, 
forming  a  common  for  the  town.  It  is 
twelve  miles  long,  by  five  or  six  in  width. 
Long  previous  to  the  Revolution,  in  early 
colonial  times,  a  race-course,  called  after 
the  celebrated  (English)  Newmarket,  was 
established  here,  by  Gov.  Nicolls,  1665 — 
nearly  two  centuries  ago.  It  is  thus  de- 
scribed by  Denton:  "Towards  the  middle 
of  Long  Island  lyeth  a  plain  sixteen  miles 
long  by  four  broad,  upon  which  plain 
grows  very  fine  grass,  that  makes  exceed- 
ing good  hay,  and  is  very  good  pasture  for 
sheep  and  other  cattel ;  where  you  shall 
find  neither  stick  nor  stone  to  hinder  the 
horses  nor  to  endanger  them  or  their  races ; 
and  once  a  year  the  best  horses  on  the 
Island  are  brought  hither,  and  the  swiftest 
rewarded  with  a  silver  cup — two  being 
annually  procured  for  that  purpose." 
Hence  the  origin  of  racing  on  Long  Island 
— a  favorite  sport,  especially  at  the  Union 
Course,  within  the  memory  of  most  of  us 
rendered  classic  by  the  historical  contests 
between  Eclipse  and  Henry;  and,  still 
later,  between  Boston  and  Fashion, — the 
North  always  victorious.  The  last  great 
race  was  between  Fashion  and  Blue  Dick, ! 
— a  most  exciting  scene,  which  we  had  i 
the  pleasure  of  witnessing.     Trotting  and  ! 

trotters  now  appear  to  have    superseded, 
in  a  great  measure,  racing  and  racers. 

The  shore  of  the  East  River,  from 
Ravenswood  to  Flushing,  famous  for  its 
gardens  and  schools  (the  nurseries  of 
education),  especially  at  and  in  the  neigh- 
borhood of  Astoria,  and  also  at  Newtown 
(celebrated  for  its  orchards),  and  Jamaica, 
in  the  interior,  is  thickly  set  with  delight- 
ful country  places  and  rural  retreats,  in 
some  instances  of  retired  merchants  and 
professional  men,  but,  in  most  cases,  of 
active  business  men  engaged  during  the 
day  in  town. 

The  north  side  of  the  Island,  especially 
at  Oyster  Bay  and  Cold  Spring,  and 
indeed  throughout  its  whole  length,  is 
certainly  superior  in  natural  beauty  and 
picturesque  scenery ;  but  the  south  side 
has  the  advantage  of  fine  roads,  being 
remarkably  level,  and  is  far  richer  in  all 
kinds  of  game,  fish,  and  fowl.  Dr.  DeKay's 
List  of  the  Birds  of  Long  Island  shows  that 
she  is  uncommonly  rich  in  this  particular. 

The  highest  ground  on  Long  Island  is 
Harbor  Hill,  319  feet  above  the  sea,  at 
Hempstead  Harbor,  now  Roslyn — a  roman- 
tic spot,  the  Summer  abode  of  Bryant,  P. 
Godwin,  and  Mrs.  Kirkland.  At  the  same 
place  was  the  first  paper-mill  in  the  State, 
erected  and  managed  by  a  member  of  the 
Onderdonk  family,  which  has  given  two 
bishops  to  the  church  and  many  worthy 
members  to  society.  On  both  sides, 
the  sound  (her  Mediterranean)  and  the 
Ocean,  the  Island  is  rich  in  watering 
places  ;  and  after  Newport,  and  superior  to 
all  of  the  New  Jersey  resorts  for  salt 
bathing,  comes  Rockaway,  which  is 
followed  in  an  inferior  degree  by  Coney 
Island,  Bath,  and  a  number  of  other  p  aces, 
to  the  very  land's-end  of  the  Island, 
at  Montauk.  As  a  fashionable  resort, 
Rockaway,  of  course,  stands  at  the  head  of 
the  list,  and  is  very  accessible  to  the 
denizens  of  the  city ;  but  old  Ocean  is  to 
be  seen  in  his  more  primitive  aspects,  with 
none  of  the  artificial  accompaniments  of 
great  hotels  or  brilliant  society,  with  a 
ruder  beach  and  a  rougher  surf,  at  the 
Hamptons  and  Montauk,  and  along  the 
less  visited  shores  of  Suffolk  County. 




Kings  County,  in  its  rural  portion* 
retains  a  good  deal  of  the  old  Dutch 
character  of  the  early  settlers  (Gravesend 
being  the  only  English  settlement).  Flat- 
bush  is  the  chief  village — a  quiet,  clean, 
most  comfortable-looking  place,  with  its 
pleasant  houses,  and  gardens,  and  farms. 
Erasmus  Hall,  established  contemporane- 
ously with  East  Hampton  Academy,  bears 
witness  to  its  Belgic  origin,  immortalized 
by  President  Duer  in  his  interesting  St. 
Nicholas  Address,  1848. 

Coney  Island  is  supposed  to  have  been 
the  first  landing-place  of  Hudson  and  his 
men,  1609. 

Forts  Hamilton  and  La  Fayette  are 
most  respectable  fortifications,  and  import- 
ant to  the  safety  of  New  York  City. 

Brooklyn  deserves  a  lecture,  or  a  volume, 
rather,  to  herself,  in  place  of  a  paragraph 
— the  rival  or  rather  the  suburb  of  New 
York.  This  is  said  with  no  idea  of  disre- 
spect to  her ;  as,  though  a  dependency  on 
New  York,  much  of  the  city  of  Brooklyn 
is  very  far  superior  to  very  much  of  the 
city  of  New  York; — with  her  numerous 
places  of  religious  worship,  some  of  them 
of  very  considerable  architectural  preten- 
sions ;  with  her  many  fine  streets  of  elegant, 
and,  in  very  many  instances,  magnificent, 
private  residences ;  her  noble  City  Hall 
and  Navy  Yard,  with  its  admirable  dry- 
dock,  and,  crowning  feature  of  all,  with 
her  beautiful  Greenwood  Cemetery,  a  peer- 
less place  of  public  sepulture. 

We  believe  all  of  the  antiquities  of 
Brooklyn  are  gone.  Duflon's  Military 
Garden  and  Parmentier's  Botanical  Garden 
were  great  places  of  resort  in  my  boyhood, 
but  have  made  way  for  the  city  improve- 

Long  Island  may  justly  boast  of  the 
eminent  jurists  and  statesmen  she  has 
produced,  and  equally  of  the  distinguished 
advocates  who  have,  by  residence,  natural- 
ized themselves,  as  it  were — become 
adopted  citizens  of  her  insular  republic. 

Samuel  Clowes,  an  Englishman,  is 
commonly  reported  the  first  lawyer  settled 
upon  Long  Island,  at  Jamaica,  1702.  His 
grave  is  to  be  seen  in  the  burial-ground  of 
the    Episcopal    church.     His    descendants 

are  among  the  most  respectable  of  the 
many  respectable  old  Long  Island  families. 
Jamaica  appears  to  have  been  either  the 
birthplace  or  favorite  retreat  of  gentlemen 
of  the  first  rank,  either  in  the  legal  profes- 
sion or  in  the  political  world,  among  whom 
may  be  mentioned  Benjamin  Kissam, 
Egbert  Benson,  Rufus  King,  Melancthon 
Smith  ;  Genet,  the  French  minister  sent 
from  the  Republic  by  the  Directory,  1793. 
Newtown  claims  the  well  known  legal 
Riker  family;  Flushing,  the  able  Cadwalla- 
der  D.  Colden  (whose  father,  Governor 
Cadwallader  Colden,  had  an  elegant  coun- 
try seat  at  Spring  Hill,  near  Flushing ;  as 
had  Francis  Lewis,  the  Signer,  at  White- 
stone).  DeWitt  Clinton,  too,  enjoyed  his 
rural  leisure,  at  one  period  of  his  life,  at 
his  pleasant  place  at  Maspeth,  in  the  town 
of  Newtown.  South  Oyster  Bay  has 
given  birth  to  perhaps  the  oldest  and  most 
distinguished  legal  family  of  the  State, — 
including,  in  four  generations  of  able 
lawyers,  two  judges  of  the  Supreme  Court 
of  the  colony ;  and,  since  the  Revolution, 
the  two  Samuel  Joneses,  father  and  son,  at 
different  epochs  the  patriarchs  of  the  New 
York  bar;  and  a  younger  brother  of  the 
latter,  a  worthy  and  generous  compeer  of 
the  best,  well  known  to  many  of  you  as 
such,  and  whose  name  and  fame  are  grate- 
fully cherished  in  the  history  of  his  native 
county.  The  celebrated  Judge  Radcliff 
was  a  resident  of  Brooklyn  ;  and  the  emi- 
nent advocate,  Elisha  W.  King,  neither  a 
native  nor  a  resident,  yet  a  descendant,  of 
a  Long  Island  family,  should  not  be  for- 
gotten. Perhaps  no  part  of  the  State  can 
pride  herself  with  more  justice  on  her  able 
lawyers,  of  whom  we  have  mentioned  only 
those  of  the  first  class.  To  this  brief  cata- 
logue should,  in  justice,  be  added  the 
names  of  two  of  the  worthiest  of  the  sons 
of  Long  Island,  the  admirable  brothers 
Sackett,  than  whom  we  have  never  known 
purer  or  more  honorable  characters.  They 
were  able  and  intelligent  lawyers,  high- 
principled  and  kindly  men,  liberal  and 
accomplished  gentlemen,  filled  with  all  the 
virtues  of  the  manly  character;  devoted  to 
duty  and  to  each  other  in  life,  and  not 
separated    in    death — a    rare   example   of 



brotherly  love  and  of  genuine  goodness. 
As  connected,  too,  with  the  old  and 
respectable  families  of  Onderdonk,  Titus, 
Kissam,  and  Tredwell ;  and  united,  by  the 
ties  of  birth,  and  long  residence,  and 
partial  affection  ;  by  political  bias  and  pro- 
fessional pursuits,  their  names  should  never 
be  omitted  in  a  list  of  those  of  whom  this 
community  ought  to  be  proud. 

Suffolk,  too,  has  produced  her  liberal 
proportion  of  able  lawyers  and  statesmen. 
Is  it  necessary  to  do  more  than  recapitu- 
late the  names  of  Wm.  Floyd,  the  Signer; 
Mr.  Stephen  Sayre,  a  native  of  Southamp- 
ton— in  1773,  Sheriff  of  London — an 
elegant  gentleman  and  sincere  patriot ; 
Judge  Conckling ;  Chancellor  Sandford  ; 
Silvanus  Miller ;  Tappan  Reeve,  of  whom 
Dr.  Beecher  remarked,  in  his  funeral 
sermon,  "  I  have  never  known  a  man  who 
loved  so  many,  and  was  by  so  many 
beloved ;"  and  John  Wickham  ?  We 
must  pause,  in  this  rapid  enumeration,  at 
this  last  name,  better  known  at  the  South, 
perhaps,  than  in  his  own  county.  Mr. 
Wickham,  of  Southold,  went,  early  in  life, 
to  Virginia,  where  he  became  endenizened, 
and  made  for  himself  a  most  enviable  legal 
and  social  reputation.  He  is  best  known 
in  legal,  or  rather  political  history,  for  his 
defence  of  Aaron  Buir  in  the  celebrated 
trial  for  treason,  and  in  which  he  had  the 
elegant,  classic  Wirt  opposed  to  him. 
John  Randolph,  that  acute  judge  of  men, 
has  left  his  weighty  testimony  to  the  worth 
and  merits  of  our  great  Long-Islander.  In 
his  will,  dated  January  1,  1832,  he  be- 
queaths "  to  John  Wickham,  Esq.,  my  best 
friend,  without  making  any  professions  of 
friendship  to  me,  and  the  best  and  wisest 
man  I  ever  knew,  except  Mr.  Macon,  my 
mare  Flora  and  my  stallion  Gascoine,  to- 
gether with  two  old-fashioned  silver  tank- 
ards, unengraved  ;  and  I  desire  that  he 
will  have  his  arms  engraved  upon  them, 
'and  at  the  bottom  these  words:  'From 
John  Randolph,  of  Roanoke,  to  John 
Wickham,  Esq.,  a  token  of  the  respect  and 
gratitude  which  he  never  ceased  to  feel 
for  his  unparalleled  kindness,  courtesy, 
and  services.' "  One  of  Mr.  Wickham's 
daughters    married    Mr.    Benj.    Watkins 

Leigh,  one  of  the  political  worthies  of  the 
Old  Dominion.  Mr.  Wickham  took  a  Vir- 
ginian's and  a  Long-Islander's  pride  in  the 
horse,  and  he  had  a  heavy  stake  in  the 
Eclipse  and  Henry  race.  Boston,  the 
greatest  Southern  racer  since  Henry,  was 
bred  by  Mr.  Wickham. 

Well  known  and  popular  names  of  an 
inferior  professional  grade  might  be  added ; 
we  have  enumerated  only  the  foremost, 
and  of  these  none  now  living.  If  we  have 
omitted  any  name  or  names  at  all  equal  to 
the  foregoing,  it  is  wholly  through  inad- 
vertence, and  by  no  means  from  design. 

The  faculty  is  as  well,  if  not  as  nume- 
rously, represented.  There  was  the  cele- 
brated Dr.  Mitchill,  immortalized  by  Hal- 
leck,  whom  the  late  Dr.  Francis,  and  equally 
competent  judges  among  his  contempo- 
raries, were  never  tired  of  praising  for  his 
learning,  his  simplicity  of  character,  his 
benevolence,  and  his  eccentricities;  of 
whom  Cobbett  wrote,  "  A  man  more  full 
of  knowledge  and  less  conscious  of  it,  I 
never  saw  in  my  life;'5  the  able  Wright 
Post ;  Valentine  jSeaman,  father  of  the 
great  doctors  of  the  past  generation,  of 
whom  we  find  mention  in  a  foot-note  of 
Ferriar's  Illustrations  of  Sterne,  to  the 
effect  that  "the  practice  of  whipping  in 
medicine  was  revived  by  Dr.  Seaman  in 
North  America,  who  applied  a  horse-whip 
to  a  patient  who  had  taken  an  overdose  of 
opium.  The  method  succeeded."  Valen- 
tine Mott — one  of  his  pupils — the  peer  of 
Liston,  and  Cooper,  and  Dupuytren,  and 
confessedly  the  first  surgeon  of  his  age 
and  country ;  Dr.  Moore,  of  Newtown  ; 
John  Jones,  one  of  the  founders  of  the 
New  York  Hospital,  and  of  the  medical 
faculty  of  Columbia  (King's)  College, 
"ever  to  be  remembered,"  to  quote  the 
language  of  Dr.  Francis,  "as  the  physician 
of  Franklin  and  the  surgeon  of  Washing- 
ton," the  ablest  operator  and  professional 
writer  of  his  day.  These  were  all  natives 
of  Long  Island.  Dr.  Kissum,  and  Dr. 
Ogden,  who  is  said  to  have  been  the  first 
practitioner  of  his  day,  who  introduced 
the  use  of  mercury  as  a  specific,  became 
residents  of  Jamaica.  Dr.  DeKay,  more 
particularly  eminent  as  a  man  of  science 




and  traveller,  located  himself  near  the  de- 
lightful village  of  Oyster  Bay. 

The  Episcopal  church  has  at  different 
times  stationed  some  of  her  ablest  sons  on 
Long  Island.  Four,  among  the  very  fore- 
most of  our  bishops,  had  parochial  charges 
here  at  different  times — Seabury,  Benj. 
Moore,  Hobart,  and  B.  T.  Onderdonk. 
Bishop  Moore  and  Bishop  Onderdonk  (of 
New  York)  were  natives. 

Four  successive  generations  of  the  first 
honored  name  have  had  charges  on  Long 
Island.  Samuel  Seabury,  father  of  the 
bishop,  was  rector  of  St.  George's,  Hemp- 
stead, and  after  him  succeeded  in  the  same 
parish  Rev.  Lambert  Moore,  then  Mr. 
(afterwards  Bishop)  Hobart.  At  Jamaica, 
Bishop  (then,  too,  Mr.)  Seabury  was  settled 
for  twenty  years.  His  son,  the  Rev. 
Charles  Seabury,  a  clergyman  of  the  Vicar 
of  Wakefield  and  Parson  Adams  stamp, 
was  missionary  at  Setauket  (the  Caroline 
Church)  for  many  years ;  and  his  son 
again,  the  Rev.  Dr.  Seabury,  of  New  York, 
certainly  the  ablest  polemic,  and  one  of 
the  most  eminent  divines  of  the  Episcopal 
church,  was  rector,  for  a  year,  of  St. 
George's  Church,  Astoria.  Four  gene- 
rations of  clergymen,  all  able,  and  two 
pre-eminently  so,  are  not  readily  to  be 

Celebrated  preachers  of  various  denomi- 
nations have  made  Long  Island  the  favorite 
scene  of  their  religious  labors. 

Elias  Hicks,  a  native  of  Jericho,  the 
Unitarian  Quaker  (if  the  phrase  be  not 
tautological),  in  his  peregrinations,  is  said 
to  have  travelled  10,000  miles  and  to  have 
delivered  1,000  discourses.  In  1672, 
George  Fox,  the  rural  patriarch  of  Quaker- 
ism (Penn  was  the  courtier  of  the  society), 
visited  Long  Island  and  preached  under 
the  noble  old  trees  at  Flushing,  near  the 
Bowne  House,  where  he  lodged.  Whit- 
field, one  of  the  two  great  Methodist 
leaders,  also  made  an  ecclesiastical  tour, 
1764,  at  the  east  end  of  the  Island.  Tradi- 
tions abound  in  Suffolk,  especially  in  the 
most  eastern  towns,  of  the  quaint  peculiar- 
ities of  the  early  Presbyterian  clergy,  a 
vigorous  race  of  intellectual,  humorous, 
and  most  devoted  pastors.    The  old  Dutch 

HIST.    MAG.      VOL.    VIII.  12 

Church   in   Kings,   too,  has   her  peculiar 

In  the  naval  and  military  glories  of  the 
country  Long  Island  may  claim  to  partici- 
pate :  in  Commodore  Truxton  (of  Jamaica), 
the  gallant  sailor  and  true  man ;  in  the 
lamented  Gen.  Woodhull  (of  Mastic) ;  and 
the  spirited  Col.  Benj.  Birdsall  (of  Hemp- 
stead) ;  Col.  Tallmadge  (of  Setauket) ; 
General  Ebenezer  Stevens  (of  Astoria), 
Capt.  Norton  (of  Brookhaven),  and  Capt. 
Brewster,  revolutionary  heroes,  are  not  to 
be  forgotten. 

Art,  too,  can  point  to  her  votaries,  some 
of  them  natives,  others  residents,  of  Long 
Island.  Mount,  the  first  comic  painter  of 
the  United  States,  and  his  brother  Shep- 
herd, the  portrait  painter,  natives  of  Se- 
tauket ;  and  a  new  name,  Davis,  of  Port 
Jefferson,  rapidly  becoming  the  peer  of 
Mount ;  Rogers,  the  celebrated  miniature 
painter,  of  Bridge-Hampton.  Hackett,  the 
excellent  comedian,  is,  we  believe,  a  native 
of  Jamaica;  and  Dr.  Valentine,  the  ad- 
mirable comic  lecturer  and  mimic.  By  ram, 
the  self-taught  mechanical  genius,  was  a 
native  of  Southampton;  and  Symmes  (of 
Riverhead),  author  of  the  well  known 
theory  of  the  earth.  We  recollect  the 
name  of  but  one  brilliant  instance  of  native 
authorship  among  the  dead — Robert  C. 
Sands,  the  scholar  and  wit.  Brooklyn  has 
always  had  her  fair  share  of  litterateurs 
and  a  highly  cultivated  society,  most  of 
which  belongs  properly  to  New  York  City, 
or  to  New  England,  or  to  the  native  and 
resident  members  of  the  legal  profession. 

The  population  of  Long  Island  is  equal 
to  that  of  some  of  our  largest  cities,  or 
some  of  the  smaller  States  of  the  Union. 
On  this  score  alone  she  might  claim  to  be- 
come an  independent  State  and  a  distinct 
diocese,  to  have  her  own  governor  and  her 
own  bishop.  But  would  it  be  wise  to 
separate  herself  from  the  parent  State  (if, 
indeed,  such  a  course  could  be  allowed), 
to  forego  the  glory  of  remaining  a  most 
important  portion  of  the  Empire  State, 
and,  instead,  to  set  up  a  political  indepen- 
dency of  her  own  ?  As  the  son,  the  grandson, 
and  the  great  grandson  of  Long-Islanders, 
whose  first  American'  ancestor  was  among 



the  early  English  patentees  of  Queens 
County,  I  say,  for  myself,  distinctly,  it 
would  not. 

The  future  of  Long  Island  appears  to  us 
(so  far  as  we  may  cast  its  horoscope)  to 
resolve  itself  into   becoming  the  garden, 
the  orchard,  and  the  farm  of  New  York 
City.      Assuming   Brooklyn    (though    the 
third  city  of  the  United  States  for  popu- 
lation), with  her  dependencies,  to  be  con- 
sidered as  a  part  of  the  metropolis ;  the 
rural  portion  of  Kings  might  fitly  be  formed 
into   gardens,   kitchen    and    floral ;    while 
Queens  might  be  in  part  devoted  to  both 
gardens  and  orchards  (as  is  even  at  present, 
with  both  counties,  much  the  case),  and 
leaving  the  rest  of  her  soil,  with  much  that 
is  excellent  in  the  soil  of  Suffolk,  for  purely 
agricultural   purposes,  and    farming  on  a 
large  scale.    Or,  admitting  secession  (which 
we  are  as  unwilling  to  countenance  in  this 
instance  as  in  the  disruption  of  our  glo- 
rious Union)   Long  Island   may  virtually 
become  an  insular   State  with  far  better 
reason  than  some  of  the  Southern  States, 
— Delaware,  for  instance.  From  geographi- 
cal   position,  her  internal    resources,  her 
varied  products,  the  possession  of  a  capital 
city  worthy  of  the  name,  she  might  derive 
a  strong  ground  for  separation.     Interest 
and   good    feeling    would    still    ally   her 
strongly  to  New  York,  and  the  divorce 
might  be  but  partial.     This,  however,  we 
merely  glance  at  as  a  speculation  ;  fervently 
trusting  that  no  such  consummation*  may 
ever  happen,  but   that   Long  Island  will 
hereafter  be  known  as  the  richest  jewel  in 
the  crown  of  the  Empire  State,  and  that 
her  sons  and  daughters  may,  while  indulg- 
ing in  a   most    laudable   local   pride,  not 
only  never  forget,  but  boast  with  proud 
satisfaction,  that  they  are  loyal  citizens  of 
the  Empire  State  of  New  York. 

Note. — The  writer  of  the  present  paper  is  indebted 
to  Mr.  J.  W.  Carrington,  who  kindly  read  it,  in  his 
absence,  to  the  Long  Island  Historical  Society;  and 
from  whose  admirable  elocution  much  of  its  immediate 
success  was  derived,  for  the  following  judicious 
remarks : 

(1)  These  so-called  "barrens,"  by  the  way,  are 
being  rapidly  developed,  year  by  year,  into  thrifty, 
promising  farms 


In  the  year  1853,  the  Historical  Society 
of  Pennsylvania  published  its  first  and  only 
volume  of  "Collections."  In  it  were  a 
letter  from  Miss  H  Morris,  the  daughter 
of  the  distinguished  financier  of  the 
Revolution,  to  Mr.  John  F.  Watson  in  rela- 
tion to  General  Washington,  the  informa- 
tion being  derived  from  her  mother,  and 
some  notes  by  Mr.  Watson  of  conversa- 
tions with  Mrs.  Morris,  upon  the  same 
subject.  As  a  very  small  edition  of  this 
volume  was  printed,  the  following  extracts 
from  these  papers  will  be  new  to  most  of 
the  readers  of  the  Historical  Magazine  : 

"  In  his  temper  he  was  usually  mild  and 
slow  to  anger,  but  when  he  was  roused, 
which  was  seldom,  those  who  had  been  the 
cause  of  it  would  take  good  care  never  to 
give  like  cause  again.  He  was  amiable 
and  easy  of  access,  though  rather  reserved, 
not  very  conversible,  sometimes  playful, 
but  never  jocular;  his  deportment  was 
always  dignified,  but  not  austere ;  always 
friendly,  gentlemanly,  and  respectful  to 
his  intimates  and  family  ;  and  was  a  kind 
master  and  a  consistent  one  to  his  servants. 
He  did  not  pay  much  attention  to  children, 
yet  he  was  fond  of  ladies'  society.  He  was 
not  fond  of  music,  nor  did  he  play  or  sing, 
although  he  occasionally,  but  seldom, 
danced;  he  never  played  cards  or  any 
games.     With  regard  to  his  reading,  we 

The  "Bushy  Oak  Plains  (not  Scrub  Oak,  as  they 
are  generally  called)  in  a  pamphlet  by  Winslow  C. 
Watson,  among  the  State  Agricultural  Transactions 
for  1859 — are  shown  to  be  anything  but  "barrens." 
They  would  tit  out  many  a  baron  with  a  most  noble 

(2)  It  might  be  added,  too,  that  Suffolk  County 
lies  wholly  within  that  very  small  portion  of  the 
earth's  surface  described  by  Baron  Humboldt  (in  his 
"  Cosmos,"  I  think)  as  being  emphatically  the  health- 
iest region  in  the  world. 

(3)  it  is  but  just  to  Suffolk  County  to  say,  here, 
that  one  of  her  own  physicians  has  robbed  her  of  this 
terror.  Under  the  treatment  discovered  and  introduced 
by  Dr.  Benjamin  D.  Carpenter,  of  Cutchogue,  tetanus 
is  of  scarcely  more  consequence  than  a  severe  attack 
of  toothache.  Practising  in  a  circuit  of  twenty-five 
miles  in  diameter,  he  assures  me  that  in  sixteen  years' 
residence  he  has  only  averaged  one  case  a  year;  and 
of  cases  that  were  his  own,  he  has  not  lost  one. 




cannot  say,  only  that  he  passed  a  great 
part  of  his  time  in  his  study.  Of  his  reli- 
gious character  we  know  nothing,  except 
that  he  was  regular  in  his  attendance  on 
divine  worship  on  the  Sabbath,  and  we 
never  knew  him  to  express  any  opinion 
regarding  the  different  sects.  He  belonged 
to  the  Episcopal  Church. 

"  He  was  very  fond  of  riding  on  horse- 
back, also  of  fine  horses,  of  which  he  had 
a  favourite.  He  never  engaged  in  athletic 
exercises.  No  man  was  more  attentive  to 
his  professional  duties,  and  no  man  more 
prompt  to  determine  and  pursue  the 
proper  course.  Whatever  time  or  leisure 
he  had  was  principally  spent  in  his  study.'' 
"  He  was  particular  and  remarkably 
neat  in  his  dress,  which  during  his  presi- 
dentship usually  consisted  of  black  velvet, 
with  silk  stockings,  and  shoes.  His  form 
was  very  commanding  and  remarkably 
dignified,  particularly  on  horseback ;  he 
was  indeed  a  complete  horseman,  and  on 
his  entrance  into  Philadelphia  after  the 
surrender  of  Yorktown  was  acknowledged 
by  the  British  officers  present  on  that  occa- 
sion, to  be  the  finest  and  most  heroic 
looking  man  they  had  ever  beheld.  His 
teeth  were  bad,  but  he  had  a  fine  complex- 
ion. He  laughed  but  seldom  ;  he  never 
made  use  of  any  exclamations  or  oaths  ;  he 
did  not  indulge  in  anecdote  and  never 
spoke  of  himself. 

"  He  was  extremely  fond  of  a  farmer's 
life,  and  when  on  his  farm  dressed  very 
plain  but  neat. 

"  He  was  a  moderate  liver  both  in  eating 
and  drinking ;  he  was  an  early  riser,  and 
consequently  went  early  to  bed.  He  at 
one  time  resided  in  my  father's  family 
more  than  two  months,  and  there  never 
was  a  person  who  gave  less  trouble. 

"  He  never  felt  or  indulged  any  bitter- 
ness against  the  English,  and  bore  the 
reproaches  of  our  own  prints  with  the  most 
perfect  equanimity.  He  was  very  graceful 
in  his  address  and  courteous  to  his  guests. 

"  He  always  spoke  of  his  mother  with 
marked  respect  and  affection.  Mrs. 
Washington,  though  not  possessing  much 
sense,  was  a  perfect  lady  and  remarkably 
well  educated  for  her  situation. 

"  Mrs.  Morris  told  J.  F.  Watson  of  the 
deep  impression  made  upon  her  mind  by 
seeing  General  Washington  make  a  public 
entry  into  Philadelphia,  after  the  surrender 
of  Yorktown.  As  the  procession  entered 
High  Street,  the  General  stopped  before 
the  door  and  saluted.  His  manner  on 
that  occasion  was  remarkably  elegant  and 
dignified.  His  manner  of  sitting  on  horse 
was  peculiarly  elegant;  his  horse  was 
entirely  white  and  very  superior ;  he  paid 
great  attention  to  his  horse  and  always 
had  his  hoofs  blacked  before  riding 

"  Some  British  officers  of  high  rank  had 
previously  solicited  a  place  at  Mrs.  Morris's 
house  to  get  a  view  of  the  General,  and 
they  all  expressed  high  admiration  of  his 
dignity  and  demeanor.  As  they  expressed 
a  great  desire  to  be  in  his  company  and 
hear  him  converse,  they  were  invited  that 
evening  to  take  supper  with  him.  On  that 
occasion  he  was  remarkably  polite  and 
affable  to  them.  They  one  and  all  said 
they  should  never  forget  the  satisfaction 
the}'  felt  and  the  honor  they  deemed  done 
to  themselves,  thereby. 

"  One  of  the  officers  was  remarkably 
like  the  General  and  had  often  been  told 
so.  On  said  occasions  he  used  to  affect  to 
deem  it  a  disparagement,  but  to  Mrs. 
Morris  he  had  said  '  to  be  indeed  like  such  a 
man  was  indeed  a  distinguished  honor.' 
General  Washington  was  very  polite  to 
this  officer. 

"They  all  particularly  spoke  of  his 
marked  elegance  as  a  graceful  horseman, 
saying  that  he  and  his  horse  moved  as 
but  one. 

"  Mrs.  Morris  died  soon  after  relating 
the  above,  namely  in  January,  1807. 

"  When  he  was  a  young  man,  he  was 
seen  at  the  Philadelphia  Coffee  House  by 
old  Rees  Meredith,  a  considerable  merchant, 
who,  being  pleased  with  his  appearance, 
asked  him  home  with  him  (without  any 
introduction  or  knowledge  of  his  character). 
There  he  gave  him  a  venison  dinner. 
Washington  remembered  and  told  this  in 
later  life,  and  when  in  Philadelphia  in- 
quired for  the  family,  and  in  consequence 
of  that  incident,  sought  out  his  son  whom 




he  made  the  Treasurer  of  the  United 
States.     (Told  me  by  Dr.  Griffith.) 

"  Mrs.  Deborah  Logan  has  seen  General 
"Washington's  mother  at  Fredericksburg 
when  she  was  eighty-five ;  she  had  the 
stateliness  and  dignity  of  her  son,  and  was 
familiar  too.  She  told  Mrs.  Logan  that 
she  had  formed  the  minds  of  her  children 
with  great  care,  and  expressed  her  great 
trouble  to  find  adequate  schools,  and  said 
she  sent  her  son  George  forty  miles  to  the 
best  she  could  get.  She  lived  in  a  one 
story  cottage  and  declined  to  live  at 
Mount  Vernon. 

"  General  Washington  was  extremely 
punctual.  His  cabinet  councils  were 
appointed  to  meet  him  precisely  at  eleven 
o'clock  on  set  days.  On  such  occasions 
General  Hamilton  was  usually  the  latest 
and  after  the  time  ;  then  he  would  bustle, 
and  drawing  out  his  watch  exclaim  it  had 
deceived  him.  This  occurred  a  number  of 
times  when  the  General  effectually  pre- 
vented it,  by  rising  and  looking  firmly  on 
General  Hamilton  and  saying  :  'Sir,  you 
must  provide  yourself  a  new  watch,  or  I  a 
new  secretary.'  I  had  this  from  Col.  Picker- 
ing, who  was  present. 

"  On  an  occasion  of  one  of  these  meet- 
ings, the  General  was  likely  to  be  detained 
by  the  shoeblack  beyond  the  exact  time. 
The  secretaries,  in  proceeding  to  the 
appointed  room,  had  to  pass  a  small  cham- 
ber where  the  General's  boots  were  to 
have  been  placed.  When  Col.  Pickering 
entered  he  found  the  General  holding  the 
servant  and  belaboring  him  with  his 
boots.  Col.  Pickering  hurried  on,  and  no 
remarks  were  made. 

"  He  was  accustomed  to  rise  at  daylight, 
and  always  went  into  the  stable  to  see  his 
horses,  of  which  he  was  very  careful.  On 
one  such  occasion  he  found  that  the  coach- 
horses,  which  had  come  home  late,  had  not 
had  their  legs  rubbed  down,  the  mud  being 
still  on  them.  The  General  was  seen  by 
one  who  told  me,  to  seize  his  German 
coachman  and  to  fisty-cuff  him  in  the  yard 
with  a  good  drubbing !  I  have  understood 
he  was  passionate. 

"  Houdon's  bust  of  Washington  at  the 
close  of  the  war,  when  his  face  was  full 

and  without  a  wrinkle,  was  the  best  like- 
ness that  ever  was  exhibited,  and  no  artist 
will  ever  err  that  will  copy  it,  especially  as 
a  military  character.  (W.Rush.)  Houdon's 
bust  is  invaluable  for  the  truth  of  its  pro- 
portions. He  was  an  artist  celebrated  for 
the  fidelity  and  natural  character  of  his 
busts.     (Rembrandt  Peale.) 

"  Stuart's  portrait  is  heavily  exaggerated 
(Peale),  although  it  is  the  one  from  which 
most  of  the  portraits  are  since  made.  It 
was  done  in  1775.  Stuart  executed  two, 
and  called  his  first  a  complete  failure.  His 
second  one  is  unfinished.  Stuart  used  to 
say  that  Washington  was  the  broadest 
between  the  eyes  of  any  man.  His  nose 
then  is  very  thick.  Gen.  Washington 
weighed  at  West  Point,  in  IV 82,  two 
hundred  and  nine  pounds.  In  later  life  he 
grew,  I  believe,  still  heavier  and  more  cor- 

"  Mrs.  Washington,  in  the  time  of  the 
war,  boarded  in  the  present  ordinary-look- 
ing small  three-story  house  at  the  north- 
west corner  of  Arch  and  Front  street.  The 
wives  of  many  tradesmen  would  now  dis- 
dain to  live  in  the  same.  It  is  now  a  gro- 
cery store.* 

"  Gen.  Washington  was  the  first  person 
of  distinction  among  us  who  left, off  hand 
ruffles.  Then  Gen.  Dickinson  and  others 
spoke  of  it  and  followed  the  example. 

"  The  Secretary  of  State  told,  in  the 
hearing  of  Mrs.  Logan,  how  very  deeply 
Gen.  Washington  was  wounded  in  his 
feelings  when  he  first  saw  the  severe  stric- 
tures on  his  administration  in  Freneau's 

"  Col.  McLane  told  me  that  when  Wash- 
ington and  his  army  lay  at  Valley  Forge, 
in  1778,  some  of  the  Pennsylvania  Germans 
made  a  Paddy,  and  displayed  it  on  St. 
Patrick's  day  to  the  great  indignation  of 
the  Irish  in  camp.  They  assembled  in 
large  bodies  under  arms,  swearing  for  ven- 
geance against  the  New  England  troops 
there,  saying  they  had  got  up  the  insult. 
The  affair  threatened  a  very  serious  issue  ; 
none  of  the  officers  could  appease  them.  At 

*  This  house  has  been  pulled  down  within  the  last 
few  years.     (Note,  iu  1864.) 




this  time  Washington,  having  ascertained 
the  entire  innocence  of  the  New  England 
troops,  rode  up  to  the  Irish  and  kindly  and 
feelingly  argued  with  them ;  and  then,  as 
if  highly  incensed  against  the  perpetrators, 
requested  the  Irish  to  show  the  offenders 
and  he  would  see  them  punished.  They 
could  not  designate  any  one.  Well,  said 
Washington,  with  great  promptness,  I  too 
am  a  lover  of  St.  Patrick's-day,  and  must 
settle  the  affair  by  making  the  army  keep 
the  day.  He  therefore  ordered  extra 
drink  to  every  man  of  his  command,  and 
thus  all  made  merry  and  were  good 

"After  the  surrender  ofYork  Town,  while 
the  Continental  troops  were  preparing  to  re- 
ceive the  British,  who  were  to  march  forth 
from  the  garrison  and  deliver  up  their 
arms,  the  Commander-in-Chief  was  heard 
to  say,  addressing  himself  to  the  division 
of  the  army  to  which  he  was  attached, 
4  My  brave  fellows,  let  no  sensation  of  satis- 
faction for  the  triumphs  you  have  gained 
induce  you  to  insult  your  fallen  enemy  ; 
let  no  shouting,  no  clamourous  huzzaing 
increase  their  mortification.  It  is  suffi- 
cient satisfaction  for  us  that  we  witness 
their  humiliation.  Posterity  will  huzza  for 

"  Washington  possessed  great  muscular 
strength  of  arm,  and  it  was  of  unusual 
length.  When  young,  he  threw  a  stone 
across  the  Rappahannock,  and  at  the 
Natural  Bridge  he  threw  a  stone  higher 
than  any  person  has  since.  An  instance  of 
his  strength  in  this  way  occurred  at  the 
Palisades  up  the  North  River,  in  1789.* 
General  Washington  being  at  that  post  on 
a  temporary  call  with  his  staff,  saw  the 
officers  attempting  to  throw  stones  from 
the  high  bluff  (which,  to  the  eye,  seemed 
almost  perpendicular)  into  the  river  below, 
but  none  were  able  to  effect  it.  Washing- 
ton alighted  from  his  charger  and,  seeking 
for  a  stone  to  his  liking,  took  two  or  three 
quick  steps,  and  giving  it  a  jerk  (called  the 
4  Douglass  cast'  among  the  Virginians), 
he  lodged  it   in   the    sounding   water  at 

least  one  rod  from  the  shore.  All  the 
troops  were  so  astonished  and  rejoiced  that 
they  gave  three  cheers.', 

*    So   in   Mr.     Watson's    MS. 
meant  ? 

"Was   not    1179 


A  Copy  of  the  Original  in  my  possession. 

H.  W.  B. 

Portland,  Feb.  64. 

Dear  Sie, 

My  son  Wm-  informs  me  that  he  has  a 
large  number  of  Letters  from  the  honble- 
John  Adams.  Should  these  letters  be 
made  public  he  thinks  it  would  blast  his, 
Adams'  character  and  be  advantageous  to 
the  public.  WIn.  sayeth  he  has  had  a 
conference  with  your  Honour  The  Honble 
Messrs  Cabot  &  Lowell  &c  and  that  the 
project  is  approved.  That  you  write  him 
that  you  have  a  packett  directed  to  him  of 
so  much  consequence  that  you  dare  not 
trust  it  by  the  mail.  Are  you  sure  they 
would  be  safe  in  his  hands  ?  I  understand 
Mr.  Adams'  letters  were  confidential.  The 
public  good  is  dear  to  me.  I  cannot  ap- 
prove treachery,  that  your  steps  may  be 
directed  by  unerring  wisdom  is  my  sincere 
wish  If  you  have  not  sent  on  this  packett 
for  the  want  of  a  safe  conveyance  Mr  Has- 
kell the  bearer  of  this  will  take  charge  of 
what  you  may  think  proper  to  commit  to 
his  care.  I  will  be  answerable  for  his 
fidelity.  My  Mrs  Cunningham  and  her 
daughter  Lois  are  not  very  well  all  the 
rest  of  our  respective  famileys  are  in  good 
health  hope  that  you  and  your  connections 
enjoy  the  same  blessing.  If  your  good. 
Daughter  is  a  florist  and  will  be  so  obliging 
as  to  send  me  a  few  of  her  curious  flower 
seeds  it  will  be  esteemed  a  favor.  Expect 
to  go  to  Boston  early  in  the  Summer  with 
the  dear  partner  of  my  Joyes  and  sor- 
rows when  we  intend  to  do  ourselves  the 
pleasure  of  making  you  a  visit.  In  the 
mean  time  I  am  with  much  esteem  your 
friend  and  humble  serv1- 

William  Cunningham 

Lunenburg  March  19th  1810 





Richaed  Butler  was  a  native  of  Ireland, 
but  came  with  his  father  to  Pennsylvania 
prior  to  1760. 

We  have  not  ascertained  when  he  first 
joined  the  American  army,  hut  Lee,  in  his 
memoirs  of  the  war,  etc.,  in  his  biographical 
sketch  of  General  Morgan,  says :  "  In  the 
spring  of  1111,  a  select  rifle  corps  was 
formed,  out  of  others  in  the  army,  com- 
manded by  Colonel  Morgan,  seconded  by 
Lieut.  Col.  Richard  Butler  of  Pennsylvania, 
and  Major  Morris  of  New  Jersey,  two 
officers  of  high  talents  and  specially  quali- 
fied for  the  enterprising  service  to  which 
they  were  assigned." 

From  this  it  appears  that  Butler  had 
been  in  the  army  prior  to  "  the  spring  of 
1777,"  and  he  must  have  displayed  con- 
siderable enterprise  and  ability  to  have 
entitled  himself  to  the  distinction  thus 
conferred  upon  him. 

In  this  rifle  corps  he  served  during  the 
campaign  which  was  closed  by  the  sur- 
render of  Burgoyne. 

Col.  Lee,  in  his  account  of  a  gallant 
action  in  which  Col.  Butler  was  engaged 
on  the  26th  June,  1781,  used  the  following 
language:  "The  American  General  (La 
Fayette)  detached  Lieutenant-Colonel  But- 
ler, of  the  Pennsylvania  line,  the  renowned 
second  and  rival  of  Morgan,  at  Saratoga." 
At  that  time  (1781)  Butler  was  a  full 
Colonel,  having  been  promoted  to  the 
command  of  the  9th  Pennsylvania  Regi- 
ment, in  Dec.  1777,  soon  after  the  surren- 
der of  Burgoyne. 

In  1791,  General  Butler  was  second  in 
command  under  General  St.  Clair  in  his 
ill-fated  expedition  against  the  Indians, 
and  fell  in  the  unfortunate  action  of  the 
4th  November,  1791. 

We  give  this  brief  notice  of  his  services 
as  an  introduction  to  the  extract  from  his 

The  extract  which  we  give  will  be  found 
highly  interesting,  giving  as  it  does  an 
account  of  the  first  landing  of  the  French 
troops  in  Virginia,  of  which  Col.  Butler  and 
Col.  Stewart  happened  to  be  the  witnesses. 

The  account  of  the  arrival  of  Washing- 
ton, of  the  cordial  reception  given  to  him 
by  both  the  American  troops  in  Virginia 
and  the  French  army,  the  delightful  com- 
pliment paid  to  him  by  the  French  band 
of  music,  all  form  pleasant  passages  in  the 

The  passage,  however,  in  which  Colonel 
Butler  expresses  his  warm  and  ardent 
affection  for  Washington,  and  his  honest 
indignation  against  the  base  conspirators 
who  endeavored  to  destroy  him,  always 
excites  in  our  bosom  a  thrilling  sensation 
of  pleasure. 

Those  expressions  of  feeling  were  writ- 
ten in  his  private  Journal,  kept  for  his 
own  satisfaction,  never  intended  for  publi- 
cation.— They  therefore  afford  the  best 
evidence  of  the  honest  and  ardent  affection 
of  Butler  for  his  commander,  and  the  deep 
and  sincere  reverence  which  the  virtues  of 
that  commander  had  inspired. 

Colonel  Butler  was  in  Wayne's  Bri- 
gade, and  Steuben's  division,  and  had 
encamped  the  evening  previous  to  the  date 
of  the  beginning  of  our  extract  at  Cabin 

"September  1st. — This  morning  an  express, 
from  Col.  Gammel  to  the  Marquis,  passed 
us  at  sunrise,  with  certain  accounts  of  the 
arrival  of  Count  de  Grasse,  with  Maj.  Gen. 
Marquis  de  St.  Simon,  and  a  fleet  of  28 
sail  of  the  line  and  4  frigates,  being  in  the 
bay  of  Chesapeake,  with  7000  troops, 
ready  to  act  in  conjunction  with  the  Ame- 
rican army.  Marched  at  9  o'clock  for 
Surry  Court  House,  12  miles,  arrived  at 
3  o'clock,  P.  M. — Encamped  on  good 
ground,  and  had  very  good  springs  on  our 
right,  left,  and  front.  Met  a  number  of 
the  militia  collecting.  Went  from  Surry 
Court  House  to  reconnoitre  Cobham  Point, 
and  to  see  if  any  of  the  French  ships  had 
got  up,  having  heard  of  five  appearing 
below  Surry  church. — Found  very  good 
ground  and  fine  water.  This  is  directly 
opposite  to  Jamestown  and  Island — the 
river  a  league  wide  from  this — is  a  very 
good  prospect  up  and  down  the  river. 
About  5  o'clock,  P.  M.,  myself  and  Col. 
Stewart  went  down  to  the  Isle  of  Wight 




to  Col.  Burril's,  where  we  were  overjoyed 
to  see  the  Experiment,  a  French  40  gun 
ship,  and  4  frigates  at  anchor; — also,  3 
prize  vessels,  taken  on  their  way  to  this 
coast.  We  had,  also,  the  additional  plea- 
sure of  seeing  40  large  boats,  with  near 
4000  troops,  coming  up  the  bay;  these 
were  from  on  board  the  grand  fleet  Avhich 
they  left  in  Hampton  Roads.  Col.  Stewart 
and  myself  were  fortunate  in  being  the 
two  lirst  American  officers  that  received 
them,  and  took  the  Marquis  de  St.  Simon 
and  all  his  officers  by  the  hand  as  they 
landed  at  Col.  Burril's  on  the  beach.  The 
General  and  some  of  the  officers  went  to 
Mr.  Burril's  house  to  rest,  but  returned  to 
their  troops  about  8  o'clock,  P.  M.,  having 
expressed  much  pleasure  at  seeing  us.  We 
then  set  off  for  camp,  and  arrived  at  Gen. 
Wayne's  quarters  at  12  o'clock  with  these 
pleasing  accounts,  all  of  which  was  im- 
mediately communicated  to  the  officers, 
whose  joy  was  great  and  their  happiness  ex- 
pressed by  every  mark  of  joy  and  pleasure. 
Sept.  2d. — The  troops  marched  for  Cob- 
ham  Point,  6  miles,  where  we  encamped ; 
and  about  1  o'clock  saw,  with  pleasure,  the 
boats  come  up  and  land  on  James  Island, 
covered  by  the  three  prize  vessels  above 
mentioned  ;  all  was  done  in  the  most  per- 
fect order  and  regularity.  This  was  a 
mortifying  and  surprising  sight  to  two 
British  flag- ships  that  lay  at  this  place ; 
who  never  heard  the  least  whisper  of  this 
great  event  until  the  troops  and  vessels 
were  among  them.  Gen.  Wayne,  Cols. 
Butler  and  Stewart,  with  a  few  other  offi- 
cers went  across,  and  were  very  politely 
received  by  Maj.  Gen.  de  St.  Simon  and 
his  officers.  We  requested  boats  for  the 
crossing  of  our  troops,  which  were  given 
with  the  greatest  cheerfulness,  and  after 
mutual  compliments  passed,  we  re-crossed, 
all  but  Gen.  Wayne,  who  went  by  appoint- 
ment to  meet  the  Marquis  de  Lafayette, 
and  was  very  unfortunately  shot  in  the 
thigh  by  a  sentry  just  as  he  arrived  there  : 
the  wound  is  not  dangerous,  but  is  very 
mortifying  to  this  good  officer  and  the 
troops  he  commands,  who  love  him,  and 
wish  his  presence  on  the  field  on  all  oc- 

Sept.  3d. — The  boats  attended  very 
punctually,  both  for  us  and  the  militia, 
who  crossed  from  Swan's  Point,  at  the 
same  time,  the  Pennsylvania  troops  cross- 
ed from  Cobham  Point.  The  troops  crossed 
with  great  ease  in  the  boats,  but  the  want 
of  proper  crafts,  and  some  neglect  in  the 
few  there  was,  not  being  brought  down  in 
time,  Col.  Gaskins,  of  Virginia,  and  his 
troops  were  left  to  cross  and  guard  the 
baggage.  The  troops  moved  to  Green 
Spring  for  shelter,  it  being  very  wet, 
stormy  weather. 

Sept.  4th. — Marched  at  3  o'clock,  A.M., 
for  the  City  of  Williamsburgh,  where  we 
halted  to  cover  the  general  officers  while 
they  looked  for  a  post ;  but  a  good  dinner 
being  got  by  Colonel  Finney  and  other  in- 
habitants, the  Generals  and  part  of  the 
field  officers  dined  together  at  Col.  Finney's, 
and  other  squads  went  into  other  houses ; 
the  afternoon  was  spent  in  so  much  hap- 
piness that  it  was  too  late  to  examine  the 
ground  much,  therefore  the  French  Gen- 
eral said  from  what  he  had  seen  he  would 
take  the  position  on  my  recommendation, 
and  that  General  Du  Portail  and  one  of  his 
engineers  would  attend  me  to-morrow,  in 
order  that  they  might  be  informed  of  the 
advantages  and  disadvantages  of  the  posi- 
tion, and  then  he  rode  off  with  the  Mar- 
quis for  the  Green  Spring.  It  being  likely 
to  rain,  had  the  Pennsylvania  troops  posted 
in  the  College,  which  shelters  them  very 
well.  The  Marquis  ordered  me  to  call  up 
the  light  infantry  from  the  lines,  in  order 
to  refresh  and  join  their  battalions ;  these 
arrived  about  11  o'clock,  P.M.,  under  Maj. 

Sept.  5th. — I  went  out  to  examine  the 
ground  ;  began  at  Mr.  Powell's  on  the  left ; 
found  the  creek  on  which  is  the  capitol 
landing  impassable,  except  in  one  place  just 
below  the  birdge,  and  this  place  very  diffi- 
cult ;  another  branch  secures  the  left  and 
rear,  leaving  only  one  pass  for  many  miles, 
this  pass  is  at  a  mill  two  miles  from  the 
mouth,  the  other  branch  leads  near  the 
college,  and  secures  the  whole  front,  by  a 
ravine  which  forms  a  creek  at  Mr.  Powell's. 
The  right  flank  and  front  is  secured  by  the 
College  creek,  which  heads  at  that  build- 




ing  also,  and  runs  into  the  James  river  ;  on 
this  creek  is  the  College  landing,  and  on 
the  other  which  runs  into  the  York  river  is 
the  capitol  landing ;  this  is  a  very  remark- 
able and  strong  pass,  there  being  not  more 
than  half  a  mile  of  hard  ground  between 
the  two  creeks,  which  may  be  guarded  by 
a  few  good  works  against  an  attack  in  front, 
either  from  or  to  the  city.  About  1 1  o'clock 
the  two  Engineers  of  the  French  army  and 
Gen.  Du  Portail  arrived,  went  down  below 
the  city  about  two  miles,  found  good  camp- 
ing ground  but  no  water,  went  then  to  Mr. 
Powell's  and  examined  all  the  ground  which 
I  had  fixed  on  for  an  encampment,  which 
the  Engineers  liked  well,  and  approved  of 
as  military  and  well  chosen.  Dined  at  Mrs. 
Vobes',  where  a  number  of  militia  gentle- 
men and  others  dined  also.  Col.  Steward 
and  self  paid  for  the  French  officers,  after 
dinner  examined  the  ground  about  the 
mill  on  the  Jamestown  road  and  parted. 

Sept.  6th. — I  went  to  visit  Gen.  Wayne 
and  to  see  if  the  baggage  was  over,  found 
the  French  had  taken  the  company's  team 
horses  which  I  recovered  and  sent  on  with 
provisions,  the  Pennsylvanian  troops  were 
ordered  to  Burrirs  mill,  three  miles  below 
"Williamsburgh,  this  is  a  remarkable  strong 
pass,  took  post  here  and  served  the  troops 
with  provisions  and  liquor. 

Sept.  1th. — A  party  of  dragoons  were 
sent  down  towards  the  halfway  house  to  re- 
connoitre, Capt.  Herd,  who  commands  the 
party  was  informed  of  a  body  of  horse  and 
loot,  supposed  to  be  1500  in  number,  hav- 
ing passed  up  the  road  toward  Harrod's 
mill,  he  sent  a  small  party  across  the 
country  to  ascertain  this  fact,  pushed  for  the 
forks  of  the  road  at  the  church  near  Mr.  Bur- 
ril's  mill,  lest  the  enemy  should  push  a  party 
in  his  front,  which  they  really  attempted 
and  which  he  and  his  party  narrowly 
escaped,  having  met  them  at  the  very  spot, 
he  pushed  and  gained  the  pass,  and  retired 
before  the  horse  to  the  sentrys  of  the  ad- 
vanced picket,  which  allowed  him  and  his 
party  to  pass  by  and  fired  on  the  enemy 
who  had  previously  ordered  them  to  sur- 
render, the  enemy  then  pushed  on  to  the 
pickets,  who  had  lain  perdue  and  gave 
them  a  full  platoon,  which  made  them  re- 

tire very  precipitately,  aud  leave  behind 
some  bloody  cloaks  and  other  furniture 
which  they  dropped  in  the  flight. 

I  had  the  troops  formed,  and  artillery 
placed  in  such  a  manner  as  to  make  an 
opposition  that  would  have  convinced 
them  of  their  folly  had  they  attempted 
crossing  the  pass,  or  even  to  take  posses- 
sion of  the  side  they  were  on,  but  they 
presently  withdrew.  I  then  went  to  reco- 
noitre  the  country;  I  found  one  of  the  most 
advantageous  posts,  the  head  of  Burril's 
mill-creek,  and  some  draughts  that  fall  into 
the  James  river,  which  are  impossible  to 
pass  but  near  the  road ;  at  this  spot  I 
placed  the  militia  battalion,  commanded 
by  Col.  Randolph,  and  some  rifle  men  of 
Col.  Lewis'  at  a  breach  of  the  James  river, 
where  a  road  from  Harrod's  mill  to  Burril's 
ferry  comes  in ;  having  thus  secured  all 
these  posts,  I  went  with  Major  Hamilton 
and  one  Mr.  Burril  to  Burril's  point,  where 
I  had  a  good  view  of  the  shipping  at  York  ; 
this  spot  is  on  a  point  of  land  formed  by 
the  York  river  and  Burril's  mill-creek, 
which  is  impassable  (except  at  one  place) 
all  the  way  to  the  mill.  Several  sailors 
having  deserted  from  the  ships,  I  obtained 
an  account  of  their  naval  force  which  I 
sent  to  the  Marquis  de  la  Fayette,  viz  : — 

IName  of  ship.               No.ofGuna.  Pounder  %. 

Charon,     ....      44  ....  18  and  12 

G-uadaloupe,  ...       32  ....  12     .       9 

Old  Foway,    ...       24  ....     9     .       6 

Bonne tta,  sloop  of  war,  16 6 

Brig  Defiance,  with     .  16  carronades  18     . 

"     Spitfire,      ...  12  "           12     . 

Sloop  Formidable, .     .  10  "           12     . 

"       Rambler,       .     .  10  "            4     . 


.  14 
.  10 

Four  of  the  above  named  small  vessels 
were  ordered  two  miles  up  the  river  to 
cover  a  working  party  who  were  building 
a  redoubt ;  they  have  four  other  redoubts 
on  the  land  side,  and  two  on  the  water 
side,  one  of  which  has  twenty-four  eighteen 
pounders  and  four  twelve  pounders  on  it 
complete  at  the  old  flag  staff.  Had  two  or 
three  fifty  gun  ships  been  passed  up,  on  the 
arrival  of  the  French  fleet,  it  would  have 
so    far    accelerated    our   approaches   and 




secured  the  river  carriage  of  provisions, 
<fcc,  that  matters  would  have  been  rendered 
very  easy  and  all  their  shipping  would 
have  fallen,  also,  these  very  heavy  guns 
with  which  they  have  covered  the  river, 
and  will  thereby  impede  the  passage. 
There  are  several  small  vessels  in  the 
Pamunkey  or  York  river,  which  I  advised 
the  General  to  have  fitted  out  and  manned 
in  order  to  protect  the  provision  boats ; 
which  could  then  come  within  seven  miles 
of  us  very  safely,  but  whether  the  torpidi- 
ty of  this  sleepy  state,  or  whether  he 
thought  it  difficult  to  get  it  done,  was  the 
cause  of  this  advice  not  being  adopted,  I 
don't  know  ;  however,  it  was  neglected  and 
the  carriage  of  the  river  lost,  and  the  whole 
being  in  a  manner  starving,  and  there  still 
appears  no  more  industry  or  endeavor  to 
supply  the  troops,  and  collect  a  magazine 
of  provisions  than  if  the  enemy  was  in 
Europe,  and  no  army  of  our  own  in  the 

Sept.  8th. — Received  orders  to  march 
for  Williamsburgh  to  join  the  allied  army ; 
arrived  at  our  ground  at  11  o'clock,  had 
some  difficulty  in  getting  our  baggage  as 
we  had  to  let  the  allied  army  have  our 
wagons  to  bring  on  their  whole  train  and 
camp,  therefore  had  to  lay  in  bough  huts, 
on  very  dusty  ground,  for  this  day  and 
night ;  the  French  army,  the  Pennsylvania 
and  light-troops  made  a  very  elegant 
appearance  in  passing  through  the  city. 

Sept.  9th.— Obtained  our  baggage, 
pitched  our  camp.  Lay  by  without  any 
accounts  of  the  enemy  stirring  on  the 
eighth,  the  British  fleet  passed  Cape 
Henry  and  came  into  the  bay,  and  were 
gallantly  engaged  by  the  French,  who 
drove  them  to  sea,  and  pursued  them,  but 
leaving  six  ships  of  the  line  for  the  security 
of  the  bay.  The  Baron  de  Steuben  arrived 
in  camp  with  his  suite. 

Aug.  Wth. — Accounts  by  a  Frigate 
that  the  French  were  left  in  full  pursuit  of 
the  British,  who  were  flying  before  them, 
and  that  in  about  six  hours  sailing  they 
must  come  up  with  eighteen  sail  of  victu- 
allers which  the  British  intend  for  Lord 
Cornwallis'  relief  and  support,  which  they 
had   abandoned  in   their  flight.     Still  no 

HIST.    MAG.      VOL.    VIII.  13 

flour  or  meal,  and  the  beef  supplied  is 
very  bad,  in  short  there  is  yet  no  exertions 
made  to  supply  the  troops  who  have  been 
supplied  with  only  three  days'  bread  out 
of  seven,  and  not  the  least  likelihood  of 
being  better  supplied. 

Sept.  12th. — Several  cannon  heard  down 
the  river  ;  no  account  from  the  fleet.  This 
day  Governor  Nelson  sent  Mr.  Nichols  to 
give  me  an  order  to  retain  a  mill,  and  to 
impress  corn  carriages,  boats,  or  any  thing 
to  facilitate  the  collecting  of  provisions ; 
sent  off  Lieutenant  Collier  with  a  party 
for  this  purpose. 

Sept.  13th. — An  account  of  the  Comman- 
der-in-Chief having  arrived  at  his  own  seat 
at  last.  He  has  not  been  within  his  own 
door  for  seven  years,  indeed  not  since  he 
was  first  a  member  of  Congress  in  the  year 
1775,  all  which  time  he  has  been  a  most 
faithful  patriot  and  servant  of  his  country, 
from  the  citizen  he  was  a  counsellor,  then 
a  General,  and  in  reality  the  Father  of  the 
people,  he  has  nobly  shared  in  all  their 
misfortunes,  shewing  the  utmost  fortitude 
and  regularity  of  conduct;  indeed  the  able 
statesman  has  appeared  in  all  his  actions. 
Some  malign  shafts  have  been  shot  at  him 
by  a  small  insignificant  tribe  whose  falsely 
and  ill  directed  arrows  always  reverted  to 
their  own  bow  and  wounded  themselves. 

Sept.  14th.— The  Marquis  Lafayette  still 
continues  ill  of  the  ague.  Yesterday  the 
Marquis  de  St.  Simon,  and  a  number  of 
his  officers,  paid  a  visit  to  our  line,  and  the 
Baron  Steuben  and  our  good  friend  Gen. 
Wayne,  whose  wound  and  gout  still  con- 
tinue ill.  About  3  o'clock  an  express  ar- 
rived, announcing  the  approach  of  our 
great  and  good  Commander-in-Chief,  Gen. 
Washington,  and  the  Count  de  Rocham- 
beau,  the  commander  of  the  allied  armies 
of  France,  now  joining.  At  4,  P.  M.,  the 
guns  fired  a  royal  salute  as  the  General 
approached  the  camp,  on  which  the  two 
armies  turned  out  on  their  battalion  pa- 
rades ; — his  Excellency  and  the  Count  De 
Rochambeau,  with  their  suites,  attended 
by  the  Marquis  do  Lafayette,  Maj.  Gen. 
and  commander  of  the  American,  and 
Maj.  Gen.  Marquis  de  St.  Simon,  com- 
mander of  the  allied  army  (lately  arrived), 




and  all  their  suites.,  visited  the  allied  army 
first,  and  then  the  American  army,  and 
were  saluted  according  to  custom ;  these 
ceremonies  finished,  the  whole  of  the  of- 
ficers of  the  French  army  attended  at  the 
Marquis  de  St.  Simon's  quarters  and  were 
introduced  to  the  Illustrious  Hero,  The 
field  officers  of  the  American  army  all 
attended  to  bid  him  and  the  other  Generals 
welcome.  These  ceremonies  over,  an 
elegant  supper  was  served  up,  and  the  fol- 
lowing great  personages  and  officers  supped 
together  in  the  utmost  harmony  and  hap- 
piness, viz:  His  Excellency,  the  Count  de 
Rochambeau,  commander  of  allied  army; 
Maj.  Gen.  Marquis  de  Lafayette,  com- 
mander of  the  army  in  Virginia  ;  Maj. 
Gen.  Marquis  de  St.  Simon,  commander  of 
the  allied  army  in  Virginia  ;  Maj.  Gen. 
Baron  de  Steuben,  Inspector  General  of 
the  American  army  ;  Count  Dumas  (an 
officer  of  distinction  in  the  French  Guards, 
and  one  of  the  aids  of  Rochambeau) ; 
Count   de   Damas,    another    of    his    aids ; 

Count— ,  aid  to  Marquis  de  St.  Simon  ; 

Brig.  Gen.  Hand,  Adj't  Gen.  of  the  Ame- 
rican army;  Cols.  Butler  and  Stewart,  of 
Pennsylvania ;  Col.  Trumbull,  His  Excel- 
lency's secretary ;  Col.  Cobb,  one  of  his 
aids;  Lt,  Col.  Smith,  another  of  his  aids, 
with  a  number  of  other  officers ;  also  Col. 
,  commanding  the  Regiment  Gati- 
nais,  and  many  other  Cols,  and  Lt.  Cols., 
and  other  officers  of  the  allied  army.  To 
add  to  the  happiness  of  the  event  and 
evening,  an  elegant  band  of  music  played 
an  introductive  part  of  a  French  Opera, 
signifying  the  happiness  of  the  family, 
when  blessed  with  the  presence  of  their 
father,  and  their  great  dependance  upon 
him.  About  10  o'clock  the  company  rose 
up,  and  after  mutual  congratulations  and 
the  greatest  expression  of  joy,  they  sepa- 

Sept.  15th. — An  officer  arrived  from 
Count  de  Grasse's  fleet,  with  certain  ac- 
count of  the  arrival  of  his  and  Count  de 
Barras'  fleet,  from  Rhode  Island,  with  the 
French  troops  en  board,  and  heavy  artil- 
lery and  large  mortars,  also  of  the  capture 
of  the  famous  Iris  Frigate,  and  the  Rich- 
mond frigate,  which  with  the  Romulus  of 

44  guns,  are  sent  to  Baltimore,  and  head 
of  Eik,  to  bring  down  all  our  troops  and 
apparatus  for  a  siege  ;  the  storm  seems  to 
thicken  fast  about  Lord  Cornwallis,  whose 
people  desert  fast,  which  is  a  certain  symp- 
tom of  despondency  in  all  armies.  This 
day,  his  Excellency,  the  Commander-in- 
Chief,  dined  with  the  Marquis  de  Lafayette, 
also  Marquis  de  St.  Simon,  Baron  de 
Steuben,  Count  de  Rochambeau,  Dumas, 
and  Desandroins,  a  number  of  American 
and  French  officers  of  distinction,  and 
passed  the  afternoon  in  the  greatest  hap- 
piness and  harmony.  Several  officers  of 
the  Navy,  among  whom  is  the  captain  of 
the  Experiment  of  40  guns. 

Sept.  16th, — His  Excellency  Gen.  Wash- 
ington, Counts  de  Rochambeau,  de  Chas- 
tellux,  and  a  great  number  of  Generals  and 
other  officers  dined  with  Baron  de  Steu- 
ben ;  we  spent  the  afternoon  in  great 
harmony  and  retired. 

Sept.  11  to  27. — Has  been  spent  in  de- 
barking the  troops  and  trains  from  the 
shipping  the  whole  being  arrived,  the 
troops  having  taken  their  proper  stations 
and  every  thing  arranged,  and  the  Com- 
mander-in-chief and  principal  officers  re- 
turned from  on  board  the  Ville  de  Paris 
where  the  Generals  have  been  fixing  a  plan 
of  co-operation  with  the  Admiral,  orders 
issued  for  the  whole  army  to  move  at  5 

Se2?t.  28th. — The  Army  marched  accord- 
ing to  orders,  and  took  post  three  quarters 
of  a  mile  from  the  town  of  York,  and  in 
open  view  of  the  enemy,  on  our  approach 
Lord  Cornwallis  at  the  head  of  his  Dragoons 
turned  out  to  reconnoitre  us,  some  riflemen 
and  two  pieces  of  artillery  moved  towards 
them,  and  with  a  few  shots  made  them 
scatter  and  move  off  into  their  works. 
The  General  reconnoitred  them  and  ordered 
the  heavy  artillery  which  landed  at  Har- 
rod's  landing  below  Burril's  ferry  to  be 
moved  up  as  fast  as  possible.  The  French 
army  have  the  left  fronting  the  British 
right — the  Americans  the  right  faceing 
the  British  left.  The  British  General  seems 
determined  to  stand  a  siege  having  pre- 
pared in  the  best  manner  possible. 

29th. — Small   scattering  fire  both  from 




the  artillery  and  small  arms,  the  principal 
officers  reconnoitering  and  fixing  a  position. 
This  night,  the  enemy  abandoned  their 
camp  and  out-works  with  precipitation, 
the  advanced  redoubts  entire,  which  shows 
the  want  of  a  fixed  resolution. 

30th. — The  American  and  Allied  army 
took  possession  of  the  abandoned  redoubts 
in  proper  military  form.  The  engineer 
began  to  lay  out  work  for  the  artillery, 
<fec,  and  every  thing  goes  on  with  spirit ; 
1,200  men  for  fatigue,  forming  fascines, 
&c.  The  enemy  very  busy  all  day  at 
the  works  around  the  town.  This  morn- 
ing Cob  Scammel  was  unfortunately 
wounded  and  taken  prisoner  when  recon- 
noitering too  close  to  the  enemy. 

Oct.  1st. — Last  night  a  good  deal  of 
firing  between  the  patrols  and  pickets  ;  two 
works  were  traced  out  and  carried  on  with 
great  vigor.  The  enemy  began  to  cannon- 
ade at  daybreak,  and  also  a  few  shells, 
which  did  no  damage  till  evening,  when 
two  men  were  killed  on  the  works ;  these 
happened  not  to  be  men  on  business,  but 
idle  spectators.  General  Wayne's  brigade 
were  ordered  as  the  covering  party ;  this 
evening  marched  to  our  ground  at  sunset, 
the  Maryland  4th  Regiment  as  picket  in 
advance.  They  kept  up  a  fire  of  three 
pieces  of  cannon  at  half  hour  periods  all 

Oct.  2d?.— The  fire  of  the  enemy  more 
severe  this  morning  about  10  o'clock,  A.M. ; 
they  brought  up  two  18  pounders  in  addi- 
tion to  what  they  brought  yesterday.  They 
fired  severely  all  day,  the  shot  expended 
amounted  to  351  between  sun-rise  and  sun- 
set. Wayne's  brigade  ordered  to  camp 
for  convenience,  but  still  the  covering  party 
till  sun-set.  The  fire  of  the  enemy  con- 
tinued all  night.  About  10  o'clock,  P.M., 
a  heavy  firing  of  the  ships  in  the  bay.  1 
reconnoitered  the  post  at  Gloster  and  the 
shipping,  which  I  compute  at  10  sail,  the 
Gloster  post  not  strong,  I  think  by  the 
size  of  the  camp,  1,000  men;  their  works 
not  regular,  they  have  one  good  water  bat- 
tery, on  the  York  side  ;  I  observed  a  good 
work  close  by  the  bank  with  four  embra- 1 
sures,  the  ground  very  good  for  approaches ;  j 
in  general  our  works  go  on  slow,  the  heavy  | 

artillery  hard  to  get  up;  not  one  piece  of 
cannon  as  yet  fired  at  them  ;  indeed,  I  dis- 
cover very  plainly  that  we  are  young 
soldiers  in  a  siege  ;  however,  we  are  de- 
termined to  benefit  ourselves  by  experience ; 
one  virtue  we  possess,  that  is  perseverance. 

Oct.  3d.— -The  enemy  ceased  firing  at 
sun-rise ;  four  men  of  the  picket  belonging  to 
Capt.  Ray's  company  were  killed  by  a  cannon 
shot  of  the  enemy  in  the  night.  About  10 
o'clock  began  to  fire  single  shot.  The  ruf- 
fian Tarleton,  with  a  body  of  troops,  went 
to  Gloster  yesterday;  after  killing  all  his 
poor  horses  and  mounting  men  on  the  offi- 
cers'horses,  (who  Lord  Cornwallis  order- 
ed to  part  with  them)  pushed  out  to  forage, 
but  fell  in  with  the  Duke  de  Lauzun  and 
his  legion,  who  treated  them  very  roughly, 
and  obliged  them  to  retire  to  their  lurking 
places  with  the  loss  of  above  fifty  killed, 
wounded  and  taken.  Tarleton  himself  was 
rode  down  by  his  own  men,  whose  hurry 
caused  them  to  be  very  impolite  to  their 

The  loss  of  the  Duke  was  few,  not  more 
than  six  men  killed  and  wounded,  with  3 
officers  wounded.  Tarleton  had  one  Captain 
killed,  and  several  officers  wounded.  Two 
of  the  Reg't  Deux  Fonts  deserted  to  the 
enemy,  also  one  Jersey  and  one  Maryland 
soldier!  The  Pennsylvania  troops  for 
fatigue  who  finished  the  redoubts. 

October  4th.~^Vevy  little  firing  all  day. 
Wayne  and  Colonel  Butler  went  to  recon^ 
noiter  on  the  York  river  side,  the  enemy 
very  busy  forming  new  works.  Two  de- 
serters from  the  enemy,  who  report  that 
Cornwallis'  army  is  very  sickly  to  the 
amount  of  2000  men  in  the  hospital,  and 
that  the  troops  had  scarce  ground  to  liver 
upon,  their  shipping  in  a  very  naked  state 
and  their  cavalry  very  scarce  of  forage. 
2000  French  marines  landed  on  Gloster" 
side  from  Count  de  Grasse  at  9  o'clock 
P.M.,  a  smart  firing  of  small  arms,  which* 
brought  a  very  heavy  cannonade  all  night. 

October  5th. — Cannonading  all  morning, 
our  part  increases  fast,  and  things  go  on  well, 
to-day  about  4  o'clock  P.M.,  Corporal  Or- 
gan, a  brave  and  honest  soldier,  was  unfor- 
tunately killed  by  a  cannon  shot ;  a  great 
deal  of  firing  through  the  night,    Pennsyl* 




vania  and  Maryland  Militia  for  gabion 
making  to-morrow.  Confirmation  of  Gen- 
eral Green's  success  came  to  the  Com- 

October  6th. — Pennsylvania  and  some 
other  troops  went  to  gabion  making ; 
finished  a  great  number  and  carried  them 
to  the  right  near  the  York  river,  400 
paces  from  the  enemy.  The  first  parallel 
and  other  works  being  laid  out  by  the  En- 
gineer ;  a  body  of  troops  ordered  under 
Generals  Lincoln,  Wayne  and  Clinton,  to 
break  ground  and  form  works,  the  materials 
being  got  ready  and  brought  previously  to 
the  spot.  The  enemy  kept  up  a  severe 
cannonade  all  night,  it  began  on  the  left  of 
the  allied  army,  who  lost  some  men  killed 
and  one  officer  and  several  men  wounded  ; 
their  intention  was  to  possess  the  enemy's 
advanced  redoubt  on  the  York  river,  but 
one  of  the  dragoons  having  deserted  the 
enemy  discovered  the  intention,  which 
caused  the  enemy  to  keep  up  an  (almost) 
incessant  fire  that  way  through  the  night  ; 
the  allied  army  finding  the  enemy  too  well 
apprized,  contented  themselves  with  going 
on  with  their  work.  The  American  part 
of  the  army  on  duty  made  great  progress 
in  forming  lines  and  batteries  without  the 
loss  of  a  man. 

October  1th. — The  whole  continued  at 
work,  notwithstanding  the  enemies  fire 
through  the  whole  day  and  night.  About 
day  light,  a  very  sharp  fire  of  small  arms 
commenced,  succeeded  by  artillery,  they 
go  on  well,  and  our  loss  as  yet  very  trifling, 
indeed  the  siege  appears  to  be  no  more 
than  an  experimental  movement. 

Oct.  8th,  1781. — The  division  of  Steuben 
for  the  trenches  to-day.  This  is  composed 
of  the  Virginia,  Maryland,  and  Pennsyl- 
vania troops.  The  enemy  continued  to 
cannonade,  mounted  at  12  o'clock.  The 
enemy  kept  hard  at  work,  and  fired  inces- 
santly on  our  fatigue  parties,  who  really 
wrought  hard,  and  completed  one  large 
battery  on  our  extreme  right,  on  the  bank 
of  the  river,  on  which  three  29  pounders, 
three  18  pounders,  two  10  inch  mortars, 
and  two  8  inch  howitzers  were  mounted. 
The  Marquis  de  St.  Simon  had  a  battery 
completed  on  the  extreme  left,  of  eight  18 

and  12  pounders,  two  10  inch  mortars, 
and  two  8  inch  howitzers,  both  which  bat- 
teries were  made  ready  to  open  at  the 
same  instant. — A  very  fine  battery  of 
twelve  32,  24,  and  18  pounders,  six  10 
inch  mortars,  and  six  8  inch  howitzers,  was 
forwarded,  with  small  batteries  on  the 
right  and  left  of  this  grand  centre  battery. 
The  enemy  seem  embarrassed,  confused, 
and  indeterminate  ;  their  fire  seems  feeble 
to  what  might  be  expected,  their  works, 
too,  are  not  formed  on  any  regular  plan, 
but  thrown  up  in  a  hurry  occasionally,  and 
although  we  have  not  as  yet  fired  one  shot 
from  a  piece  of  artillery,  they  are  as  cau- 
tious as  if  the  heaviest  fire  was  kept  up. 

9th. — Relieved  by  Major  General  Lin- 
coln's division.  This  day,  at  3  o'clock, 
P.  M.,  the  batteries  of  Lamb  and  the  Mar- 
quis de  St.  Simon  opened  with  great 
elegance,  and  were  quickly  followed.  The 
Commander-in-chief  paid  the  allies  the 
compliment  of  firing  first.  The  shot  and 
shells  flew  incessantly  through  the  night, 
dismounted  the  guns  of  the  enemy,  and 
destroyed  many  of  their  embrasures. 

10th. — Another  grand  battery  in  centre 
of  the  line  of  contravallation,  consist- 
ing of  four  32  pounders,  four  24  poun- 
ders, and  four  18  pounders,  six  8  and  10 
inch  mortars,  with  two  8  inch  howitzers. 
Opened  at  dawn  of  day,  and  played  inces- 
santly, and  destroyed  houses,  works,  and 
everything  before  it.  About  12  o'clock, 
Secretary  Nelson  came  out  with  a  flag, 
and  informed  the  Commander-in-chief  that 
Lord  Cornwallis  and  the  chief  officers 
were  burrowed  in  the  ground,  and  that 
our  shot  and  shells  did  great  execution ; 
he  also  says  Majors  Cochran  and  Gordon, 
of  the  British  army,  arrived  from  New 
York  in  a  whale-boat,  who  brought  ac- 
counts that  Admiral  Digby  had  actually 
30  sail  of  line  of  battle  ships,  and  was 
resolved  to  relieve  the  garrison  by  an 
attack  on  the  French  fleet,  and  sending  in 
a  reinforcement  which  Sir  Plenry  Clinton 
had  embarked.  He  adds  that  Tarleton 
and  Simcoe  have  killed  above  1000  horses, 
and  that  they  were  both  unwell  and  in- 
active ;  that  Duke  de  Lauzun  kept  them 
entirely  in,  and  very  frequently  alarmed 




them ;  that  the  town  was  quite  cut  to 
pieces  with  works  of  different  kinds.  About 
12  o'clock  some  of  our  shot  took  effect 
among,  and  sunk  several  of  their  shipping, 
which  set  them  to  work  to  scuttle  and 
sink  several  more.  Our  fire  was  kept  up 
with  unremitting  fury  all  day: — after  dark 
the  shell  made  a  very  beautiful,  though  at 
the  same  time  dreadful  appearance.  About 
9  o'clock,  P.  M.,  a  fire  broke  out  among 
the  shipping — three  were  burned,  among 
which  was  the  Charon,  of  40  guns.  The 
sailors  got  them  towed  towards  the  Gloster 
shore,  in  doing  which  two  others  took  fire, 
so  that  the  total  loss  is  five  burnt. 

11th. — The  chief  part  of  their  ships 
taken  over  towards  Gloster,  out  of  the 
range  of  our  shot  and  shells  which  annoyed 
them  much — the  chief  of  the  remainder 
sunk,  or  hauled  close  in  shore,  the  garrison 
kept  up  and  much  fatigued.  This  night 
Colonel  Richard  Butler  had  the  command 
of  600  men,  and  opened  about  700  paces 
of  the  second  parallel  within  about  250 
yards  of  their  works ;  in  many  places  this 
was  done  so  secretly  that  the  enemy  did 
not  know  of  it  till  day ;  when  they  com- 
menced a  very  heavy  fire,  though  they  did 
but  little  harm. 

12th. — A  constant  fire  of  shot  and  shells 
from  both  parties,  many  men  killed  and 
wounded  on  our  side,  and  deserters  say 
we  made  great  havoc  in  town  with  our 

13th. — Several  deserters  out  of  town, 
who  say  the  enemy  are  in  confusion  the 
whole  of  the  army  on  duty  or  fatigue, 
making  saucissons,  fascines,  stakes,  gabions, 
and  palisades,  to  make  good  the  daily 
consumption,  several  men  killed  and  woun- 

14th. — Steuben's  division  for  the  trench- 
es, mounted  early,  in  order  to  relieve 
the  light-infantry.  At  sunset  the  infantry, 
under  the  Marquis  de  Lafayette,  and  a 
part  of  the  Regiment  Deux  Ponts  and  the 
French  Grenadiers,  under  de  Viomesnil, 
moved  out  at  1  o'clock,  P.  M.,  made  an 
attack  on  two  of  the  enemy's  redoubts 
that  had  prevented  us  running  our  second 
parallel.  The  Marquis  de  Lafayette,  with 
his  detachment,  attacked  the  small  redoubt 

on  the  river  side,  and  the  enemy's  extreme 
left,  and  the  Baron  de  Viomesnil  the  re- 
doubt on  a  line  with  this,  more  to  the 
enemy's  right,  300  paces.  The  two  attacks 
commenced  almost  at  the  instant,  and 
were  conducted  with  spirit  and  bravery, 
the  dispositions  military,  the  redoubts 
were  both  carried  in  ten  minutes,  with 
trifling  loss  on  all  sides.  The  British  offi- 
cers taken  are  Major  and  Capt.  Campbell, 
and — * 

The  prisoners  were  secured,  and  imme- 
diately the  second  parallel  was  completed 
from  these  redoubts  to  the  place  where  Col. 
Richard  Butler  left  off  on  account  of  these 
redoubts,  which  if  left  in  their  possession, 
would  have  impeded  the  progress  of  the 
siege,  which  rendered  them  of  more  import- 
ance to  both  parties.  The  British  defence 
was  very  faint  to  what  might  have  been 
expected,  from  the  consequence  they  were 
of  to  them,  in  keeping  us  at  a  distance. 
After  these  were  carried,  an  alarm  was 
spread  around  the  British  line  in  order 
to  ascertain  what  weight  of  fire  they 
could  produce,  which  proved  very  faint, — 
this  is  a  measure  highly  proper,  as  it  puts 
the  besiegers  power  to  proportion  their 
attack  in  case  of  storm,  and  should  be 
guarded  against  by  the  besieged,  and  the 
greatest  care  taken  never  to  expose  their 
strength  unnecessarily.  Again  daylight 
the  second  parallel  was  closed  and  the  lines 
of  communication  formed,  which,  from  the 
immensity  of  the  work,  must  have  surprised 
the  enemy,  as  it  advanced  us  V00  yards  in 
some  places,  and  put  us  within  250  yards 
of  their  works  generally.  The  allies  are  a 
fine,  steady,  persevering  people,  and  our 
confidence  in  each  other  seems  mutual. 
Batteries  are  laying  out — and  the  materials 
collecting  so  fast,  that  the  enemy  must  be 
surprised  at  our  facility  and  execution. 

loth. — Col.  Butler  and  part  of  the  two 
Pennsylvania  Battalions  relieved  part  of 
the  fatigue.  The  batteries  were  laid  out 
early,  and  the  materials  brought  to  the 
spots  assigned.  The  enemy  sent  out  an 
improper  flag,  which  was  detained  till  the 
Marquis  de  la  Fayette  sent  one  in  to  Lord 
Cornwallis,  to  inform  him  of  the  impro- 
priety of  his  conduct  in  sending  a  flag  and 




firing  at  the  same  time  ;  his  Lordship  sent 
an  aid  to  our  flag  to  assure  us  he  was  sorry 
he  had  given  an  unintended  offence,  and 
requested  he  would  point  out  the  place  for 
the  reception  of  flags  in  future.  On  the 
return  of  the  respective  flags  hostilities 
commenced  very  warmly.  General  Wash- 
ington, Count  de  Rocbambeau,  Gen.  Chas- 
telux  and  many  other  general  officers, 
visited  the  lines.  Capt.  de  La  Touche,  of 
the  Hermione  frigate,  and  several  officers 
of  the  Navy,  came  up  to  visit  the  lines,  and 
seemed  highly  pleased  at  our  approaches, 
which  really  appear  very  judicious. 

The  Commander-in-Chief  returned  thanks 
in  general  orders  to  the  Marquis  De  Vio- 
mesnil,  the  Marquis  De  La  Fayette,  and  all 
the  officers  and  troops  concerned  in  the 
late  attack  ;  it  is  observed  that  very  little 
blood  of  the  enemy  Avas  spilt,  although  the 
national  prejudice  is  so  great.  The  enemy 
have  an  amazing  number  of  sick  in  town, 
and  are  obliged  to  send  their  wounded  to 
Gloster,  where  Col.  Dundas  commands. 
All  the  enemy's  cavalry  and  about  1,000 

foot    compose    this 


division  were  relieved  by  General  Lin- 
coln's about  1  o'clock,  P.M.  The  ene- 
my's shells  have  wounded  several  of  the 

The  batteries  were  opened  and  fired  with 
great  success,  which  silenced  the  chief  of 
the  enemy's  batteries  ;  many  of  their  men 
were  killed,  and  the  whole  of  the  garrison 
thrown  into  confusion.  About  12  o'clock 
at  night,  Maj.  Abercrombie,  of  the  British, 
with  a  party  of  the  Light  Infantry  and 
Guards,  made  a  sally,  and  passing  between 
two  small  redoubts  that  were  unfinished, 
and  where  (by  the  parties  being  moved  in 
another  post  to  work,)  the  line  was  weak, 
got  possession  of  the  trench  ;  thence  they 
pushed  rapidly  to  a  French  battery,  and 
spiked  the  guns  and  drove  out  the  people, 
having  killed  four  or  five  :  Thence  to  the 
covert  way  or  communication  leading  from 
the  first  to  the  second  parallel,  where  they 
halted.  They  then  discovered  a  battery 
commanded  by  Capt.  Savage,  of  the  Ame- 
ricans and  challenged,  What  troops  ?  The 
answer  was  French — on  which  the  order  of 
the   British  Commandant   was  "Push  on, 

my  brave  boys,  and  skin  the  b rs." 

This  was  heard  by  Count  De  Noailles, 
who  had  the  command  of  a  covering  party, 
which  he  ordered  to  advance,  and  was 
guided  by  the  Huzza  of  the  British.  He 
ordered  grenadiers  to  "  charge  bayonet  and 
rush  on,"  which  they  did  with  great  spirit 
crying  "  Vive  Le  -ifoy,"  and  to  use  the 
British  phrase  skivered  eight  of  the  Guards 
and  Infantry,  and  took  twelve  prisoners, 
and  drove  them  quite  off.  The  British 
spiked  Savage's  three  guns  with  the  points 
of  bayonets,  but  our  smiths  and  artillery 
men  soon  cleared  all  the  guns,  and  in  six 
hours  chastised  the  enemy  for  their  teme- 
rity with  the  same  pieces.  Our  loss  was 
very  trifling,  though  the  British  really 
executed  the  sortie  with  secrecy  and  spirit. 

\§th. — This  day  employed  in  cleaning 
the  trenches,  filling  up  the  banquettes,  and 
completing  our  batteries  with  the  different 
kinds  of  artillery,  and  using  those  briskly 
that  had  been  placed  yesterday.  We  lost 
a  few  men  by  small  shells  and  shot,  as  our 
lines  are  close. 

17th. — Major  General  de  Steuben's  divi- 
sion mounted  the  trenches  at  12  o'clock; 
at  10  o'clock,  A.  M.,  Lord  Cornwallis  sent 
out  a  flag,  requesting  a  suspension  of  hos- 
tilities for  24  hours,  and  that  two  Commis- 
sioners shall  be  appointed,  to  agree  on  a 
capitulation  for  the  ports  of  York  and 
Gloster,  with  the  troops  and  shipping. 
Gen.  Washington  sent  no  answer  to  the 
first  request.  About  4  o'clock,  P.  M., 
another  flag,  requesting  a  cessation  for 
four  hours.  The  General  agreed  that  a 
cessation  should  take  place  for  two  hours. 
Reasonable  proposals  were  made,  and  only 
some  small  alterations,  necessary  for  the 
satisfaction  and  accommodation  of  parties, 
therefore  no  more  work  or  firing. 

18th. — The  troops  in  the  trenches  being 
entitled  to  the  honor  of  closing  the  siege, 
we  therefore  remained  unrelieved  in  the 
trenches.  This  day  the  whole  army  were 
ordered  to  hold  themselves  in  readiness 
for  any  service  requisite.  Two  Commis- 
sioners from  the  American  and  two  from 
the  British  army,  to  draw  up  the  capitu- 
lation in  form,  these  were  His  Excellency 
Lieutenant  General  the  Chevalier  de  Chas- 




tellux  and  Col.  Laurens  for  America,  and 
*  for  the  British. 

Col.  Butler,  with  200  of  the  American 
troops,  were  ordered  to  take  possession  of 
one  of  the  enemy's  works,  and  the  Mar- 
quis Laval,  with  100  Grenadiers  of  France, 
to  take  possession  of  another.  This  being 
a  day  of  negotiation,  every  thing  appeared 
to  be  in  suspense.  After  the  troops  were 
ready  to  march,  they  were  ordered  to 
remain  on  their  arms. 

19^A. — About  11  o'clock  last  night,  the 
British  commissioners  returned  to  York, 
they  not  having  completed  the  capitulation, 
and  the  truce  continued  till  9  o'clock  this 
morning.  About  1 1  o'clock,  A.  M.,  all 
settled,  the  capitulation  was  signed,  and 
the  two  parties  under  the  Marquis  Laval 
and  Col.  Butler  reduced  to  100  each,  to  be 
commanded  by  a  Major,  who  marched  im- 
mediately, and  took  possession  of  the 
works  at  12  o'clock;  then  the  two  armies 
were  drawn  up  opposite  to  each  other,  on 
the  road  leading  from  York  to  the  country, 
and  at  2  P.  M.,  the  British  army  marched 
out,  to  the  great  satisfaction  of  the  whole 
American  army  and  all  spectators.  Their 
number  as  follows  : — 1  Lt.  Gen.,  1  Br.  Gen., 
2  Cols.,  8  Lt.  Cols.,  11  Majors,  52  Capts., 
89  Lts.,  36  Ens.,  2  Chaplains,  12  Adjs., 
10  Qr.  Masters,  10  Surgeons,  22  Mates, 
295  Sergeants,  121  Drummers  and  Fifers ; 
Rank  and  File  fit  for  duty  3293,  Sick  pre- 
sent, 90  Sergeants,  44  Drummers  and  Fifers ; 
Rank  and  File  1741 — total  582 1 — 70  pieces 
brass  Ordnance,  (this  is  the  post  of  York 

20th. — Two  divisions  of  the  British  army 
were  ordered  to  march  under  the  care  of 
the  militia,  for  Staunton  and  Winchester. 
All  this  day  spent  in  collecting  public 

21st. — Gen.  Choiseul  went  to  the  post 
of  Gloster,  and  disarmed  and  dismounted 
the  garrison,  both  horse  and  foot,  agree- 
ably to  the  capitulation.  This  day  the 
British  and  German  troops  marched  for 
their  destination.  The  Commissaries  still 
busy  collecting  the  stores  of  all  kinds. 

22d. — The   French   Frigates   and  Com- 

*  A  blank  in  the  original. 

j  missaries  were  up  to  take  account  of  the 
[Marine  Department ;  the  stores  still  col- 
lecting. I  observe  the  greatest  villainy 
practised  by  the  British  ;  they  don't  appear 
to  have  an  idea  of  honor  in  any  of  their 
actions.  They  have  completely  plundered 
every  thing  in  their  power,  and  do  not  pay 
the  least  regard  to  any  treaty.  I  also  find 
the  greatest  of  abuses  committed  by  per- 
sons who  pass  into  the  town,  and  instead 
of  the  army  being  benefitted  by  any  sale 
of  goods  or  privilege  to  purchase,  the 
stores  are  kept  shut,  which  answers  an 
excellent  purpose  for  all  speculations  by 
the  rascals  who  take  advantage  of  such 

We  have  been  particularly  happy  in 
good  weather  during  the  whole  siege.  We 
had  but  one  wet  night,  that  of  the  15th. 
The  army  in  good  spirits,  and  seem  ready 
for  any  other  service. 

23d. — Fine  weather.  This  day  a  Council 
of  war  wras  held  at  Head  Quarters.  The 
sloop  of  war  Bonnetta  fell  down  the  river, 
with  her  iniquitous  cargo  of  deserters, 
stolen  negroes,  and  public  stores  that  the 
British  officers  had  secreted,  in  violation 
of  treaty  and  in  breach  of  honor.  Lord 
Cornwallis  visited  the  General  officers  in 
return  for  their  visits.  Col.  Tarlton  was 
dismounted  by  a  man  from  the  country, 
whose  horse  he  had  stolen  some  time  ago. 
The  American  Commissioners  are  still  col- 
lecting and  taking  account  of  stores  of 
all  kinds. 

24th. — Still  fine  weather.  This  day  went 
into  town  with  General  Wayne.  Observed 
great  irregularity  in  collecting  public 
stores.  The  French  artillery  conductors 
very  busy  in  embarking  their  stores.  Eight 
fine  frigates,  and  one  40  gun  ship  in  the 
harbor.  Their  intention  is  to  weigh  the 
vessels  sunk  during  the  siege. 

The  following  noblemen  are  this  after- 
noon embarked  for  France,  viz  : — Count 
Laval,  Viscount  Win.  Deux  Pouts  (brother 
to  Count  Bernard  Deux  Pouts,  who  com- 
mands the  elegant  regiment  Deux  Ponts), 
and  Captain  Montesquieu,  with  their  at- 
tendants, on  board  the  Hermione  frigate, 
with  duplicates  of  the  surrender  of  the 
army  under  Lord  Cornwallis. 




25th. — The  Count  de  Rochambeau  visit- 
ed Gloster.  The  stores  still  collecting  by 
the  Commissioners,  and  the  British  and 
country  people  stealing.  The  merchants 
and  suttlers  of  the  British  army  are  this 
day  met  with  the  Quarter  Masters,  to  de- 
vise some  plan  to  dispose  of  the  property 
to  the  officers  of  the  army. 

ni  (Bmx'm. 


Singular  Advertisement. — (From  the 
Royal  Gazette  and  the  New  Brunswick 
Advertiser  (St.  John's,  N.B.),  January  20, 

Pro  Bono  Publico  or  Charles Loosley  is  no 
dead,  (Laus  Deo)  is  not  dead,  as  report- 
ed, but  lives  at  Grinross  Neck,  in  the  royal 
county  of  Queen's,  in  a  good  stately  look- 
ing house,  rather  unfinished  but  comfort- 
able. By  him  the  hungry  can  get  the  best 
food,  the  athirst,  good  drink,  and  the 
weary,  beds ;  and  for  their  horses,  warm 
stables,  oats  and  English  hay,  at  moderate 
prices,  as  usual. 

Pro  Bono  Publico  also  informs  all  those 
gentlemen  who  are  indebted  to  him  (for  the 
fourth  and  last  time)  that  unless  they  dis- 
charge their  arrears  in  fourteen  days  from 
the  date  hereof,  he  will  be  under  the  dis- 
agreeable necessity  of  putting  them  with- 
out discrimination  in  a  common  cage  or  go 
"in  one  himself. 

which  continued  in  force  until  a  constitu- 
tion was  formed,  September  15,  1818." 

Now,  considering  that  Connecticut  was 
not  first  settled  at  Windsor ;  that  it  was 
not  settled  before  1635,  though  the  Dutch 
had  built  a  fort  at  Hardford,  and  Ply- 
mouth a  trading-house  at  Windsor,  two 
years  earlier,  but  no  u  puritans  from  Massa- 
chusetts" were  at  either  place ;  that  Con- 
necticut did  not  continue  more  than  one 
year  under  the  jurisdiction  of  Massachu- 
setts ;  that  Massachusetts  was  not  a  ''pro- 
vince ;"  and  that  the  Connecticut  charter 
of  1662  gave  way  to  the  present  constitu- 
tion when  the  latter  was  adopted  by  the 
electors  in  October,  and  not  when  it  was 
framed  by  a  convention  in  September, 
1818; — considering  all  this,  it  may  be 
doubted  whether  other  six  lines  can  be 
found,  even  in  a  "  book  of  reference,"  em- 
bodying so  many  new  facts  as  do  these. 

It  is  true  that  the  Almanac  is  not  en- 
titled to  the  exclusive  credit  of  the  com- 
pilation. Its  editor  was  largely  indebted 
to  Colonel  Hickey's  Constitution  of  the 
United  States, — a  standard  authority, — 
for  two  most  important  items  ;  to  wit,  that 
Connecticut  wTas  "  embraced  under  the 
charters  of  Massachusetts ;  and  continued 
under  the  same  jurisdiction  until  April  23, 
1662,  when  a  separate  charter  was  grant- 
ed" (p.  399  ;  3d  edition). 

Where  an  author  gives  two  or  three 
octavos  to  the  history  of  a  State,  an  oc- 
casional error  of  fact  or  date  is  excusable  ; 
but  when  such  a  history  is  condensed,  for 
ready  reference,  into  a  half  a  dozen  Imes, 
it  seems  unnecessary  that  these  should  con- 
tain, year  after  year,  half  a  dozen  misstate- 
ments. T. 

Facts  which  are  not  Facts. — The 
Evening  Journal  Almanac  for  1864,  a 
very  useful  and  convenient  manual  of  poli- 
tical information,  has  the  following  com- 
pend  of  State  history,  which  seems  worth 
transferring  to  the  pages  of  the  Hist. 
Magazine : — 

"  Connecticut  was  settled  at  Windsor, 
in  1633,  by  English  Puritans  from  Massa- 
chusetts, and  continued  under  the  jurisdic- 
tion of  that  province  until  April  23,  1662, 
when    a   separate   charter    was    granted, 

"  The  Celebrated  Latin  Line  on 
Franklin"  (vii.  354).— The  H.  M.  for 
Nov.,  1863,  has  a  note  that  Mr.  Sumner 
has  settled  the  authorship  of  the  celebrated 
Latin  verse,  written  under  the  picture  of 
Franklin  : — 

"  Eripuit  coelo  fulmen  seeptrutnque  tyrannis." 
That  Lord  Brougham  had  erred  in  ascrib- 
ing the  verse    to    Claudian,  and    that  Mr. 
Sumner,    in    a    scholarly    review,    shows 
that  the  verse  was  written  by  Mons.  Tur- 




got,  and  he  finds  its  model  in  a  verse  of 
the  Anti-Lucretius  of  Cardinal  Melchior  de 

The  authorship  of  that  line  was  settled 
more  than  ten  years  ago.  The  whole  matter 
may  be  found  in  the  English  Notes  and 
Queries,  7th  Feb.,  1852  (v.  140),  just  as 
Mr.  Sumner  gives,  and  the  detail  there 
given  had  been  copied  into  American  news- 

Urbano,  Ohio,  Jan.  25,  '64. 

J.    H.   J. 

The  Price  of  Substitutes  in  the 
Olden  Time. — The  copy  of  a  document  in 
my  possession. 

H.  W.  B. 

Portland,  Feb.,  '64. 

Waltiiam  June  the  10th  174S 

Then  Received  of  Josiah  Brown  the  sum 
of  Forty  Pound  old  tenor  as  his  sum  for 
going  in  to  his  Majesties  service  to  the 
Eastward  frontiers  to  be  improved  in  hiring 
a  man  to  go  in  his  room. 

Received  Pr  me 
j   Samuel  Livermore  Cap1- 

Reminiscences  of  Burr's  Later  Days. 
— Among  the  recollections  of  the  wife  of 
a  navy  officer  we  find  the  following  : — 

Aaron  Burr  came  to  Staten  Island  an 
invalid,  which  he  had  been  for  some  years 
previous,  and  as  near  as  one  who  knows 
little  of  his  pecuniary  resources  but  all  the 
surroundings  of  his  situation  at  that  time 
can  judge,  this  spot  was  selected  as  being 
healthful,  contiguous  to  the  city  of  New 
York,  near  his  then  acting  guardian,  and 
at  the  same  time  within  the  limits  of  his 
apparently  small  means.  The  hotel  where 
Aaron  Burr  spent  his  last  summer,  and  in 
which  he  died,  still  stands,  beautifully 
situated  on  the  borders  of  the  "  Kill  van 
Kull,"  about  eight  miles  from  the  city  of 
New  York.  It  is  a  frame  building,  two 
and  a-half  stories  high,  with  large  upper 
and  lower  piazzas  and  spacious  rooms,  and 
though  since  degenerated,  it  was  at  that 
time  accommodating  summer  boarders 
from  the  city.  It  was  plainly  but  com- 
fortably furnished ;  and  during  the  sum- 
mer   of   1836   accommodated   several    fa- 

hist.  mag.     vol.  VIII.         14 

milies  of  Government  officers  who  were 
employed  on  surveying  duty  around  the 
island.  I  am  thus  particular,  because  by 
those  less  faithful  or  less  familiar,  it  has  been 
described  as  not  more  than  a  shanty.  The 
Port  Richmond  Hotel  at  that  time  had  as  its 
proprietors  the  son-in-law  and  daughter  of 
the  former  representative  in  Congress  from 
Richmond  County.  During  the  summer  of 
which  I  write,  Matthew  L.  Davis  (and  his 
chere  amie)  was  also  a  boarder  at  the 
hotel,  and  as  afterwards  developed,  was 
employed  to  write  the  Biography  of  Aaron 
Burr,  which  was  doubtless  a  faithful  politi- 
cal history,  without  detailing  his  domestic 
life.  His  age  was  eighty  years,  and  he  was 
a  petulant  old  man,  who  had  outlived  the 
sunshine  and  buoyancy  of  his  nature,  and 
was  jealously  sensitive  to  a  slight  or  ne- 
glect, and  evidently  unhappy  from  remorse 
or  present  discomforts  of  mind.  This  he 
constantly  evidenced  to  his  only  attendant, 
a  female  nurse,  to  such  a  degree  that  again 
and  again  she  protested  that  she  could  en- 
dure such  impatience  and  profanity  no 

I  well  remember  Burr  especially  coveted 
society,  which,  as  he  had  become  exceed- 
ingly egotistical,  was  not  always  willingly 
granted  him ;  he  would  lie  on  his  bed, 
with  his  door  open,  and  call  those  who 
might  be  passing  to  or  from  their  opposite 
rooms  and  implore  them  to  come  and  sit 
and  converse  with  him.  He  indignantly 
reproached  many  of  his  friends  for  their 
neglect  of  him,  often  naming  them,  and 
would  become  impatient  beyond  control 
when  his  usual  ride  was  omitted. 

Just  previous  to  his  death,  and  when  in- 
formed that  the  event  could  not  be  very 
distant,  he  requested  of  his  attendants  that 
M'hen  the  time  for  his  dissolution  drew 
so  near  that  none  could  mistake  it,  a 
courier  should  be  sent  to  a  certain  street 
and  number  in  New  York  city,  and  there 
summon  a  little  girl  to  his  bedside.  But 
the  messenger  sent  was  too  late;  the  child, 
a  girl  of  twelve  years,  arrived  just  after  his 
spirit  had  taken  its  departure  for  another 
world,  and  the  child  returned  as  she  came, 
without  a  revelation  or  why  or  for  what  pur- 
pose she  had  been  summoned.  And  thus  end- 




ed  the  life  of  this  brilliant  but  unprincipled 
personage  who,  for  thirty  years,  has  served 
as  a  melancholy  illustration  of  talents  and 
education  uninfluenced  by  moral  or  re- 
ligious considerations. 

Plymouth  Anniveesary  Discourses. 
— A  list  of  the  Anniversary  Discourses, 
delivered  at  Plymouth,  and  designating 
such  as  have  been  printed  (before  1820), 
may  be  found  in  the  Appendix  to  Daniel 
Webster's  Discourse,  delivered  Dec.  22nd, 

Fort  Stevens, — In  the  summer  of  1851 
(perhaps  1852),  in  grading  a  lot  of  land  in 
Astoria,  Long  Island,  a  slight  elevation 
was  dug  down.  The  lot  is  the  one  next 
west  of  the  late  residence  of  Albert  C. 
Whittemore,  now  of  Havana  in  this  state, 
and  belonged  to  Josiah  Blackwell.  While 
digging,  a  number  of  human  bones  were 
found.  It  was  at  first  supposed  that  the 
place  might  have  been  the  family  burial 
ground  of  some  previous  owner  of  the  land. 
Upon  subsequent  inquiry,  I  ascertained 
from  Henry  Blackwell,  a  native  of  the 
village  and  always  a  resident  there,  that 
the  few  soldiers  who  died  at  Fort  Stevens 
(the  ruins  of  which  still  remain  at  the  point 
of  land  close  to  Hurl  Gate)  during  its  occu- 
pancy, were  buried  wThere  these  bones 
were  discovered,  The  workmen  collected 
the  remains  and  buried  them  at  the  foot  of 
a  small  tree  about  sixty  feet  west  of  Mr, 
Whittemore's  west  line,  and  about  forty 
feet  from  the  shore  of  what  is  called  Pot 
Cove  (East  River).  The  spot  is  about 
twenty-five  feet  N.  E.  from  the  original 
place  of  interment. 

John  M.  Eager, 

New  York  City. 

Strange  Superstition. — In  1656  a 
breach  of  promise  case  occurred  in  New 
Amsterdam,  in  which  the  man,  being 
defendant,  excused  his  refusal  on  the 
ground  that  the  plaintiff  was  able  "  to  kill 
any  man  who  happens  to  know  her,  as  she 
hath  a  white  lung"  (vermits  un  witte  longh 
heeft).  The  parties  were,  as  Dr.  O'Calla- 
ghan  states,  both  French. 

An  Early  Canal. — The  County  of 
Orange,  in  this  State,  probably  contained 
the  first  canal  made  in  America.  Lieut. 
Governor  Colden,  of  Coldenham,  in  that 
county,  had  the  honor  of  constructing  it 
and  putting  it  into  practical  operation. 
At  what  precise  time  it  was  built  I  have 
been  unable,  as  yet,  to  discover,  but  Colden 
located  his  patent  to  Coldenham  Manor 
in  or  about  1728,  and  continued  to  reside 
upon  it  until  1*760,  at  which  time  he  was 
appointed  Lieut.  Governor,  and  removed 
to  New  York  City.  The  canal  was  built 
in  the  interval  between  his  location  and 
removal.  He  could  not,  in  all  probability, 
have  taken  a  hint  for  its  construction  from 
the  similar  work  of  the  Duke  of  Bridge- 
water,  who  built  the  canal  of  ten  miles 
(about)  from  his  coal  measures  in  Worsley 
to  Manchester,  for  the  Act  of  Parliament 
in  his  favor  was  not  passed  until  1759, 
which  was  only  a  year  before  Colden 
removed  to  New  York. 

The  reason  and  circumstances  of  the 
construction  of  this  early  and  rude  work 
were  these :  Before  Colden's  Patent  and 
near  his  residence  (a  large  stone  house  still 
standing  and  in  good  repair,  on  the  north 
side  of  the  Newburgh  and  Cochecton 
turnpike,  and  about  five  miles  east  of 
Mongomery)  there  was  a  streak  of  bog- 
meadow,  stretching  for  about  a  mile  and 
a  half,  and  running  south  from  the  house. 
It  contained  (and  yet  does)  valuable 
deposits  of  peat  fully  ripe  to  be  used  as 
fuel.  The  peat  was  discovered  upon  the 
drainage  of  the  meadow,  and  Colden 
(always  practical)  converted  the  main  ditch 
into  a  canal  by  widening  and  deepening  it 
beyond  the  necessities  of  mere  drainage, 
and  placed  upon  it  boats,  and  with  horse 
power  transported  the  peat  to  that  point 
of  the  canal  nearest  to  his  residence,  whence 
it  was  taken  for  his  own  family  use  and 
that  of  his  tenants.  Portions  of  this  work 
are  still  visible  upon  the  meadow,  now  one 
of  the  best  and  most  valuable  portions  of 
grazing  land  in  that  county.  Why  Colden 
should  have  incurred  the  expense  and 
trouble  of  such  a  work  for  the  procure- 
ment of  an  inferior  species  of  fuel,  when  his 
large    patent    was    amply    wooded    with 




timber,  can  only  be  conjectured.  He  evi- 
dently had  his  reason  for  this,  as  he  had 
for  all  his  other  prominent  acts.  Plis 
public  services,  at  least,  show  him  to  have 
been  an  eminently  practical  man. 

John  M.  Eager. 

New  York  Cirr. 

Proclamation  of  Gen.  Lee's  Father 
against  Rebels. — Enclosed  herewith  I 
send  you  an  exact  copy  of  a  Proclamation 
issued  by  Gen.  H.  Lee  at  Elizabethtown 
in  this  (Allegheny)  county,  in  1794,  towards 
the  close  of  the  "Whiskey  Insurrection." 
It  is  not  uninteresting  to  contrast  the  men 
and  events  of  that  day  with  those  of  the 
present.  Thenf  as  now,  a  Virginian  Lee 
Commander-in-Chief  of  an  army;  then 
for  the  purpose  of  upholding  the  Govern- 
ment and  its  laws,  although  but  a  particu- 
lar law  was  resisted,  jtfbw,  a  Lee  heads 
the  chief  army  of  the  rebels,  seeking  to 
destroy  the  Government  itself.  Again,  we 
have  an  excise  on  whiskey,  but  it  is  cheer- 
fully submitted  to ;  and  none  the  less,  that 
the  money  so  raised  will  aid  in  suppressing 
the  present  gigantic  insurrection. 
Yours  &c. 

Wm.  N.  Darlington. 

Pittsburg,  Feb.  15, 1S44. 

By  Henry  Lee,  Esq.,  Governor  of  the 
Commonwealth  of  Virginia,  Maj.  General 
therein  and  Commander  in  Chief  of  the 
Militia  Army  in  the  service  of  the  United 


By  virtue  of  the  powers  and.  authority 
in  me  vested,  by  the  President  of  the 
United  States,  and  in  obedience  to  his 
benign  intentions,  therewith  communicated 
I  do,  by  this  my  Proclamation,  declare  and 
make  known  to  all  concerned,  that  a  full, 
free,  and  entire  pardon  (excepting  and 
providing  as  hereafter  mentioned)  is  here- 
by granted  to  all  persons  resident  within 
the  counties  of  Washington,  Allegheny, 
Westmoreland,  and  Fayette,  in  the  state 
of  Pennsylvania,  and  in  the  county  of  Ohio, 
in  the  state  of  Virginia,  guilty  of  Treason, 
or  misprision  of  Treason  against  the  United 

States,  or  otherwise  directly  or  indirectly 
engaged    in    the    wicked     and    unhappy 
tumults  and  disturbances  lately  existing  in 
those     counties ;     excepting    nevertheless 
from  the  benefit  and  effect  of  this  pardon 
all  persons  charged  with  the  commission 
of  offences  against  the  United  States,  and 
now  actually  m  custody  or  held  by  recogni- 
zance   to    appear    and    answer   for    such 
offences  at   any  judicial  court  or  courts ; 
excepting   also   all   persons   avoiding  fair 
trial  by  abandonment  of  their  homes  ;  and 
excepting  moreover  the  following  persons, 
the  atrocity  of  whose  conduct  renders  it 
proper  to  mark  by  name  for  the  purpose 
of  subjecting  them  with  all  possible  cer- 
tainty, to   the   regular  course  of  judicial 
proceedings,  and  whom   all   officers,  civil 
and  military,  are  required  to  endeavor  to 
apprehend,   or   cause   to  be  apprehended 
and  brought  to  justice,  to  wit :  Benjamin 
Parkinson,  Arthur  Gardner,  John  Holcroft, 
Daniel  Hamilton,  Tho.  Lapsley,  William 
Miller,   Edward   Cook,   Edward  Wright, 
Richard  Holcroft,  David  Bradford,  John 
Mitchell,  Alexander  Fulton,  Thomas  Spiers, 
William  Bradford,  Geo.  Parker,  William 
Hanna,    Edward     Magner    Jr.,    Thomas 
Hughes,  David  Lock,  Ebenezer  Gallagher, 
Peter   Lyle,  John  Shields,  William  Hay, 
William  M'Elhenny,  Tho.  Patton,  Stephen- 
son   Jack,    Patrick    Jack,    and    Andrew 
Hilands,  of  the  state  of  Pennsylvania,  and 
William   Sutherland,  Robert   Stephensou, 
Wil^m  M'Kinley,  John  Moore,  and  John 
McCormick,  of  Ohio  county  in  the  State  of 

Provided,  that  no  person  who  shall 
hereafter  wilfully  obstruct  or  attempt  to 
obstruct  the  execution  of  any  of  the  laws 
of  the  United  States,  or  be  in  any  wise 
aiding  or  abett  ng  therein,  shall  be  entitled 
to  any  benefit  «  r  advantage  of  the  pardon 
herein  before  granted:  and  provided  also, 
that  nothing  heiein  contained  shall  extend 
or  be  construed  to  extend  to  the  remission 
or  mitigation  of  any  forfeiture  of  any 
penalty,  iriourred  by  reason  of  infractions 
of,  or  obstructions  \o,  the  laws  of  the  United 
States  for  collecting  a  revenue  upon 
distilled  spirits  anc.  stills. 

Given  under  my  hand,at  Head  Quarters  * 




in  Elizabethtown,  this  twenty-ninth  day  of 
November,  1794. 

Henry  Lee. 
By  order  of  the  Commander  in  Chief, 
G.  K.  Taylor,  Aid-de-Camp. 


Woollen  Snow. — Cotton  Mather,  in  his 
Christian  Philosopher,  published  in  Lon- 
don, 1721,  says,  in  the  course  of  his  Essay 
on  Snow : 

We  read  of  Heaven  giving  Snow  like 
Wool.  I  have  known  it  give  a  Snow  of 
Wool.  In  a  Town  of  New-England,  called 
Fairfield,  in  a  bitter  snowy  night,  there 
fell  a  quantity  of  Snow,  which  covered  a 
large  frozen  Pond,  but  of  such  a  woollen 
consistence,  that  it  can  be  called  nothing 
but  Wool.  I  have  a  quantity  of  it,  that 
has  been  these  many  years  lying  by  me. 

What  explanation  shall  we  give  of  the 
above  ?  b.  p.  d. 

The  Duke's  Laws. — When  and  where 
did  the  idea  originate  that  Clarendon  drew 
up  these  laws  ?  Was  not  "  scissors  "  more 
properly  the  author  ?  q. 

A  Confederacy. — In  a  discourse  de 
livered  by  the  late  Rev.  Dudley  A.  Tyng 
at  the  "  Church  of  the  Covenant,"  Phila- 
delphia, July  5,  1857,  the  Southern  States 
are  spoken  of  as  a  "Confederacy."^ 

—  Is  this  the  first  instance  of  the  Slave 
holding  States  being  called  "  A  Confeder 
acy  ?  »  — 

Philadelphia,  Feb.,  1864. 


Elizabeth  Hooghland  was  married  in  the 
Dutch  Church/New  York,  Sept.  16,  1730, 
to  Dr.  Joris  (or  George)  Cosart,  perhaps 
the  same  person  who  was  made  a  freeman 
of  the  city  in  1745.  Tradition  states,  how- 
ever, that  he  left  an  only  child,  Jane,  and 
was  lost  at  sea  about  1733  while  proceed- 
ing to  Europe  in  order  to  settle  some 
estate.  What  is  known  of  this  Cosart  or 
Cazourt  family  ? 

Sarah  Hooghland's  marriage  bond  with 
Jacob  Janeway,  of  New  York,  bears  date 

June  26,  1738  ;  she  was  mother  of  George 
and  William  Janeway. 

Mrs.  Janeway  and  Mrs.  Cosart  (whose 
second  husband  was  probably  a  Fisher  or 
Vischer)  were  sisters;  were  they  daugh- 
ters of  Joris  and  Caterin  Hoglandt  of 
Staten  Island  ?  I.  j.  g. 

The  Father  of  English  Lexicogra- 
phy.— Richard  Fraunces,  a  preaching  or 
black  friar,  was  the  author  of  the  first 
English  and  Latin  Dictionary,  according  to 
William  Herbert,  published  in  1499,  in 
which  are  many  old  English  words,  no- 
where else  explained.  It  is  very  desirable 
to  have  some  information  of  this  author 
and  of  his  great  folio  volume. 


Authenticity  of  Autographs. — A 
writer  in  the  London  Notes  and  Queries 
sneeringly  called  upon  Canon  Dalton  to 
prove  the  authenticity  of  an  autograph 
letter  of  S.  Teresa  which  the  Canon  men- 
tioned as  belonging  to  him.  It  opens  a 
new  field  of  discussion,  and  it  will  be  well 
for  some  of  our  collectors  to  draw  up  rules 
for  testing  autographs. 

Indian  Burial  Places. — The  readers 
of  the  Historical  Magazine  will  confer  a 
favor  by  transmitting  to  me  any  information 
they  may  have — either  traditional  or  other- 
wise— as  to  the  location  of  Indian  Burial 
Places  in  the  States  of  New  York  and 
New  Jersey.  A  large  amount  of  informa- 
tion not  yet  preserved  in  a  permanent 
form  may  then  be  gathered,  which,  in  a  few 
years,  may  not  be  attainable,  or  if  so,  but 

John  M.  Eager,  New  York  City. 

Kewley  on  Methodism. — The  Rev.  E. 
Allen,  in  his  list  of  Episcopal  clergymen  in 
Maryland,  says  that  the  Rev.  John  Kewley, 
prior  to  his  ordination  by  Bishop  Claggett 
in  ]  803,  had  been  a  Methodist  preacher. 
Can  any  reader  of  the  H.  M.  tell  when  he 
became  a  Methodist  clergyman,  and  where 
he  preached  ?  What  was  the  title  of  his 
work  on  Methodism  ?     Mr.  Kewley  was, 




though  Mr,  Allen  omits  the  fact,  for  a  time 
pastor  of  St.  George's  Church,  New  York. 


John  Quincy  Adams. — What  foundation 
is  there  for  the  statement  that  Mr.  John 
Quincy  Adams  was  the  author  of  the 
doggerel  verses  respecting  Mr.  Jefferson 
which  appeared  during  Mr.  Jefferson's 
presidency.  Some  of  them  are  too  broad 
for  quotation  here,  but  whoever  has  read 
them  will  remember  the  two  lines : 

"  And  let  the  mountain  all  of  salt, 
Be  christened  Monticello." 

and  these  also : 

"  And  if  we  cannot  alter  things, 
By we'll  change  their  names,  sir." 

They  appeared  before  Mr.  Adams  left 
the  Federal  for  the  Republican  party. 


J.  H.  C. 

The  Right  of  New  York  to  the 
Hampshire  Grants. — Some  twelve  or  more 
pamphlets  were  published  upon  this  con- 
troversy between  the  years  1760  and  1784- 
They  were  by  John  Henry  Lydius  of  Al- 
bany, James  Duane,  Jonas  Fay,  Ethan 
Allen,  Stephen  Bradley,  and  others. 

Six  of  these  are  referred  to  as  in  the  N. 
Y.  State  Library.  (Doc.  H.  N.  Y.,  vol. 
iv. ;  p.  1026.)  Where  can  the  others  be 
found  ? 

New  England  Society. — Has  a  list  been 
compiled  and  printed  of  the  Sermons  and 
Orations  delivered  before  the  New  Eng- 
land Society  of  New  York  ? 


The  Wonderful  History  of  the 
Morristown  Ghost.  (Vol.  viii. ;  p.  79.) — 
An  aged  gentleman  recently  presented  the 
New  Jersey  Historical  Society  a  12mo. 
pamphlet  of  24  pages,  entitled  "The  Mor- 
ristown Ghost ;  or  Yankee  Trick.  Being 
a  True,  Interesting  and  Strange  Narrative. 
This  circumstance  has  excited  considerable 

laughter,  and  no  small  degree  of  surprise* 
Printed  for  purchasers,  1814." 

The  Librarian  of  the  Society  has  in  his 
private  collection  the  same  work,  doubt- 
less of  the  first  edition.  He  met  this,  uThc 
Morristown  Ghost,"  in  1807.  It  vanished 
until  1S26,  when  it  again  appeared  to  him, 
unexpectedly,  in  the  garret  of  a  deserted 
building  in  the  centre  of  Newark.  It 
was  secured,  and  has  remained  in  his 
custody  ever  since,  except  when  for  a  short 
time  it  was  permitted  to  visit  Morris 
County.  There,  in  its  old  garb,  it  seemed  a 
great  stranger.  It  is  imperfect ;  the  two  last 
leaves,  or  four  of  its  28  pages,  are  missing. 
The  title  is  "  An  Account  of  the  Beginning, 
Transactions  and  Discovery  of  Ransford 
Rogers,  who  seduced  many  by  pretended 
Hobgoblins  and  Apparitions,  and  thereby 
extorted  Money  from  their  Pockets.  In 
the  County  of  Morris,  and  State  of  New 
Jersey,  in  the  year  1788.  Printed  for 
every  Purchaser — 1792." 

David  Young's  revision,  published  in 
1826,  was  given  to  the  world  because,  as 
he  says,  "the  very  inaccurate  and  appa- 
rently headlong  manner  in  which  it  was 
executed,  rendered  a  revision  highly  neces- 
sary.''  He,  "  however,  very  scrupulously 
followed  the  sense  of  the  original."  That 
the  style  of  the  anonymous  writer  of  the 
"  Account"  may  be  seen,  a  clause  or  two 
from  the  first  paragraph  of  his  "  Preface" 
is  presented  the  curious. 

"I  am  convinced  that  it  is  impossible  for 
one  person  to  please  all  mankind,  for  there 
is  such  a  variety  of  opinions  predominant, 
that  no  one  system  or  pamphlet  will  meet 
with  universal  approbation  ;  but  it  appears 
to  me  requisite,  that  something  of  this  kind 
should  appear  in  public — and,  as  I  have 
been  solicited  by  numbers  to  attempt  a 
brief  narration,  with  particulars  relating 
facts  concerning  many  occurrences  that 
happened  in  the  county  of  Morris,  and 
State  of  New  Jersey,  in  the  year  1788. — 
As  I  am  convinced  that  many  erroneous 
ideas  have  been  propagated,  therefore  the 
generality  of  people  are  destitute  of  real 
facts. — I  am  sensible  that  it  is  natural  for 
men  to  censure  each  other  with  burlesque, 
and  say  they  had   not  sagacity,"  &c.     ,WI 




shall  therefore  be  as  brief  as  possible,  as 
it  is  my  intention  to  eradicate  many  capri- 
cious notions  from  the  minds  of  many,  who 
have  imbibed  witchcraft  and  the  phenomina 
of  hobgoblins." 

In  concluding  his  work  the  writer  ex- 
presses himself  thus  : — "  It  is  not  from 
malevolence  or  any  antipathy  against  any 
person  or  place,  that  induced  me  to  write 
the  above  mentioned  transactions,  but  pure- 
ly to  enlighten  the  minds  of  the  simple, 
and  free  them  from  the  imaginary  fear  01 
witches,  apparitions  and  hobgoblins  which 
do  not  exist.  And  as  this  relation  pro- 
ceeds from  one  that  wishes  happiness  to 
all  mankind,  and  the  author,  although  un- 
known, hopes  that  no  one  person  or  per- 
sons will  be  offended  at  the  relation  of  facts, 
when  there  are  no  names  mentioned,  pro- 
viding they  had  an  active  part  with  the 
anticipating  fire-club. 

This   Pamphlet  is  chiefly 
intended  for  the  perusal  of 
the  good    Economists    in 
Morris  County. 
Gentlemen,  yours  in  amity, 


The  aged  gentleman  first  mentioned, 
gives  us,  as  related  by  his  father,  a  native 
of  Morristown,  these  facts  concerning  Ro- 
gers. He  had  got  up  an  evening  exhibition 
of  his  school  in  the  old  red  court-house, 
which  stood  formerly  on  the  north  side  of 
the  Green  in  Morristown,  with  a  pillory 
near  its  front.  A  temporary  stage,  with 
a  curtain,  was  erected  in  the  court- 
room for  the  exhibitions.  During  the  per- 
formance the  audience,  from  some  cause, 
became  noisy,  which  displeased  Rogers, 
who  appeared  before  the  curtain  and  told 
the  company  that  he  had  read  in  the  Book 
of  Revelations  that  on  one  occasion  there 
was  silence  in  heaven  for  the  space  of  half  an 
hour ;  and  he  thought  the  audience  there 
assembled  might  be  quiet  for  at  least  as  long 
a  time.  In  a  written  invitation,  sent  to  the 
Rev.  John  Joline,  of  Mendham,  to  attend 
the  above-mentioned,  or  some  other  exhibi- 
tion of  his  school,  he  several  times  intro- 
duced the  Latin  phrase,  " Ego scribo" and 
in  such  way  as  to  render  the  whole  ludicrous. 

Mr.  Young,  in  his  preface  to  the  "  Won- 
derful History,"  says :  "  Very  probably  it 
was  written  by  one  who  had  some  concern 
in  the  transactions;  perhaps  by  Rogers 
himself,  who  must  have  been  better  ac- 
quainted with  particular  circumstances 
than  any  other  person  could  pretend  to 
be."  Again,  he  says  :  "  Being  pursued  he 
was  a  second  time  apprehended  ;  when  he 
acknowledged  his  faults,  and  confessed 
that  for  his  conduct  and  the  declarations  he 
had  made  in  the  prosecution  of  his  schemes, 
he  deserved  punishment."  Ego  scribo,  I 
think  Rogers  did  not  write  it.  c. 

Geeenbacks  (xii.  122). — The  United 
States  Treasury  notes  are  so  called,  and 
the  name  is  thus  derived.  When  the  State 
Bank  of  Ohio  was  created  (1845),  their 
new  circulation  had  an  ornamental  device 
printed  on  the  back  in  red,  a  mark  so  dis- 
tinctive from  all  other  circulation  in  the 
West,  that  they  got  the  name  of  Redbacks. 
When  the  Treasury  notes  appeared  with 
the  ornamental  back  in  green,  they  readily 
took  the  name  of  Greenbacks. 

J.  H.  J. 

Coppeeheads  (vii.  122, 166).— The  origin 
of  this  name  will  perhaps  remain  in  doubt. 
The  Copperhead  Snake  is  reputed  the  most 
venomous  of  our  serpents.  And  before 
this  war  commenced  the  name  of  Copper- 
head was  sometimes  applied  to  persons  to 
denote  their  bitterness  and  virulence.  In 
the  same  way  it  applied  to  Secessionists  of 
the  most  determined  cast.  Next  it  was 
applied  by  the  Government  party  to  their 
party  opponents,  and  it  is  now  coming  into 
common  use  by  them  as  equivalent  to 
Democrat.  Of  course,  it  will  grow  into 
use,  and  be  adopted  by  the  party  to  which 
it  is  applied,  as  the  names  Democrat  and 
Locofoco  have  been  previously,  and  at  first 
they  were  both  meant  to  be  offensive. 




Samtws  mrtr  ljeir  IJrflmMngs. 

Maine  Historical  Society. — Augusta,  Jan. 
27,  1864.— This  Society  held  a  meeting  at  the 
time  and  place  thus  indicated,  for  the  purpose 
of  receiving  and  reading  communications.  In 
the  regretted  absence  of  the  President,  the  Hon. 
William  Willis  of  Portland,  the  chair  was  taken 
by  the  Rt.  Rev.  Bishop  Burgess  of  Gardiner, 
who  made  an  address,  alluding  to  the  members 
deceased  during  the  past  year,  namely,  Messrs. 
Goodenow,  Vose,  and  Tappan,  the  last  of 
whom,  in  his  clerical  relations,  had  long  been 
identified  with  the  religious  history  of  the  State, 
and  a  constant  attendant  on  the  meetings  of 
the  Society. 

The  Secretary  presented  a  collection  of  do- 
cuments, copied  from  the  archives  of  Massa- 
chusetts, relative  to  the  history  of  the  eastern 
part  of  Maine  in  the  war  of  the  Revolution,  in 
connexion  with  Col.  Jonathan  Eddy,  Col.  J. 
Allan,  and  the  Indians  of  New  Brunswick  and 
Nova  Scotia.  Several  of  these  papers  were 
read.  He  also  presented  a  letter  from  Frederic 
Kidder,  Esq.,  of  Boston,  presenting  copies  of 
three  Indian  Treaties,  one  of  which  was  read 
offering  600  Indians  as  soldiers  to  be  under 
Gen.  Washington.  The  Hon.  Jos.  Williamson, 
of  Belfast,  presented  a  neatly  executed  copy  of 
the  Journal  of  Rev.  Joseph  Baxter,  of  Medfield, 
Mass.,  who  accompanied  Gov.  Shute  in  his 
voyage  to  Georgetown  to  make  a  treaty  with 
the  Eastern  Indians  in  1717.  He  also  read  a 
paper  on  "  Slavery  in  Maine,"  which  was  fol- 
lowed by  remarks  from  the  Hon.  Mr.  Bourne,  of 
Kennebunk,  on  its  prevalence  and  cessation  in 
the  county  of  York. 

The  Rev.  Mr.  Cushman  of  Warren  read  a  pa- 
per on  "  The  Clam-Shell  Deposits "  on  the 
coast  of  Maine,  in  illustration  of  the  marvellous 
deposit  of  Oyster-Shells  at  Damariscotta.  This 
was  followed  by  a  discussion,  in  which  several 
of  the  members  took  part.  Judge  Williamson 
also  presented  a  paper  on  "The  Northmen  on 
the  Kennebec,"  founded  on  certain  ante- Angli- 
can appearances  of  occupation,  and  dwellings 
with  bricks,  near  Gardiner,  whose  origin  was 
unknown  to  the  first  English  settlers.  The 
Vice-President  read  a  paper  on  "Vital  Statis- 
tics," communicated  by  the  President,  containing 
much  important  matter,  and  urging  legislative 
action  to  secure  a  full  and  accurate  registry  of 
births,  deaths,  and  diseases  terminating  in  death. 
A  letter  was  read  from  the  Hon.  W.  P.  Haines, 
of  Biddeford,  giving  to  the  Society  the  Powder 
Horn  of  Michael  B.  Goldthwait,  which  was  used 

at  Fort  William  Henry,  on  Lake  George,  in 
1756.  It  is  well  preserved,  and  bears  on  it  an 
engraved  sketch  of  the  Fort,  and  a  part  of  the 
Lake,  made  at  the  time  ;  perhaps  the  only 
sketch  of  the  Fort  now  in  existence. 

The  Hon.  E.  E.  Bourne  read  a  paper  in  "  Vin- 
dication of  the  Commemoration  of  the  Colony 
at  the  mouth  of  the  Kennebec,  under  George 
Popham."  This  paper  was  prepared  with  spe- 
cial reference  to  a  speech,  with  notes,  by  J. 
Wingate  Thornton,  Esq.,  of  Boston ;  after  which, 
on  motion  by  the  Hon.  J.  W.  Bradbury,  of 
Augusta,  it  was 

Resolved,  That  the  thanks  of  the  Society  be 
tendered  to  the  Hon.  E.  E.  Bourne,  for  his  suc- 
cessful vindication  of  t^ie  commemoration  of  the 
Popham  Colony  from  the  unwarrantable  attacks 
of  Wm.  Thornton.  On  motion  of  the  same,  the 
thanks  of  the  Society  were  presented  to  the 
other  gentlemen  who  had  presented  papers. 
The  members  of  the  Society  and  other  invited 
guests  shared,  between  the  afternoon  and  even- 
ing sessions,  the  plentiful  and  elegant  hospitality 
of  the  Recording  Secretary,  the  Hon.  Wm. 


Massachusetts  Historical  Society. — Boston, 
Feb.  11. — A  stated  monthly  meeting  of  the  Massa- 
chusetts Historical  Society  was  held  yesterday 
at  their  rooms,  the  President,  Hon.  Robert  C. 
Winthrop,  in  the  chair.  After  the  transaction 
of  the  usual  business,  the  President  paid  a  tri- 
bute to  the  memory  of  the  late  Frederick  Tudor. 
We  copy  the  closing  portion  of  the  eulogy  : 

As  a  cultivator  of  fruits  and  flowers,  and  trees 
too,  at  Nahant,  he  not  only  placed  himself  in 
the  front  rank  of  horticulturists,  but  he  gave  a 
signal  instance  of  how  much  could  be  done  by 
ingenuity,  perseverance,  and  skill,  in  overcoming 
the  most  formidable  obstacles  of  soil  and  climate, 
and  obtaining  a  victory  over  nature  herself. 

It  has  been  said  that  New  England  is  a  region 
of  rocks  and  ice.  Mr.  Tudor  seemed  willing  to 
accept  it  as  such,  and  to  be  resolved  that  rocks 
and  ice  should  be  the  main  ministers  to  his  own 
fortune,  and  through  him  to  the  health  and  hap- 
piness of  others. 

I  may  not  omit  to  add  that  while  New  Eng- 
land was  his  chosen  and  constant  home,  he  was 
a  man  of  enlarged  and  earnest  patriotism.  Taking 
pride  in  his  father's  Revolutionary  services,  and 
inheriting  his  place  in  the  Society  of  the  Cincin- 
nati, he  stood  fast  to  the  Stars  and  Stripes  and 
to  •the  Union  cause,  of  which  they  are  the  honor- 
ed emblem,  in  adversity  as  well  as  in  prosperity ; 




and  nowhere  has  our  National  banner  been  more 
frequently  or  more  eagerly  displayed,  on  every 
fit  occasion  during  the  past  three  years,  than 
from  the  windows  of  his  beautiful  residence  in 
Bacon  street.  He  was  of  a  spirit  to  have  borne 
it  bravely  to  the  battle-field,  had  an  occasion  oc- 
curred before  age  had  impaired  the  vigor  of  his  arm. 

Nor  did  he  fail  to  observe  and  to  honor  true 
heroism  in  other  parts  of  the  world  as  well  as  in 
our  own.  It  is  an  interesting  fact  that  when 
the  tidings  came  to  us  from  the  far  East  of  the 
noble  endurance  and  brilliant  achievements  of 
the  lamented  Havelock,  Mr.  Tudor,  without 
calling  any  one  to  his  counsel,  or  allowing  any 
one  to  share  the  cost,  caused  a  magnificent  sword 
to  be  made  at  Springfield,  and  prepared  it  with 
a  suitable  inscription,  to  be  presented  to  that 
great  Christian  hero.  It  was  unhappily  too 
late  to  reach  him  before  his  death. 

It  only  remains  for  me  to  offer  in  behalf  of 
the  Standing  Committee  the  customary  resolu- 
tion : 

Resolved,  That  the  Massachusetts  Historical 
Society  have  learned  with  deep  regret,  the  death 
of  their  valued  associate,  Frederick  Tudor,  Esq., 
i  and  that  the  President  be  directed  to  name  one 
of  our  members  to  prepare  a  memoir  of  him  for 
our  proceedings. 

The  resolution  was  unanimously  adopted. 
Hon.  Emory  Washburne  read  an  elaborate 
paper  on  villanage  and  slavery  in  England, 
which  was  followed  by  an  interesting  discussion 
on  this  subject,  in  which  Horace  Gray,  Jr.,  Esq., 
Hon.  James  Savage,  and  Hon.  G.  T.  Davis  took 
part.     The  Society  then  adjourned. 

New  England  Historic  Genealogical  So- 
ciety.— Boston,  Feb.  3. — A  stated  meeting  was 
held  this  afternoon,  the  President,  Dr.  Lewis,  in 
the  chair. 

The  Corresponding  Secretary  read  a  letter 
from  James  B.  Richardson,  of  Boston,  accepting 
resident  membership. 

A  letter  from  the  widow  of  Hon.  Henry  Cush- 
man,  of  Bernardston,  to  the  Recording  Secre- 
tary, was  read,  and  was  referred  to  a  committee 
of  three,  with  full  power,  to  act  in  relation  to  the 
donation  under  the  will  of  Mr.  Cushman,  and 
Wm.  B.  Towne,  John  W.  Dean,  and  Frederic 
Kidder  were  appointed  on  that  committee. 

The  Librarian  reported  the  following  dona- 
tions: number  of  volumes,  25;  pamphlets,  40; 
of  manuscripts,  100.  He  also  called  the  atten- 
tion of  the  Society  to  the  following  donations  of 
William  Appleton  :  an  old  Hebrew  manuscript 
of  the  Book  of  Esther,  written  on  a  parchment 
roll  and  inclosed  in  a  gilt  case ;  it  contains  £0 
pages  without  points,  chapter,  or  verse,  and  is 

executed  in  a  very  neat  hand,  the  letters  like  those 
in  Halm's  Hebrew  Bible  ;  the  next  is  an  elegant 
Arabic  Koran  in  beautiful  handwriting,  with  an 
introduction  in  illuminated  letters;  and  the  last 
is  a  handsome  copy  of  the  Prayers  of  St.  Nerses, 
the  Patriarch  of  the  Armenians,  ed.  1837,  a  poly- 
glot volume  in  24  languages.  The  two  first 
were  purchased  at  Damascus  in  Syria,  the  last  at 
the  Island  of  St.  Lazare,  by  Mr.  Appleton  in  his 
travels  in  1854-5. 

On  motion  of  Frederick  Kidder,  it  was  voted 
that  the  thanks  of  the  Society  be  tendered  to 
our  members  Thomas  Waterman  and  William 
Appleton,  for  their  donations,  viz. :  about  fifty 
volumes  of  the  Boston  Transcript  and  Daily 
Advertiser  from  the  former,  and  from  the  latter 
the  treasures  already  described. 

The  Historiographer  read  an  interesting  ac- 
count of  Charles  Moses  Endicott,  a  correspond- 
ing member  of  the  Society,  who  deceased  at 
Northampton,  Dec.  15,  1863,  aged  70  years  and 
9  days. 

Rev.  Dr.  Hoppin,  of  Cambridge,  read  a  care- 
fully prepared  paper  on  the  Court  of  the  Star 
Chamber,  touching  upon  the  following  topics  : 
1.  Its  name.  2,  The  persons  who  composed  it. 
3.  Its  functions.  4.  Its  high  antiquity.  5.  Lord 
Bacon's  and  Lord  Coke's  encomiums  upon  it.  6. 
Its  late  abuses  and  abolishment.  7.  The  modern 
mythical  conceptions  of  the  Star  Chamber. 

Rev.  Martin  Moore,  of  Boston,  read  a  bio- 
graphical account  of  Rev.  William  Cogswell, 
D.D.,  the  editor  of  the  first  volume  of  the 
Society's  publication,  who  died  at  Gilmanton, 
N.  H.,  April  18,  1850,  aged  62.  Copies  of  both 
papers  were  requested  for  the  use  of  the  Society. 

A  new  by-law,  creating  a  standing  commit- 
tee on  heraldry,  was  adopted,  and  the  following 
gentlemen  were  appointed  as  the  committee : 
William  Henry  Whitmore,  of  Boston,  Abner  C. 
Goodell,  jr.,  of  Salem,  Rev.  William  S.  Bartlet, 
of  Chelsea,  and  Augustus  Thorn  dike  Perkins, 
and  William  Sumner  Appleton,  of  Boston. 

New  Jersey  Historical  Society. — Trenton, 
January  21,  1864. — The  New  Jersey  Historical 
Society,  in  accordance  with  its  By-Laws,  held  its 
annual  meeting  to-day  in  this  city,  the  Rev. 
John  Hall,  D.D.,  of  Trenton — one  of  the  Exe- 
cutive Committee — and  subsequently  the  Hon. 
Richard  S.  Field,  one  of  the  Vice-Presidents, 
presiding.  After  the  reading  of  the  minutes, 
Mr.  Whitehead,  the  Corresponding  Secretary, 
submitted  the  correspondence  since  the  last 




Mr.  Congar,  the  Librarian,  reported  a  long  list  circular  appeal  had  been  issued  to  the  members 
of  donations  received.     Many  of  these  donations  i  on  the  subject  with  little  success.     The  Com- 

mittee said:  "  It  is  not  to  be  supposed  that  the 
members  of  the  Society,  or  the  public  generally, 
are  willing  that  its  library  and  other  historical 
treasures  should  become  useless,  and  their  pre- 
servation endangered  through  their  neglect  to 
provide  proper  accommodations  for  them.  As  an 
institution  established  for  the  public  good,  and, 
so  far,  eminently  successful  in  perfecting  the 
purposes  of  its  organization,  it  can  rightly  claim 
from  the  patriotic  citizens  of  the  State,  whether 
actually  connected  with  it  by  membership  or 
not,  such  countenance  and  support  as  will  ensure 
the  perpetuity  of  its  usefulness."  Particular 
reference  was  made  to  the  continued  generosity 
of  Mr.  S.  Alofsen,  of  Jersey  City,  the  Treasurer, 
in  supplying  the  library  with  a  copy  of  every 
valuable  publication  referring  to  the  Rebellion, 
350  different  publications  having  been  already 

Several  new  members  were  elected  and  other 
nominations  received. 

The  Chair  announced  the  following  Standing 
Committees  for  1864 : 

On  Publications — Richard  S.  Field,  William 
A.  Whitehead,  Henry  W.  Green,  Samuel  EL 
Pennington,  M.D.,  and  Rev.  John  Hall,  DD. 
On  Statistics — Joseph  P.  Bradley,  F.  Wolcott 
Jackson,  Rev.  Samuel  M.  Hammill,  Lyndon  A. 
Smith,  M.D.,  and  C.  C.  Haven.  On  Nominations 
— David  A.  Hayes,  Peter  S.  Duryee,  and  Rev.. 
R.  K.  Rodgers,  D.D.  On  the  Library — Walter 
Rutherfurd,  Peter  S.  Duryee,  John  P.  Jackson, 
Isaac  P.  Trimble,  M.D.,  with  the  Treasurer  and 
officers  residing  in  Newark. 

A  Committee  appointed  to  nominate  officers 
for  the  ensuing  year  reported  the  following, 
who  were  duly  elected: 

President — Joseph  C.  Hornblower,  LL.D., 
Vice  Presidents — Hon.  James  Parker,  Hon,, 
Richard  S.  Field,  Hon.  Henry  W.  Green.  Cor^ 
responding  Secretary — Wm.  A.  Whitehead,  New- 
ark. Recording  Secretary — David  A.  Hayes, 
Newark.  Librarian — Samuel  H.  Conzar,  New- 
ark. Treasurer — Solomon  Alofsen,  Jersey  City. 
Executive  Committee — Samuel  H.  Pennington,, 
M.D..  Rev.  Henry  B.  Sherman,  Hon.  Charles  S. 
Olden,  Rev.  R.  K.  Rodgers,  D.D.,  N  Norris 
Halsted,  Esq.,  Rev.  John  Hall,  D.D.,  C.  C.  Ha- 
ven, Esq.,  Rev,  Samuel  M..  Hammell,.  aad  Lyn- 
don A.  Smith,  M.D. 

Mr,  Walter  Rutherfurd,  referring  to  the  sug- 
gestion contained  in  the  letter  from  John  R. 
Committee  on  the  Library,  stating  the  progress  I  Brodhead,  Esq.,  of  New  York,  which  had  been 
made  in  binding  and  arranging,  and  urging!  read,  offered  the  following  resolution,  which  was 
additional  subscriptions  to  the  Librnry  fund.  In  '  adopted: 
accordance  with  the  directions  of  the  Society  a  |      Resolved,  That  the  Historical  Society  of  New 

HIST.    MAG*.       VOL.    VIII.  16 

were  of  great  historical  value  and  interest, 

The  Treasurer,  Mr.  Alofsen,  reported  the  re- 
ceipts and  expenditures  of  the  past  year,  showing 
a  balance  in  the  Treasury  of  $463.44,  of  which 
$27.62  belonged  to  the  Library  Fund.  The 
value  of  the  Society's  publications  on  hand  was 
estimated  at  $969.11,  and  its  real  estate  at 
$3,500,  making  its  total  property,  independent 
of  cash,  to  amount  to  $4,469.11. 

Rev.  Mr.  Hammell  presented  the  report  of  the 
Executive  Committee  of  the  progress  of  the 
Society  during  the  past  year.  It  had  prose- 
cuted its  mission,  like  most  useful  instrumentali- 
ties, quietly,  not  intruding  itself  upon  public 
notice  nor  claiming  any  undue  consideration 
from  those  for  whom  it  is  laboring,  and  as  is 
too  frequently  the  case  with  unobtrusive  merit, 
had  failed  to  secure  its  fair  meed  of  reward. 
The  results  attained,  however,  were  sufficiently 
valuable  to  testify  to  its  onward  progress,  en- 
couraging its  friends  and  giving  assurance  of 
continued  and  increasing  service  to  the  State. 
The  only  publication  during  the  year  had  been 
one  number  of  the  Society's  "Proceedings."  No 
additions  had  been  made  to  the  Library  ex- 
cepting by  donations,  which  had  amounted  to 
110  bound  volumes  and  262  pamphlets.  The 
Library  now  contains  3,098  bound  volumes  and 
5,276  pamphlets,  but  there  was  a  large  amount 
of  unarranged  matter.  Attention  was  drawn 
to  the  small  number  of  members  who  had  con- 
tributed to  the  funds  in  the  course  of  the  year, 
and  the  propriety  of  revising  the  roll  suggested. 
No  action  had  yet  been  taken  in  accordance 
with  the  request  of  the  Society  at  the  last 
meeting  relating  to  measures  for  the  construc- 
tion of  a  fire-proof  building,  and  the  Committee 
closed  their  report  with  an  appropriate  allusion 
to  the  death  of  Miss  Rutherfurd  of  Eastridge, 
near  Newark,  who  had  always  proved  so  warm 
and  liberal  a  friend  to  the  Society. 

The  Committee  on  Publications  reported  the 
readiness  for  publication  of  another  number  of 
the  Society's  "  Proceedings,"  and  also  of  "  The 
Town  Records  of  Newark,"  which  would  form 
the  sixth  volume  of  the  Society's  u  Collections." 
As  the  proceedings  of  the  Society  constitute  its 
chief  means  for  the  dissemination  of  a  correct 
knowledge  of  New  Jersey  History,  the  members 
were  urged  to  interest  themselves  in  increasing 
their  sale. 

Mr.  Rutherfurd  submitted  the  report  of  the 




Jersey,  believing  that  the  name  and  fame  of  the 
first  discoverer  of  the  shores  of  the  State  could 
not  be  more  appropriately  perpetuated,  would 
express  its  earnest  desire  that  the  Fort,  now 
being  constructed  at  Sandy  Hook  by  the 
United  States,  be  named  Fort  Hudson. 

Resolved,  That  the  Corresponding  Secretary 
communicate  the  above  resolution  to  the  Hon. 
Secretary  of  War,  and  to  the  Senators  and  Re 
presentatives  of  New  Jersey  in  Congress. 

Mr.  Peter  S.  Duryee,  in  view  of  the  derelie- 
tion  of  so  many,  nominally  members  of  the  So- 
ciety, which  had  been  referred  to  by  the  Execu- 
tive Committee,  offered  the  following  resolution, 
which  was  adopted : 

Resolved,  That  the  Secretaries  and  Treasurer  be 
a  committee  to  revise  the  roll  of  members,  and 
adopt  such  means  as  they  may  think  proper  to 
ascertain  who  are  now  connected  with  the 

The  Society  then  listened  with  much  interest 
to  sundry  "  Passages  in  the  History  of  Ocean 
County,"  by  Edwin  Salter,  Esq.,  which  in  the 
absence  of  Mr.  Salter  was  read  by  the  Corre- 
sponding Secretary,  who  stated  that  the  passages 
read  were  but  a  small  part  of  the  materials  col- 
lected and  transmitted  to  the  Society  by  Mr. 
Salter,  evincing  an  interest  in  our  history  and 
an  extent  of  laborious  research  eminently 
worthy  of  imitation.  On  motion  of  Mr.  Hayes 
the  thanks  of  the  Society  were  directed  to  be 
conveyed  to  Mr.  Salter  for  his  valuable  contri- 
bution to  the  history  of  the  State. 

The  Society  then  adjourned  to  meet  in  New- 
ark on  the  third  Thursday  of  May  next. 


Albany  Institute. — Albany,  January  26, 18G4. 
— At  a  regular  meeting  of  the  Albany  Institute, 
held  Tuesday  evening: 

In  the  absence  of  the  President,  George  W. 
Carpenter,  Esq.,  in  the  chair. 

The  following  officers  were  unanimously  elect- 
ed for  the  ensuing  year  : 

John  V.  L.  Pruyn,  President.  Andrew  E. 
Brown,  Treasurer. 

First  Department. — Richard  V.  DeWitt,  Pre- 
sident. John  Paterson,  Cor.  Sec.  Jacob  S. 
Mosher,  Rec.  Sec.  George  VV.  Hough,  Librarian. 
Second  Department. — Stephen  Van  Rensselaer, 
President.  Peter  Gansevoort,  Vice-President. 
S.  Oakley  Vanderpoel,  Rec.  Sec.  Joel  Munsell, 
Cor.  Sec.  Charles  B.  Redfield,  Treasurer.  Third 
Department. — Alexander  S.  Johnson,  President. 
John  N.  Campbell,  Vice-President.  Jacob  I. 
Werner,  Cor.  Sec. 

Curators.— James  Hall,    Howard  Townsend, 

Chas.   H.   Anthony,   Amos  Dean,   Andrew  E. 

A  very  able  and  interesting  paper  was  read 
by  Dr.  Franklin  B.  Hough,  on  the  '•  Battle  of 
Cedar  Mountain,"  being  an  extract  from  his 
forthcoming  work,  "  The  History  of  Duryee's 
Brigade,"  now  in  preparation. 

Buffalo  Historical  Society. — Buffalo,  Jan- 
uary.— At  the  meeting  for  January,  M.  Fillmore, 
President,  in  the  Chair,  and  Guy  H.  Salisbury, 
Secretary,  the  following  were  among  the  pro- 
ceedings had : 

Being  the  Annual  Meeting  of  the  Society,  an 
election  of  officers  was  held  for  the  ensuing  year, 
as  has  been  previously  published. 

The  Annual  Report  of  0.  G.  Steele,  Treasurer, 
was  submitted,  showing  a  total  of  receipts 
$797.17,  and  of  expenditures,  $681.08.  The 
Secretary  not  having  completed  the  Annual 
Report  of  the  Board  of  Managers  to  the  Society, 
was  allowed  further  time  to  prepare  it. 

0.  G.  Steele,  from  the  Committee  for  pro- 
curing from  fifty  members,  a  subscription  of 
$100  each,  payable  in  five  yearly  instalments, 
for  the  purpose  of  securing  additional  means  for 
carrying  out  the  objects  of  the  Society,  reported 
that  the  list  was  lull — having  been  signed  by 
fifty-one  gentlemen. 

The  Treasurer  also  reported  that  he  had  re- 
ceived cash  donations,  for  the  same  object,  of 
$50  from  F.  H.  Root,  and  $20  from  Sidney 

A  resolution  was  offered  by  Mr.  Fillmore,  and 
adopted,  that  such  of  the  above  subscribers  who 
elect  to  pay  $50  of  their  subscription  in  ad- 
vance, so  as  to  comply  with  the  requirements  of 
the  Constitution,  be  constituted  Life  Members — 
subject  to  the  payment  of  the  balance  of  their 
subscriptions.  The  terms  of  the  resolution  have 
been  published. 

The  President  submitted  a  draft  for  Certificate 
of  Membership  in  the  Society,  and  was  author- 
ized to  procure  the  same  to  be  engraved  and 

Guy  H.  Salisbury  submitted  his  monthly  re- 
port as  Corresponding  Secretary  and  Librarian, 
in  which  were  mentioned  the  following  matters : 

Judge  Hall,  from  the  Committee  on  procuring 
Local  Histories  of  the  several  towns  in  the 
County,  has  furnished  a  list  of  about  sixty  names 
of  persons,  in  most  of  the  towns,  to  whom  the 
printed  circular  of  the  Committee,  and  also  the 
general  circular  of  the  Society,  with  a  copy  of 
its  Constitution  and  By-laws,  will  be  sent  by 

But  few  deaths  in  the  families  of  old  residents 
were   noted   for  the   preceding  nv>nth.     They 




were— Dec.  24,  Walter  Joy,  aged  53 ;  Dec.  30, ! 
at  Lancaster,  Erie  Co.,  Truman  Luce,  aged  76; 
Jan.  8,  Sarah  Brooks,  aged  25,  daughter  of  the 
late  Wells  Brooks. 

The  weekly  meetings  of  the  Historical  Society 
Club  have  been  held  as  follows.  Dec.  14th,  C. 
F.  S.  Thomas',  when  a  paper  was  read  by  Chas. 
D.  Norton,  on  "The  Old  Ferry,  at  the  Black 
Rock;"  Dec.  21st,  at  0.  H.  Marshall's,  a  paper 
being  read  by  Geo.  V.  Brown,  late  U.  S.  Consul 
at  Tangier,  Morocco,  entitled,  "Diplomatic  Con- 
troversy, occasioned  by  the  visit  of  an  American 
Vessel  from  Lake  Erie  to  the  Shores  of  Spain  and 
Morocco;"  Dec.  28th,  at  N.  K.  Hall's,  where  a 
paper  was  read  by  E.  S.  Prosser,  relative  to  the 
enlargement  of  the  locks  in  the  Erie  Canal ; 
Jan.  4th,  at  Charles  D.  Norton's,  at  which  the 
paper  of  the  evening  was  read  by  E.  P.  Dorr, 
being  a  history  of  our  Lake  Commerce. 

The  list  of  donations  reported  by  the  Secretary, 
will  appear  on  Monday. 

The  President  stated  that  he  had  written  to 
Hon.  Augustus  S.  Porter,  of  Niagara  Falls,  as 
directed  at  the  last  meeting,  with  the  view  of 
procuring  a  map  made  by  the  late  Judge  Augustus 
Porter,  of  the  "  Phelps  and  Gorham  Purchase," 
and  also  such  of  his  pipers,  etc.,  as  could  be  ob- 
tained. A  reply  had  been  received  from  Mr. 
Porter,  which  was  read,  and  in  which  he  says, 
that  he  had  not  yet  been  able  to  find  such  a 
map  among  his  father's  papers,  but  should  he 
succeed,  on  further  research,  would  transmit  it 
to  the  Society.  He  adds,  that  the  principal  his- 
torical incidents  in  the  life  of  Judge  Porter 
were  embodied  in  a  manuscript  communication 
furnished  by  him  in  1848,  to  the  Young  Men's 
Association  of  this  city — a  portion  of  which  was 
published  by  0.  Turner,  in  his  History  of  the 
Holland  Purchase,  prefaced  by  a  brief  biographi- 
cal sketch. 

0.  H.  Marshall  said  he  was  present  at  the  last 
meeting  of  the  New  York  Historical  Society,  at 
which  action  was  taken  on  a  proposition  that 
the  Government  continue  the  publication  of  the 
"  American  Archives,"  heretofore  compiled  by 
Peter  Force,  9  vols,  of  which  have  been  pub- 
lished, and  the  work  then  suspended  when  Mr. 
Marcy  was  Secretary  of  State.  On  his  motion, 
the  Board  of  Managers  were  requested  to  take 
into  consideration  the  propriety  of  memorializing 
Congress  on  the  subject. 

At  a  meeting  of  the  Historical  Society,  held 
Jan.  4th,  0.  G.  Steele  had  remarked,  that  some 
action  should  be  taken  in  regard  to  the  recent 
death  of  Walter  Joy,  one  of  the  members.  On 
his  motion,  a  committee  of  three  had  been  then 
informally  appointed  to  prepare  resolutions  ex- 
pressive of  the  sense  of  the  Society,  which 
committee  were  0.  G.  Steele,  Rev.  Dr.  Chester, 

and  Wm.  A.  Bird.  Mr.  Steele  had  therefore 
written  some  appropriate  resolutions,  which  he 
submitted,  and  which  were  adopted. 

Some  remarks  were  made  by  L.  F.  Allen,  on 
the  previous  decease  of  three  other  members  of 
the  Society — Silas  Sawin,  Edward  S.  Warren, 
and  James  G.  Hoyt — and  Judge  Clinton  offered 
a  resolution  in  respect  to  those  gentlemen,  which 
was  adopted. 

On  motion  of  N.  K.  Hall,  a  committee  of  two 
was  directed  to  be  appointed,  to  report  as  to 
what  Standing  Committees  are  needed,  and  what 
should  be  their  duties.  N.  K.  Hall  and  Chas. 
D.  Norton  were  named  by  the  president  as  such 
committee.  At  a  subsequent  meeting  of  the 
Board  of  Managers,  committees  on  respective 
departments  of  the  Society  were  constituted,  as 
recommended  in  a  report  from  Messrs.  Hall  and 
Norton,  and  the  President  appointed  said  com- 
mittees as  follows : 

Finance — Millard  Fillmore  (Chairman  ex-offi,- 
cio,  as  President),  Jas.  P.  White,  Chas.  D.  Norton. 
Library—  Guy  H.  Salisbury,  Geo.  R.  Babcock, 
Geo.  W.  Hosmer.  Papers  and  Property — G.  W. 
Clinton,  0.  H.  Marshall,  H.  W.  Rogers.  Do- 
nations, Subscriptions,  and  Collections — 0.  G. 
Steele,  L.  F.  Allen,  Wm.  Dorsheimer.  Publica- 
tions—Walter Clarke,  N.  K.  Hall,  G  H.  Salis- 
bury. Membership — H.  W.  Rogers,  C.  D.  Nor- 
ton, Wm.  Dorsheimer. 

On  motion  of  N.  K.  Hall,  the  matter  of  rooms 
to  be  occupied  by  the  Society,  with  fitting  up 
and  furnishing  the  same,  was  referred  to  the 
Committee  on  Papers  and  Property. 

The  Annual  Address  before  the  Society  was 
delivered  at  Americau  Hall,  on  the  evening  of 
Jan.  13th,  by  Rev.  Dr.  Hosmerf  being  entitled 
"  The  Physiognomy  of  Buffalo." 

The  following  gentlemen  were  elected  Corre- 
sponding Members:  Hon  Horace  U.  Soper,  of 
Batavia;  Ex-Lieut.  Gov.  Simon  Brown,  of  Con- 
cord, Mass. 

New  York  Historical  Society. — New  York, 
February  2. — The  regular  monthly  meeting  of 
this  society  was  held  at  the  Society's  Hall,  on 
Second  avenue,  and  notwithstanding  the  un- 
promising state  of  the  weather  a  large  audience 
was  in  attendance.  Frederick  De  Peyster,  Pre- 
sident, in  the  chair.  On  the  recommendation  of 
the  Executive  Committee  the  society  determined 
to  commemorate  by  suitable  acts  and  proceed- 
ings the  two  hundredth  anniversary  of  the  Con- 
quest of  New  Netherland  in  1 664.  The  paper  of 
the  evening  was  read  by  Wm.  J.  Hoppin  on 
"  The  Existing  Portraits  of  Ancient  Historical 
Personages,"  and  was  a  beautiful  production,  full 
of  learning  and  eloquence.  It  was  received  with 
great  enthusiasm  by  the  society.     A  suggestion 




fjr  a  suitable  memorial  to  John  Howard  Payne, 
presented  at  the  last  meeting,  was  renewed  by 
Dr.  Gardner,  whose  proposition  on  the  subject 
was  referred  to  the  Executive  Committee.  The 
proceedings  throughout  were  exceedingly  inte- 

March  1. — The  meeting  of  the  Historical  Soci- 
ety was  well  attended,  President  De  Peyster  in 
the  chair.  The  remains  of  the  old  statue  of  Pitt, 
erected  in  Wall  street,  in  1770,  recently  a  part  of 
Mr.  Riley's  Museum,  in  West  Broadway,  were 
presented  to  the  Society  by  Mr.  Simon  F. 
Mackie.  Mrs.  Spooner,  widow  9/  S.  Spooner, 
esq.,  has  given  to  the  Society  the  plates  of  Mr. 
Spooner's  two  works,  the  Dictionary  and  the 
Anecdotes  of  Painters  and  Sculptors.  The  Com- 
missioners of  Charities  and  Corrections  presented 
to  the  Society,  a  very  neat  obelisk  about  a  foot 
high,  richly  mounted,  made  of  the  stone  of  the 
balcony  of  the  Federal  Hall,  Wall  street,  from 
which  General  Washington  delivered  his  Inaugu- 
ral, April,  30,  1789.  President  De  Peyster  made 
some  interesting  statements  concerning  the  inau- 
guration of  Washington. 

Mr.  George  Folsom  moved  a  vote  of  thanks  to 
the  Commissioners,  which  was  seconded  by  the 
Rev.  Dr.  Osgood,  and  by  Dr.  Wilson,  a  Chief  of 
the  Iroquois,  who  expressed  the  sentiments  of 
veneration  the  Iroquois  entertained  for  the  me- 
mory of  Washington. 

Mr.  Folsom  made  a  motion  that  a  committee 
be  appointed  to  wait  upon  the  delegates  of  the 
Six  Nations  who  are  daily  expected  here  on  their 
way  to  Washington.  The  motion  was  adopted, 
and  Mr.  Folsom,  George  Bancroft,  and  Dr.  Os- 
good were  appointed  the  Committee. 

A.  B.  Hayes,  esq.,  gave  to  the  Society  a  por- 
trait, by  John  Wesley  Jarvis,  of  the  Rev.  John 
Stanford,  D.D.,  a  Baptist  clergyman  of  usefulness 
and  repute  in  the  city  in  the  early  part  of  the 
century,  and  Mr.  Gulian  C.  Verplanck  gave  some 
pleasant  reminiscences  of  both  Mr.  Jarvis  and 
Mr.  Stanford.  On  motion  of  Mr.  Thompson,  a 
committee  of  three  was  appointed  to  consider 
and  report  whether  measures  can  be  taken  to 
respond  to  the  desire  of  Mr.  Bryan,  that  the 
Bryan  Gallery  of  Christian  Art  may  be  per- 
manently placed  in  charge  of  the  Society.  Rev. 
A.  C.  Coxe  offered  resolutions  in  favor  of  a  Na- 
tional Society  of  literary  men,  to  maintain  the 
purity  of  the  English  language,  and  a  high  stand- 
ard of  scholarship,  to  represent  the  common  in- 
terest of  American  scholars,  and  to  communicate 
with  scholars  abroad.  The  subject  was  referred 
to  a  committee  of  five,  to  consider  and  report. 
Mr.  McCurdy  moved  for  a  committee  to  consider 
Mr.  Jay's  letter  to  Mr.  Dawson,  on  the  new 
edition  of  The  Federalist ;  but,  after  a  debate  of 
some  little  warmth,  the  subject  was  laid  on  the  ta- 

ble, with  much  decision,  as  a  too  personal  con- 
troversy for  the  official  action  of  the  Society. 


Historical    Society    of     Pennsylvania. — 

Philadelphia,  Feb.  8,  1864. — The  annual  meet- 
ing of  this  Society  was  held  at  the  Athenaoum 
Building.  On  motion  of  Dr.  B.  H.  Coates,  Col. 
Jas.  Ross  Snowden  was  called  to  the  chair. 

The  Trustees  of  the  Publication  Fund  pre- 
sented their  annual  report,  from  which  it  appears 
that  the  subscriptions  on  31st  December,  1863, 
amounted  to  $15,835.  Owing  to  domestic 
affliction,  our  fellow-member,  Mr.  William  C. 
Reichel,  has  been  unable  to  complete  the  His- 
tory of  Bethlehem  and  the  Moravian  Settlements 
in  north-eastern  Penn. ;  a  reprint  of  the  first 
volume  of  the  Society's  collections  has  therefore 
been  commenced. 

Samuel  Hazard,  Esq.,  having,  on  account  of 
the  infirmities  of  advanced  age,  declined  a  re- 
election as  Librarian,  resolutions  were  passed 
expressive  of  the  high  appreciation  of  his  ser- 
vices and  regard  for  him  on  his  retirement. 

The  monthly  report  of  the  Librarian  was  read. 
Among  the  valuable  donations  received,  was  a 
water-color  fac  simile  of  the  original  tombstone 
over  the  grave  of  William  Bradford,  Printer, 
erected  in  Trinity  church-yard,  New  York.  On 
motion  of  H.  G.  Jones,  Esq.,  resolutions  of 
thanks  to  Mr.  Abraham  Hosier,  the  donor,  were 
then  adopted. 

Rev.  Dr.  Brainerd  offered  a  resolution  of 
thanks  to  Miss  R.  L.  Bodley,  of  Cincinnati,  for 
gift  of  a  photograph  and  fac  simile  letter  of 
Johanna  Maria  Heckewelder,  of  Bethlehem, 
Penn.,  known  in  history  as  the  first  white 
child  born  within  the  limits  of  the  present  State 
of  Ohio. 

The  following  officers  were  then  elected  for  the 
ensuing  year : — 

President — Hon.  Joseph  R.  Ingersoll. 
Vice-Presidents — J.    Francis    Fisher,    George 
Chambers,     of     Chambersburg ;    Benjamin    H. 
Coates,  M.D.,  J.  William  Wallace. 
Treasurer — Charles  M.  Morris. 
Recording  Secretary — Samuel  L.  Smediey. 
Corresponding      Secretary  —  Horatio     Gates 

Librarian — Samuel  L.  Taylor. 
Library   Committee — John  A.  McAllister,  Ri- 
chard L.  Nicholson. 

Publication    Committee — Rev.    Daniel   Wash- 
Finance  Committee — Edward  A.  Souder. 
After  the  election,  a  discussion  arose  among 




the  members  relative  to  the  erection  of  a  new 
hall  for  the  use  of  the  Society,  when  it  was 
determined  to  place  the  matter  in  the  hands  of 
a  committee. 

The  Society  then  adjourned. 


Vermont  Historical  Society.  —  Brandon, 
January  28. — The  ninth  special  meeting  of  the 
Vermont  Historical  Society  was  held  at  Bran- 
don, the  Hon.  Hiland  Hall,  President,  in  the 
chair.  The  Hon.  E.  N.  Briggs,  Chairman  of  the 
Committee  of  Arrangements,  welcomed  the 
Society  in  a  brief  speech,  which  was  responded 
to  by  the  Hon.  Hiland  Hall,  President  of  the 

Henry  Hall,  Esq.,  of  Rutand,  then  read  a 
paper  entitled  "  Indian  Foot-Prints." 

George  Grenville  Benedict,  Esq.,  of  Burling- 
ton, read  a  paper  entitled,  "  The  Battle  of  Gettys- 
burg and  the  part  Vermonters  took  therein." 

The  Rev.  Samuel  R.  Hall,  of  Brownington, 
then  read  a  memoir  of  the  late  Rev.  Walter 
Chapin,  formerly  of  Woodstock. 

A  paper  was  read  by  Albert  D.  Hager,  Esq., 
entitled,  "  Ancient  Mining  on  the  Shore  of  Lake 

After  the  reading  of  a  letter  of  apology  from 
Hon.  David  A.  Smaliey  assigning  severe  sick- 
ness as  a  cause  for  his  not  being  able  to  pro- 
nounce an  address  on  the  life  and  services  of  the 
late  Stephen  A.  Douglas,  of  Illinois, 

Edward  J.  Phelps,  Esq.,  of  Burlington,  read 
a  commemorative  sketch  of  the  life  and  cha- 
racter of  the  Hon.  Charles  Linsley,  of  Middle- 

The  Rev.  Daniel  Tomkins  Taylor,  of  Castle- 
ton,  then  read  an  original  Poem  entitled,  "  The 
Vermont  Volunteer." 

A  number  of  persons  were  admitted  to  resi- 
dent membership. 

On  motion,  a  committee,  consisting  of  Messrs. 
Edward  J.  Phelps,  of  Burlington,  Henry  Hall, 
of  Rutland,  and  George  F.  Houghton,  St.  Albans, 
was  appointed  to  revise  the  papers  left  for  the 
Society  by  the  late  Hon.  Charles  Linsley,  and 
present  them  at  the  next  meeting  of  the  Society 
at  St.  Johnsbury,  in  June,  1864. 

The  Hon.  Stephen  Royce,  of  East  Berkshire, 
was  urgently  requested  to  prepare  a  paper  em- 
bracing his  Reminiscences  of  the  Bench  and 
Bar  of  Vermont. 

Hon.  Isaac  F.  Redfield,  of  Boston,  was  re- 
quested to  prepare  and  read  before  the  Society, 
his  Reminiscences  of  the  Bench  and  Bar  of 

Prof.  William  H.  Parker,    of  Middlebury,  to 

prepare  a  memoir  of  the  late  Hon.  James 

Hon.  Asa  Owen  Aldis,  of  St.  Albans,  to 
prepare  a  biography  of  the  Hon.  Samuel  S. 

Rev.  John  B.  Perry,  of  Swanton,  to  prepare  a 
biographical  sketch  of  the  late  ex-Governor 
Horace  Eaton. 

On  motion,  Rev.  Pliny  H.  White,  of  Coven- 
try, was  requested  to  prepare  biographical 
notices  of  the  historians  of  Vermont.  The 
Rev.  Pliny  H.  White  was  formally  invited  to 
complete  his  Bibliography  of  Vermont,  by  adding 
thereto  a  complete  list  of  the  newspapers  print- 
ed in  Vermont.  Mr.  White,  being  present, 
accepted  the  invitation,  conditioned  that  each 
member  of  the  Society  render  such  aid  as  may 
be  in  his  power,  to  render  the  list  as  complete 
as  possible. 

The  Rev.  John  B.  Perry,  of  Swanton,  then 
read  a  paper,  "  On  the  Geological  Formation  of 
Lake  Champlain." 

A  paper  on  "June  Trainings  in  Vermont"  was 
then  read  by  Luther  L.  Dutcher,  Esq..  of 
St.  Albans,  after  which  the  Society  took  a  re- 
cess until  two  o'clock  p.m. 

Many  valuable  donations  were  made,  for 
which  the  thanks  of  the  Society  were,  on  motion, 

John  McKesson,  Esq.,  of  New  York  City, 
through  L.  L.  Dutcher,  Esq.,  presented  to  the 
Society  a  parchment  deed,  dated  in  1773,  of 
lands  owned  by  the  proprietors  of  Middlesex, 
Washington  County,  Vt.,  and  described  in  said 
deed  of  partition  as  belonging  to  Middlesex,  Al- 
bany County,  in  the  Province  of  New  York. 

Rev.  Francis  W.  Smith,  of  St.  Albans,  pre- 
sented a  volume,  entitled,  "  Trinity  Church 
(N.  Y.)  Pamphlets." 

A  manuscript,  being  the  original  of  two  law 
lectures,  by  the  Hon.  Nathaniel  Chipman,  Prof, 
of  Jurisprudence  in  Middlebury  College  from 
1816  to  1843,  was  presented  by  Mrs.  Charles 
Linsley,  of  Middlebury. 

A  complete  set  of  the  "Brandon  Monitor" 
Newspaper,  and  a  Pamphlet  containing  a  fac 
simile  of  the  original  Declaration  of  Independence 
in  the  handwriting  of  Thomas  Jefferson,  with 
biographical  sketches  of  all  the  Signers,  were 
presented  by  D.  L.  Milliken,  Brandon,  Editor  of 
the  u  Vermont  Record." 

Mr.  J.  Holcomb,  ofBrandon,  presented, through 
the  editor  of  the  "  Vermont  Record"  five  vo- 
lumes of  the  "  Voice  of  Freedom"  newspaper, 
commencing  in  June,  1843.  Through  the  same 
source,  Rev.  Bernice  D.  Ames,  of  East  Green- 
wich, R.I.,  presented  a  volume  containing  a 
memoir  of  the  late  Hon.  Anderson  G.  Dana, 
M.D.,  ofBrandon. 




A  biographical  notice  of  the  Rev.  George  B. 
Manser,  D.D.,  one  of  the  corporators  named  in 
the  charter  of  the  Vermont  Historical  Society, 
and  its  first  Secretary,  was  then  read  by  Greorge 
F.  Houghton,  Esq.,  of  St.  Albans. 

This  was  followed  by  the  reading  of  a  bio- 
graphical sketch  of  the  late  Hon.  Zimri  Howe, 
of  Castleton,  by  Henry  Clark,  Esq.,  of  Poult- 

The  exercises  concluded  by  the  reading  of  a 
commemorative  notice  of  the  late  Rev.  Stephen 
Olin,  D.D.,  LL.D .,  by  the  Rev.  Andrew  Wither- 
spoon,  DD.,  of  Brandon. 

The  Hon.  William  M.  Pingry,  of  Perkinsville, 
resolved,  that  the  Hon.  Norman  Williams,  of 
Woodstock,  was  requested  to  prepare  a  bio- 
graphical sketch  of  the  late  Hon.  Titus  Hutchin- 
son ;  and  that  the  Hon.  Carlos  Coolidge  be  in- 
vited to  prepare  a  biographical  sketch  of  the  late 
Hon.  Jonathan  H.  Hubbare,  of  Windsor. 

Dr.  John  L.  Chandler,  of  St.  Albans,  was  in- 
vited to  prepare  a  paper  comprising  his  Reminis- 
cences of  the  most  noted  of  the  pioneer  Sur- 
geons and  Physicians  of  Vermont. 

The  Hon.  Jacob  Collamer  was  requested  to 
prepare  and  read  before  this  Society  a  memoir 
of  the  Hon.  Charles  K.  Williams,  of  Rutland. 

The  President  then  announced  that  the  next 
special  meeting  of  the  Society  would  be  held  at 
St.  Johnsbury,  in  the  month  of  June,  1864.  After 
remarks  from  the  President  of  the  Society,  in 
which  he  alluded  to  the  efforts  made  by  the  Com- 
mittee of  Arrangements  and  by  the  people  of 
Brandon,  to  render  this  special  meeting  attractive 
aud  successful,  and  to  the  hospitality  of  the 
citizens  of  Brandon,  which  was  bountifully  as 
well  as  gracefully  dispensed,  the  Society  adjourn- 
ed,— having,  in  the  character  of  the  exercises 
and  in  the  number  of  persons  in  attendance  upon 
them  from  far  and  near,  given  renewed  proofs 
of  increasing  activity  and  usefulness. 

breadth,  and  judgment  which  were  an  earnest  of 
the  great  value  of  the  work  so  well  introduced. 
In  the  present  number  there  is  no  departure 
from  the  high  character  assumed.  The  work  is 
in  every  point  of  view  creditable,  and  far  superior 
to  any  other  that  we  have  seen. 

The  Manufacture  of  Iron  in  Buffalo.  A  paper 
read  by  invitation  before  The  Buffalo  His- 
torical Society,  January  25,  1864.  By  John 
Wilkeson,  Esq.  Buffalo,  1864. 

A  valuable  and  readable  sketch  of  the  im- 
portant iron  manufacture  that  has  grown  up  in 
Buffalo.  It  contains  much  information  on  iron 
generally  that  will  repay  perusal. 

gfofeS   0tt   §00fo 

Harper's  Pictorial  History  of  the  Great  Rebellion. 

No.  6. 

This  number,  illustrated  with  a  fine  colored 
map  of  the  States  embraced  in  the  original  field 
of  operations,  and  several  very  fine  engravings 
on  wood,  begins  properly  the  history  of  the  war, 
the  previous  numbers  having  been  devoted  to 
an  introductory  portion,  written  with  a  dignity, 

The  United  States  Service  Magazine,  Vol.  I.  No.  I. 
January,  1864.    C.  B.  Richardson,  New  York, 

This  Magazine,  appealing  directly  to  the  Army 
and  Navy,  enters  on  its  career  with  every  pro- 
mise of  success.  In  appearance  it  is  certainly 
the  prince  of  the  American  Magazines,  being 
very  well  printed  on  fine  paper.  On  testing  the 
contents  we  cannot  certainly  be  less  pleased. 
The  editor,  Prof.  Henry  Coppee,  formerly  an 
officer  in  the  U.  S.  Army  and  a  graduate  of  West 
Point,  brings  to  his  task  not  only  a  thorough 
knowledge  of  the  military  profession,  but  the 
literary  skill  and  ability  which  have  won  him 
such  a  high  rank  in  the  world  of  letters. 

This  number  has  a  Word  of  Greeting,  an  ar- 
ticle on  Chattanooga,  with  a  map ;  the  Northern 
and  Western  Lakes ;  a  few  Facts  about  Artil- 
lery ;  a  Modern  Fable ;  a  fine  poem  on  the  Bu- 
rial at  Gettysburg;  a  paper  by  Gen.  Barnard  on 
the  Use  of  Iron  in  Fortification ;  one  by  Oh.  G. 
Leland  on  War  Songs ;  an  article  on  Greek  Fire, 
which  will  dispel  some  illusions ;  Modern  War  ; 
Later  Rambles  over  the  Field  of  Gettysburg,  by 
Dr.  Jacobs,  etc.,  etc. 

Three  Months  in  the  Southern  States,  April — 
June,  1863.  By  Lieut.  Col.  Fremantle,  Cold- 
stream Guards.  New  York,  John  Bradburn 
(M.  Doolady's  Successor).  1864.  12mo.  309  pp. 

A  neat  and  readable  volume,  which  the  pub- 
lisher has  done  well  to  issue.  We  hope  the  author 
is  not  an  average  specimen  of  English  officers  of 
his  rank;  his  hatred  of  the  American  govern- 
ment is  natural  and  to  be  expected;  his  exul- 
tation at  finding  Americans  filled  with  similar 
feelings  equally  so.  He  entered  Texas  from 
Mexico  and  ran  across  to  our  lines,  which  he 
reached  in  Pennsylvania  after  the  battle  of  Get- 
tysburg, which  he  saw.    Disposed  to  see  all  in 




the  South  with  favor,  his  account  is  an  admiring 
sketch ;  yet  much  of  value  is  given. 

Notice  sur  les  Plantes  de  Michaux  et  sur  son  voy- 
age au  Canada  et  a  la  Baie  d' Hudson,  dapres 
son  Journal  mannscrit  et  autres  documents 
inedits  par  VAbbt  Ovide  Brunet.  Quebec. 
8vo.  pp.  44. 

This  valuable  tract  will  prove  a  treat  to  our 
botanists,  as  the  range  of  plants  is  not  entirely 
confined  to  Canada,  and  the  life  belongs  as  well 
to  American  as  Canadian  biography. 


Parton's  Life  and  Times  of  Franklin. — Mr. 
Parton,  we  understand,  contrary  to  his  original 
intention,  has  concluded  to  publish  his  work  on 
the  Life  and  Times  of  Benjamin  Franklin,  with- 
out waiting  for  the  return  of  peace.  It  is  now  in 
press,  and  will  appear  about  the  first  of  June.  It 
is  remarkable  that  the  great  masses  of  material 
for  a  complete  biography  of  Franklin  should 
never  before  have  been  used  for  the  production  of 
such  a  work.  The  reason  is,  probably,  that  the 
fragments  of  autobiography  left  by  Franklin 
stood  in  the  way,  no  recent  writer  being  willing 
either  to  discard  or  continue  them.  Mr.  Parton, 
we  are  informed,  overcomes  this  difficulty  by 
using  the  autobiography  as  material  only,  and  is 
thus  enabled  to  incorporate  into  his  narrative  all 
the  interesting  information  respecting  Franklin's 
early  life  which  modern  research  has  brought  to 
light.  The  public  career  of  Franklin,  particularly 
his  services  during  the  Revolutionary  war,  both 
as  a  member  of  Congress  and  as  envoy  to  France, 
are  related  in  the  new  work  with  a  fulness  of 
detail  never  before  attempted.  Among  the  im- 
portant acquisitions  of  the  author,  is  a  perfect 
copy  of  the  pamphlet  written  by  Franklin  in  his 
nineteenth  year,  when  he  was  a  journeyman 
printer  in  London,  which  gave  him  at  the  time 
considerably  celebrity,  but  which  was  long  sup- 
posed to  be  lost.  This  will  be  given  entire  in 
an  appendix.  One  of  the  engravings  is  a  por- 
trait of  that  infant  son  of  Franklin  whose  un- 
timely death  he  mourned  for  forty  years.  There 
will  be  in  these  volumes  a  great  deal  of  matter 
of  immediate  interest,  bearing  directly  on  the 
events  now  occurring  ;  for  it  is  well  known 
that  the  spirit  of  Secession  began  to  manitest 
itself  as  early  as  1778,  in  Paris,  where  the  North- 
ern and  Southern  servants  of  Congress  were  at 

open  war,  and  where  their  contentions  paralysed 
the  alliance  between  France  and  America. 
|  Nothing  but  the  wisdom,  the  patience,  and  the  in- 
i  doniitable  good  humor  of  Franklin  prevented  the 
I  Southern  hot-heads  from  giving  mortal  offence 
|  to  the  French  government.  The  new  biography 
i  will  form  two  volumes,  crown-octavo,  of  about 
|  650  pages  each.  It  will  be  published  by  the 
I  Mason  Brothers  of  this  city. 

Among  the  Many  Curious  Relics  brought 
j  forward  at  a  recent  Sanitary  Fair  is  a  chip 
i  from  the  Beech  Tree  Forks,  of  Licking,  showing 
the  tomahawk  marks  of  Daniel  Boone,  which 
was  the  corner  tree  and  starting  point  for 
his  claim  to  lands  in  Kentucky.  The  yearly 
growth  of  wood  having  covered  this  tomahawk 
mark,  it  was  necessary,  in  settling  the  numerous 
law-suits  in  Kentucky,  to  produce  the  mark  made 
by  Boone.  This  was  done  by  carefully  scaling 
off  the  yearly  growth,  until  the  mark  appeared 
corresponding  with  the  year  he  made  it.  and  the 
chip  being  in  Court,  and  the  tree  proved  from 
which  it  was  taken,  Boone's  claim  was  established. 

Death  of  a  Reserve  Antiquarian. — Mr.  Joel 
Blakeslee,  of  Colebrook,  Ashtabula  Co.,  0.,  a 
venerable  antiquarian  and  respected  citizen,  died 
Nov.  27th,  aged  76  years.  Mr.  Blakeslee  emi- 
grated from  Avon,  N.  Y.,  to  Ohio,  in  1819,  and 
was  the  first  settler  of  Colebrook,  his  family 
occupying  a  house  which  consisted  of  four  wide 
boards  for  a  floor,  and  five  for  a  shelter  from  the 
weather.  The  nearest  settlement  was  three 
miles,  to  which  they  went  by  marked  trees. 
Hardships  and  privations  were  the  lot  of  the 
Blakeslee  pioneers,  many  of  them  unusually 
severe.  Mr.  B.  in  due  time  became  locally  fa- 
mous as  an  Antiquarian,  and  gathered  up  the 
relics  of  the  past,  and  the  incidents  connected 
with  the  early  history  of  every  township  of  Ash- 
tabula county.  All  the  Indian  curiosities  and 
history  of  his  section  of  the  Lake  region  were 
carefully  collected  and  preserved,  and  his  contri- 
butions to  the  press  and  the  Historical  Society 
at  Jefferson  were  valuable  and  interesting. 
They  will  be  more  and  more  prized  as  genera- 
tion succeeds  generation. 

One  of  the  attractions  of  the  late  Fair  at  Cin- 
cinnati, was  a  selection  of  letters  from  the  extra- 
ordinary collection  of  Lewis  J.  Cost,  Esq.,  of  St. 
Louis,  whose  contributions  from  his  American 
treasures  have  often  enriched  our  columns. 
Among  the  most  remarkable  there  exhibited, 
were  those  of  Pope  Leo  X.,  Luther,  Henry  VIII., 
of  the  period  of  the  Reformation;  Cromwell,  Marl- 
borough,   Wellington,  Napoleon,    Murat,   Ney. 



[March,  1864. 

among  the  military  heroes ;  and  a  host  of  Ameri- 
can worthies,  Gov.  Stuyvesant,  Roger  Williams, 
Gen.  Oglethorpe,  Washington,  Franklin,  Boone, 

The  Lexington  Monument. — The  heirs  of  the 
late  Wm.  H.  Carey,  of  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.  (for- 
merly of  Boston),  have  purchased  Belfrey  Hill, 
in  Lexington,  containing  about  two  acres,  and 
having  in  the  centre  a  rock  rising  up  40  feet. 
The  price  paid  was  $3000.  The  lot  has  been 
presented  by  the  said  heirs  to  the  Lexington 
Monument  Association,  as  a  site  for  their  new 
monument.  The  rock  is  but  a  few  rods  distant 
from  the  old  monument.  The  directors  recently 
held  a  meeting  and  voted  unanimously  to  accept 
the  patriotic  gift.  Resolutions  and  a  vote  of 
thanks  were  unanimously  passed,  and  a  copy 
sent  to  the  donors. 

This  is  a  noble  beginning.  It  is  hoped  that 
other  persons  will  give  their  aid  towards  erecting 
a  National  Monument  in  commemoration  of  the 
great  event  of  the  19th  of  April,  1775.  It  will 
require  two  years  to  execute  the  work  of  the 
"  Minute  Man," — a  bronze  statue  of  about  six- 
teen feet  in  height.  It  is  to  be  hoped  that  suffi- 
cient aid  will  be  given  the  Association  soon,  so 
that  work  will  go  on  and  have  the  corner  stone 
ready  to  be  laid  and  dedicated  to  Liberty  and 
Union  again  by  the  old  soldiers,  when  they 
return  from  the  war.  The  Ancient  and  Honor- 
able Artillery  Company  have  subscribed  $1000, 
to  be  paid  when  the  corner  stone  is  laid. 

Any  person  wishing  to  contribute  money  for 
the  patriotic  object  of  erecting  this  Naiional  Mo- 
nument, can  leave  it  with  Mr.  C.  O.  Whitmore, 
the  Treasurer,  in  Liberty  square,  Boston  j  also 
those  who  wish  to  become  members  of  the  Asso- 
ciation can  do  so  by  paying  $5  to  Mr.  Whitmore, 
when  they  will  receive  a  diploma  executed  on  a 
steel  plate  in  the  highest  style  of  art,  on  which  is 
the  autograph  of  the  President,  Hon.  Edward 
Everett,  also  the  other  officers  of  the  Asso- 
ciation, a  design  of  the  new  monument  and  a 
battle  scene  in  Lexington,  April  19,  1775,  the 
whole  making  a  beautiful  parlor  picture  worth 
the  five  dollars  paid  for  it.  Every  American 
should  have  a  copy  placed  in  his  house,  to  be 
handed  down  to  future  generations,  informing 
them  where  American  liberty  had  its  birth. 

Mr.  Robert  Wright,  102  Great  Russell  St., 
W.  C,  London,  solicits  copies  of  autograph  let- 
ters of  Gen.  Wolfe  for  a  new  and  complete  life 
of  the  great  commander. 

Hon.  Samuel  F.  Cary  of  College  Hill,  Ohio,  | 
is  preparing  a  complete  history  or  record  of  the  I 

descendants  of  John  Cary  who  landed  at  Ply- 
mouth in  the  Mayflower. 

Kosciusko. — Marianna  Lugomirska,  said  to  be 
a  descendant  of  the  Polish  patriot  Thaddeus 
Kosciusko,  has  published  in  Germany  a  new 
historical  romance,  compiled  from  original  let- 
ters and  documents  preserved  amongst  the 
family  papers  of  the  Polish  hero. 

The  Veteran  Newspaper  or  the  United 
States. — The  oldest  newspaper  in  the  United 
States  is  the  "  New  Hampshire  Gazette,"  pub- 
lished at  Portsmouth,  N.  H.  This  paper  com- 
pleted the  one  hundred  and  seventh  year  of  its 
publication  on  the  1st  of  October.  This  paper 
commenced  its  career  in  1756,  and  consequently 
is  the  oldest  newspaper  in  America. 

Yol.  I.  Maine  Historical  Collections,  is  now 
in  the  printer's  hand  for  republication.  The 
demand  has  exhausted  the  first  edition,  and  the 
Publishing  Committee  are  taking  advantage  of 
this  opportunity  to  enrich  the  work  by  the 
addition  of  about  sixty  pages,  to  be  furnished 
out  of  the  valuable  stores  of  its  Editor,  the  Hon. 
William  Willis,  President  of  the  Society. 

History  of  Portland. — This  valuable  pro- 
duction, of  which  the  first  portion  is  contained 
in  Vol.  I.  of  the  Collections  of  the  Maine  His- 
torical Society,  is  soon  to  be  issued  in  a  new  and 
attractive  form,  at  the  request  of  the  Society. 
The  author,  the  Hon.  Wm.  Willis,  of  Portland, 
will  make  additions  to  its  pages,  and  intends  to 
continue  the  narrative  down  to  the  present  time. 
His  resources  for  this  purpose  are  abundant; 
and  his  ability  to  draw  upon  these  has  been  fully 
tested  in  the  many  historical  and  biographical 
sketches  in  which  he  has  preserved  the  facts  of 
the  past. 

History  of  the  Pennsylvania  Paper  Money 
and  of  the  Continental  Emissions. — Mr.  Frank 
M.  Etting  is  compiling  historical  sketches  of  the 
Paper  Money  of  Pennsylvania  and  of  the  Con- 
tinental Emissions.  I  understand  that  he  has 
been  engaged  in  this  subject  for  several  years, 
and  has  collected  many  original  MSS.,  especially 
in  regard  to  the  Pennsylvania  issue.  As  a  per- 
son interested  in  the  subject,  and  anxious  to  aid 
Mr.  Etting,  permit  me  to  suggest  to  your  nu- 
merous readers,  many  of  whom  may  be  possessed 
of  valuable  information  of  this  subject,  that  they 
would  contribute  to  accurate  history  by  com- 
municating with  Mr.  Etting,  who,  at  present, 
resides  in  this  city.  u.  m. 

Baltimore,  Feb.  28,  1864. 



Vol.  VIII.] 

APRIL,  1864. 

[No.  4 

(Snuol  §*prtnuni. 


I  send  you  for  publication  a  few  letters 
from  the  then  Executive  of  Pennsylvania, 
Gen.  Joseph  Reed,  to  Gen.  Irvine,  apposite 
to  the  present  times,  inasmuch  as  they  relate, 
for  the  most  part,  to  the  difficulties  expe- 
rienced in  recruiting  the  armies  of  the  Revo- 
lution ;  the  more  creditable  to  those  who  did 
enlist,  and,  amid  the  discouragements  that 
surrounded  them,  battled  through  the  war, 
without  the  sordid  incentives  now  so  neces- 
sary to  the  recruitment  of  our  present 
armies.  Think  of  the  State  of  Pennsylva- 
nia with  a  war  on  her  hands,  and  only 
$3000  in  the  Treasury!  Respectfully, 
W.  A.  Irvine. 

Philad.,  Nov.  16th,  1773. 

Dear  Sir 

Tho  I  am  very  much  engaged  in  other 
Business  I  cannot  let  Gen.  Armstrong  go 
to  Carlisle  without  acquainting  you  of  the 
Steps  I  have  taken  upon  your  Claim.  On 
my  Return  from  Camp  I  made  due  Inquiry 
&  found  that  Gen.  Hand  had  been  pro- 
moted in  the  Manner  then  suggested  viz. 
upon  the  Nomination  of  North  Carolina. 
Being  satisfied  of  this  in  making  Report 
to  Congress  &  recommending  General  Of- 
ficers in  the  Name  of  the  Committee  I 
stated  the  several  Facts  which  the  Dele- 
gates of  North  Carolina  admitted  were 
truly  stated,  but  declared  they  could  not 
consent  to  receive  Gen.  Hand  as  their 
Omcer. — I  then  stated  Col.  Magaw  &  your- 
self as  standing  next  in  order  of  rank. 
That  Col.  Magaw  being   a  Prisoner,  if   a 

HIST.  MAG.      VOL.  VIII.  17 

Brigadier  was  indispensably  necessary  at 
present  as  Gen.  Washington  intimates  you 
stood  intitled,  but  in  this  case  Col.  Magaws 
Right  should  be  saved  either  by  Agree- 
ment between  yourselves  or  by  express 
Reservation,  as  it  would  be  a  great  Injus- 
tice that  a  good  Officer  should  lose  his 
Right  by  the  mere  Fortune  of  War.  The 
Generosity  of  your  own  Mind  I  am  sure 
will  lead  you  to  approve  this  Rule  of  my 
Conduct. — Thus  the  Matter  stands — Caro- 
lina says  she  will  not  have  Gen1.  Hand — 
Pennsylvania  should  say  &  I  trust  will, 
that  having  nominated  him  she  must  be 
bound  by  her  Nomination  or  the  Rights 
of  others  will  be  invaded.  Gen.  Hand]s 
Merit  as  an  Officer  is  not  questioned,  it  is 
a  Question  more  aflfecting  to  the  States  of 
Carolina  &  Pennsylvania,  than  a  personal 

I  have  not  now  the  Honour  of  a  Seat  in 
Congress  but  as  far  as  lays  in  my  Power 
shall  convey  the  Sentimts  I  have  expressed 
to  those  who  succeed  me  &  hope  they  will 
have  their  due  Weight. 

I  am  with  much  Esteem,  Sir 

Your  most  obed.  &  very 
Hbble  Serv. 

Jos.  Reed. 

Philad.,  Aug.  8, 1779. 

Dear  Sir 

I  am  indebted  to  you  for  two  Favours 
which  I  shall  now  endeavour  to  discharge 
with  one  ;  An  Indisposition  of  some  Days 
&  Moving  to  a  new  House  having  kept  me 
from  Business.  I  send  you  inclosed  an 
Answer  from  Col.  Nicola  on  the  subject  of 
the  Invalids  in  which  if  he  is  not  mistaken 
in  Facts  he  seems  to  account  for  his  Pro- 
cedure better  than  I  expected. 

The  Reduction  of  Stony  Point  has  every 




Particular  of  Time,  Manner,  &  Circum- 
stance to  recommend  it  &  reflects  such 
Credit  on  our  Arms  as  I  think  will  have 
lasting  Effects.  I  am  rejoiced  our  Officers 
had  so  great  a  Share  in  it,  as  it  reflects 
Honour  upon  the  State.  Had  the  medi- 
tated Design  on  the  other  Point  taken 
Effect  the  Consequences  would  have  been 
decisive  for  the  Campaign — We  are  well 
satisfied  here.  You  ask  me  what  may  be 
depended  on  as  to  Cloathing,  &  I  will 
answer  you  freely,  depending  that  you 
will  only  disclose  it  when  you  know  it  may 
be  done  with  Propriety — As  to  getting  it 
in  this  Place  it  is  impracticable,  either  the 
Merchants  have  it  not,  or  it  is  put  out  of 
Sight.  My  own  Opinion  is,  that  there  is 
more  in  town  than  appears,  but  much  less 
than  what  is  wanted.  We  have  therefore 
been  for  some  Time  preparing  Exports  to 
a  Place  not  very  distant,  and  mean  to  take 
every  Precaution  for  Safety,  the  Returns 
to  be  intirely  in  such  Articles  as  are  wanted 
for  the  Army.  However  in  this  View  we 
have  hitherto  confined  ourselves  to  the 
Officers,  it  having  been  understood  that 

now,  & 
as  Gen.  Wilkinson  the  new  Clothier  Gen. 
is  at  Camp  you  will  do  well  to  consult  him 
fully  upon  the  Subject. 

The  Mode  in  which  half  pay  was  given 
was  settled  by  Congress,  and  as  there  are 
comparatively  few  who  may  get  civil  Of- 
fices so  lucrative,  as  to  make  it  unneces- 
sary, I  wish  it  was  clear  of  that  Restriction, 
&  if  a  Law  is  brought  in  to  establish  it  I 
will  recommend  to  such  Members  of  Ass1^ 
as  I  have  any  Influence  with  to  lay  aside 
the  Restriction ;  but  this  will  only  affect 
the  half  Pay  given  by  the  State  as  we  can 
only  give  our  Vote  in  Congress,  as  one  of 
thirteen,  for  an  Alteration  of  the  other. 

Your  Mode  of  recruiting  would  be  an 
effectual  one,  if  no  Parties  existed  in  the 
State,  &  all  would  concur  to  enforce  the 
duty  :  But  while  each  seeks  to  strengthen 
itself  by  the  Malcontents  of  the  other 
Party  there  will  be  an  Imbecillity  in  every 
Measure  which  runs  counter  to  the  Feelings 
and  Interests  of  a  considerable  Number. 
But  I  should  chuse  in  this  Case  that  the 

the  Congress  would  take  care  of  the 
This  should  be  well   understood 

Term  of  Service  should  be  a  compleat 
Year  if  not  more  from  the  Time  of  joining 
the  Regiment. 

I  wish  I  had  more  Leisure  to  lay  my 
Sentiments  before  the  publick  on  the  Duty 
&  propriety  of  providing  for  the  Officers 
&  Soldiers — it  is  the  only  Subject  on 
which  I  trouble  the  News  Papers,  &  the 
same  Causes  for  not  answering  your  Let- 
ter have  operated  to  prevent  my  prose- 
cuting it — added  to  this,  that  the  News 
Papers  have  been  very  much  engross*1  by 
the  Party  writers.  I  shall  resume  it  as 
soon  as  my  Health  will  admit.  I  congratu- 
late you  upon  the  favourable  Accounts 
from  the  West  Indies — Grenada  undoubt- 
edly taken,  and  Byron  defeated  are  great 
Events,  we  wait  impatiently  for  the  par- 

My  best  Wishes  attend  you  &  am 
Dear  Sir,  with  much  Esteem 

Your  most  obed  &  very 
Hbble  serv 

Jos.  Reed. 

Pjiilad.,  Nov.  18, 1779. 

Dear  Sir 

I  am  indebted  to  you  for  several  Favours 
which  my  long  Indisposition  has  prevented 
my  answering.  I  shall  write  to  Major 
Moore  in  answer  to  his  Letter. 

The  very  heavy,  I  may  say  the  enormous, 
Expense   which   Avarrice   &  private   Ra- 
pacity throws  on  the  States  in   order  to 
procure  the  Necessaries  for  the  Army  will 
require  some  Attention  &  Care  on  their 
Part,  &  especially  in  the  filling  up  Vacan- 
cies in  the  present  State  of  the  Privates  I 
cannot   think    there   is   any  Necessity  of 
introducing  new  Officers  which   must  be 
the  Case  if  every  Vacancy  is  filled  as  soon 
as  it  happens.     I  would  wish  the  General 
&  Field  Officers  would  rather  discourage 
it  as  otherwise  they  may  feel  the  Inconve- 
niences themselves — the  fewer  Officers  we 
have  the  better  we  can  afford  to  do  for 
them  provided  there  is  sufficient  to  do  the 
Duty.     And  I  would  especially  recommend 
Caution  in  this  Respect  with  Respect  to 
any  Persons  not  belonging  to  the  State. 
The   Benefits   of    the   Pennsylvania   Line 
may  draw  Persons  from  other  States  or 




foreign  Parts,  but  it  is  not  prudent  as  to 
the  State  nor  politick  as  to  themselves,  as 
at  a  future  Day  the  Difficulty  of  rew  \t  ling 
such  a  Number  will  be  given  as  a  Reason 
against  rewarding  any. 

The  Cloathing  goes  off  next  Week,  & 
tho  not  so  complete  as  I  intended  I  believe 
if  you  can  be  permitted  to  retain  it  you 
will  find  yourselves  in  as  comfortable  a  State 
as  any  other  Line,  &  I  imagine  more  so  as 
no  Pains  has  been  spared  to  procure  Plenty 
<fc  of  the  best  Quality. 

As  Officers  have  a  good  deal  of  Leisure 
<fc  sometimes  want  Amusement  I  have  sent 
you   a    Pamphlet   of   which  I   beg    your 
Acceptance  &  am  with  much  Esteem 
Your  obed  &  very 

Hbble  serv 

Jos.  Reed. 

Piiilad.,  April  11, 17S0. 


The  various  Recommendations  of  Offi- 
cers for  Promotion  will  very  naturally  call 
for  some  Answer  &  Notice.  They  would 
probably  have  long  before  this  Time  been 
forwarded  from  this  Board  to  the  Conti- 
nental Board  of  AVar  if  it  had  not  been 
intimated  to  us  that  some  Propositions 
would  be  made  this  Spring  from  the  Offi- 
cers for  an  Incorporation  of  the  weak 
Regiments.  When  compared  with  other 
States  we  find  our  Quota  is  in  a  very 
respectable  Point  of  View,  &  have  there- 
fore thought  it  our  Duty  to  stimulate 
others  rather  than  overstrain  ourselves  by 
unequal  Exertions.  For  this  Reason  & 
because  the  exhausted  State  of  our  Trea- 
sury does  not  admit  of  the  Expence  we 
have  not  attempted  Recruiting.  For  your 
Satisfaction  &  that  of  the  Officers  I  also 
enclose  you  the  Resolution  of  Congress 
which  put  a  Period  to  our  farther  Pro- 
ceeding in  the  Appointments  of  Officers. 
Whenever  this  Obstacle  is  removed  or 
Congress  direct  the  Mode  we  shall  chear- 
fully  go  forward  in  the  Business. 

I  have  now  the  Satisfaction  of  informing 
you  that  the  House  of  Assembly  at  their 
last  Sessions  taking  into  farther  Consider- 
ation the  meritorious  Services  of  the 
Troops  belonging  to  this  State  not  only 

confirmed  by  a  Law  the  half  Pay  given  by 
Congress  extending  it  to  the  Life  of  every 
Officer,  but  also  the  Cloathing  &  Stores 
during  the  Service — providing  also  for  the 
Widow  and  Children  of  any  Officer  dying 
in  Service  by  an  Annuity  proportioned  to 
their  Wants  &  Circumstances — In  Addi- 
tion to  which  they  have  also  voted  each 
Officer  at  the  Expiration  of  Service  the 
following  Quantities  of  Land  free  of  Taxes 

A  Major  General 2000  Acres 

A  Brigadier 1500  Do. 

A  Colonel 1000  Do. 

A  Lieutenant  Colonel.  750.    Do. 

A  Surgeon 600  Do. 

A  Major 600  Do. 

A  Captain 500  Do. 

A  Lieutenant    , 400 

An  Ensign 300 

A  Surgeon's  Mate. . .   300 

And   as   an  Eucouracrement   to   the 

commissioned    Officers 
have  been  voted 

&    Soldiers 


A  Serjeant 250  Acres 

A  Private 200 

These  unsollicited  &  kind  Marks  of  Atten- 
tion &  Respect  I  am  sure  cannot  fail  of 
making  suitable  Impressions  on  brave  & 
generous  Minds.  As  I  feel  a  very  sincere 
Pleasure  in  executing  these  Plans  &  Mea- 
sures formed  for  the  Comfort  &  Satisfaction 
of  the  Army  I  am  also  happy  in  communi- 
cating them,  &  request  as  a  Peice  of 
Justice  to  the  Assembly  you  would  make 
known  to  the  Officers  &  Soldiers  what  has 
been  done  for  them  on  this  Occasion. 

I  also  enclose  you  a  Resolution  of  Con- 
gress on  the  Subject  of  your  Pay,  which  I 
hope  will  be  a  pleasing  Information  as  it 
shews  a  general  Attention  to  the  Interests 
&  Comfort  of  the  Army — of  which  it  is  in 
every  Respect  very  deserving. 

As  soon  as  the  Laws  are  printed  I  will 

forward  you  the  Act   for  the   Supply  & 

honourable  Reward   of  the   Pennsylvania 

Troops  &  am  with  much  Regard  &  Esteem 


Your  most  obed1  &  very 
Hbble  serv. 

Jos.  Reed. 




Phil  ad.,  April  14,  1T80. 


I  wrote  you  on  the  11th  Inst,  giving  you 
a  short  Sketch  of  the  Provision  lately 
made  for  the  Army — since  which  I  received 
your  Favour  of  the  8th  Inst.  I  am  sorry 
the  Surgeons  &  Mates  after  receiving 
Cloathing  &  other  Supplies  from  the  State 
should  thus  in  a  Body  tender  their  Resig- 
nation, it  looks  like  extorting  rather  than 
requesting.  Happily  in  this  Case  their 
Interests  were  consulted  &  attended  to 
before  this  Step  was  taken  otherwise  it 
might  possibly  have  injured  their  Claim. 
Generous  Minds  should  be  careful  how 
they  impose  Force  or  what  has  the  Ap- 
pearance of  it,  as  there  is  a  certain  Pride 
in  human  Nature  that  recoils  at  Compul- 
sion.— I  now  inclose  you  the  Act  of  As- 
sembly confirming  the  Provision  for  the 
Army — Besides  which  as  I  mentioned  in  a 
former  Letter  the  House  voted  2000  Acres 
of  Land  to  every  Major  General  &  so  in 
Proportion  to  inferiour  Officers — Surgeons 
&  their  Mates  included. 

I  agree  with  you  in  wishing  some  per- 
manent &  general  Plan  could  be  fallen 
upon  that  would  give  Satisfaction  &  save 
us  from  adopting  the  Line  of  temporary 

If  the  Surgeons  &  Mates  should  still 
persist  in  their  Resignation  it  will  be  more 
proper  to  make  it  to  Congress  than  to  us 
for  tho  we  have  the  Appointment  when 
they  receive  their  Commissions  they  be- 
come the  Officers  of  the  United  States. — 
Perhaps  from  the  Changes  making  in  the 
Hospital  Department  Congress  could  sup- 
ply their  Places,  but  I  confess  I  am  at  a 
loss  to  see  why  the  Gentlemen  are  dissa- 
tisfied with  the  State  because  their  Views 
were  disappointed  by  a  Vote  in  Congress. 
I  am  with  much  Esteem  Sir 

Your  obed  &  very  Hbble  Serv 
Jos.  Rerd. 

Philad.,  May  10th,  17S0. 

Dear  Sir 

Your  favour  of  the  twenty  fifth  of  April 
last  and  the  second  Instant  came  duly  and 
safely  to  hand.  We  are  sorry  that  a  point 
of  punctilio  with  respect  to  the  State 
Agentshould  be  taken  up  at  this  time  of 

day  and  in  the  present  state  of  our  affairs 
when  frugality  is  so  indispensibly  necessary. 
Whatever  may  be  the  customs  of  Euro- 
pean armies  it  certainly  resfs  in  our  own 
opinion  whether  such  an  appointment  shall 
be  derogatory  to  the  Character  of  an  offi- 
cer. One  thing  I  am  very  sure  of,  that  if 
the  person  who  is  to  undertake  it  is  not 
supported  and  respected  by  the  officers, 
his  office  will  be  a  very  difficult  if  not  an 
impracticable  one.  If  the  thing  is  not  too 
far  gone  I  should  be  glad  you  wrould  confer 
with  the  Baron  Steuben  thereon,  and  en- 
deavour to  divert  him  from  a  measure 
which  appears  to  us  attended  with  many 
inconveniences  without  any  real  advantages 
to  ballance  it.  If  I  had  time  I  would  write 
myself,  but  I  have  no  objection  to  your 
using  my  name  and  opinion. 

Mr.  Swaine's  conduct  is  by  no  means  pleas- 
ing to  us  but  if  you  have  the  Resolve  of 
Congress  of  the  twenty  third  day  of  March 
1V79,  you  will  find  that  tho  nominated  by 
us  he  is  an  officer  of  Congress  and  remov- 
able only  by  the  Commander  in  Chief.  It 
will  be  therefore  quite  acceptable  to  us  if 
his  conduct  could  be  taken  up  in  its  proper 
place  and  Justice  done  both  him  and  the 
publick.  We  have  frequently  intimated 
to  him  our  desire  that  he  should  reside  at 
Camp  but  it  has  not  had  the  desired  effect. 
We  had  flattered  ourselves  that  deser- 
tions had  nearly  ceased  and  thought  our- 
selves warranted  in  our  opinion  by  the 
estimate  of  stores  lately  sent  us  in  which 
our  Troops  computed  at  640  Officers  and 
3200  non  Commissioned  Officers  and  pri- 
vates. The  Justices  of  the  Supreme  Court 
having  gone  upon  the  Circuits  we  have 
recommended  to  them  in  the  strongest 
manner  the  putting  a  stop  to  the  inter- 
ference of  the  Justices  in  the  case  of  dis- 
charging soldiers.  I  am  clearly  of  opinion 
that  the  Justices  of  the  Supreme  Court 
only  upon  a  habeas  corpus,  have  a  right  to 
determine  the  expiration  of  service  and 
would  advise  that  the  Officers  in  such  case 
should  decently  and  respectfully  decline 
their  authority.  General  Lacey  will  write 
to  you  on  the  subject,  and  we  have  taken 
particular  notice  of  Mr.  Scott  of  York 
Town.     I  do  not  know  how  we  can  check 




You  must  be  sensible  what  a  heavy  <fc 
necessary  Demand  must  also  attend  re- 
cruiting. If  the  Bounties  are  not  paid  we 
can  expect  no  Men.  Your  Observations 
on  the  Taxes  of  Cumberland  are  very  jnst. 
Fair  tfc  punctual  Payment  of  Taxes  must 
not  be  considered  among  the  good  Quali- 
ties of  your  County — tho  in  Whiggism  & 
Bravery  I  think  it  may  vie  with  any 
County  in  the  State  or  even  in  America. 
I  wish  our  Friends  there  were  more  sen- 
sible of  the  Importance  of  this  Duty  but 
you  must  remember  that  it  has  been  an 
old  Complaint — Time  &  Experience  will 
we  hope  improve  &  amend  it. 


the  supernumerary  officers,  but  if  we  can   or  £3000  State  Money  in  it  at  any  Time- 
stop  the   Justices   their   Certificates    will  ' 
have  little  comparative  effect. 

I  must  acknowledge  my  good  Sir,  that 
in  the  present  state  of  our  publick  affairs 
as  to  money  I  see  no  prospect  of  recruiting 
the  number  of  Men  Baron  Steuben  calls 
for.  We  must  therefore  concur  in  some 
plan  for  levelling  the  regiments,  I  am 
sensible  it  is  an  unpleasant  business,  but 
the  all  powerful  Law  of  necessity  admits 
of  no  alternative.  I  am  told  that  at  this 
stage  of  the  business  the  taxes  are  found 
too  burthensome,  at  least  relaxation  is 
called  for  which  shows  they  have  been 
improvidently  required  or  very  injudiciously 
withheld.  I  am  very  glad  you  are  like  to 
bring  your  affair  to  an  issue  I  think  it  is 
quite  time  it  should  be  settled  and  your 
rank  determined  and  have  no  doubt  Justice 
will  be  done.  Colonel  Farmer  has  orders 
to  prepare  a  quantity  of  linnen  overalls 
and  a  supply  of  shirts  which  will  be  for- 
warded as  soon  as  they  are  got  ready. 
Pray  inform  me  with  respect  to  hats ;  if 
you  can  do  without  them  till  the  fall 
cl  oat  lies  it  would  be  best.  I  am  with 
much  regard  Sir 

Your  most  obedient  and  very  humble 

Jos.  Reed 

writing    the    above    your 
Little  is  come  to  hand. 

Wayne  laid  a  Letter  from  you  to 
him  before  the   Council  containing   some 
Observations  on  the  Neglect  &  Omission 
of  sending  the  Laws  into  the  Country  & 
particularly  the  late  Law  for  calling  Men 
by  Classes.     As  the  sending  the  Laws  has 
been  for  some  Time  past  considered  a  Duty 
of  the  Council  the  Members  considered  the 
sending   the  Letter  to   them   as  a  gentle 
Animadversion  on  the  Board  but  which  in 
this  Instance  does  not  happen  to  be  well 
founded.     The  Law  in  Question  was  sent 
by  Express  to  the  Commissioners  of  all  the 
Counties  above  two  Months  ago — We  find 
on  Inquiry  that  he  set  out  on  the  3d  Jan. 
taking  with  him   also  Instructions   of  the 
most  particular  Kind  so   as  to  establish  a 
general  Regularity  &  Uniformity  in  the 
Execution.     The    Express  is   not  here  to 
ascertain  with  judicial  Precision  the  actual 
Delivery    of  the   Law    it;   Papers   to    the 
Commissioners  of  Cumberland,  but   as  it 
was   seasonably  delivered  in   every  other 
Part  of  the  State  we  presume  that  County 
was  not  neglected  <fc  that  you  have  not 
Assembly.    "I  am  sorry  to  inform  you  that  j  been  properly  informed   on  this  Occasion, 
it  is  in  our  power  to  give  very  little  Relief,  i  which  I  have  been  the  more  sorry  for  as 
The  Advances   made   to  the    Officers    &  \  the  Letter  has  been  communicated  pretty 
Soldiers,   the  Purchase  of  Cloathing  now :  generally  Ss  is   wrote  in    a    Language  of 
in  Hand — the  Supply  of  this  City  &  the!  Complaint  rather  adapted  for  confidential 
various   Ports   in   the  Country— with  the .  &  private  Correspondence  than  for  publick 
Necessities  of  the   Army  at  West  Point,   Use. 

P.  S.    Since 
Favour  of  Mr. 

Fiiilad.,  March  20,  1TS1. 


I  have  duly  received  your  Favour  re- 
specting the  Affairs  at  Carlisle,  which 
appeared  of  so  much  Importance  that  I 
thought  proper  to   communicate  it  to  the 

Fort  Pitt  etc.  have  reduced  our  Treasury 
to  the  lowest  Ebb — so  that  I  can  with 
Truth   assure  you  we  have  not   now  noi 

Affairs  in  Europe  have  taken  a  surprizing 
Turn.  War  declared  by  England  against 
the  Dutch —  We  have  no  News  from  Che- 

have  we   had  for  2   Months  past   above  2   sapeak  where  the  French   &  British  Fleet 




now  are,  but  we  are  in  momentary  Expec- 
tation of  great  Events. 

I  am  with  much  Esteem  Sir 
Your  obed  &  very  Hbble  serv 

Jos.  Reed. 
P.  S.  There  is  at  present  no  Law  in 
Force  enabling  the  Council  to  issue  Orders 
to  impress — all  the  Powers  of  that  Nature 
being  vested  in  the  Commissioner  under 
the  Law  which  creates  the  Office. 

Philad.,  June  1, 1780. 

Dear  Sir 

I  am  to  acknowledge  several  of  your 
Favours  &  especially  the  last  informing  of 
the  unhappy  State  of  the  Army.  I  com- 
municated it  in  Confidence  to  the  General 
Assembly,  who  in  Addition  to  the  other 
Measures  which  we  had  pursued  &  the 
beneficial  Effects  of  which  we  hope  you  have 
by  this  Time  experienced  have  passed  a 
Law  authorizing  Persons  to  seize  all  Cattle 
&  Provisions,  this  Law  we  shall  execute 
with  Spirit  immediately  &  I  hope  in  a 
very  few  Days  you  will  see  that  a  different 
Spirit  reigns  here  than  in  those  States  who 
perhaps  being  more  remote  are  not  touched 
equally  with  a  Sense  of  the  Necessity  of 
immediate  Exertions — We  have  also  passed 
a  Law  for  draughting  Recruits  for  the 
Army  which  in  this  City  and  the  3  ad- 
joining Counties  will  produce  600  Men. 

Farmer  is  busily  engaged  making  Shirts 
&  Overalls — &  Mr.  Lyttle  in  forwarding 
the  Stores  which  are  purchased  for  your 
Refreshment  &  Comfort.  It  will  do  great 
Honour  to  our  State  if  we  can  keep  our 
Troops  uncontaminated  on  so  trying  an 
Occasion  with  the  Spirit  of  Discontent — 
for  which  after  all  we  must  acknowledge 
there  is  too  much  Reason. 

The  Arrangement  of  the  Officers  in 
Consequence  of  Vacancy  &  Promotion 
lias  been  laid  before  the  Board  of  War  & 
no  Difficulty  arises  in  making  out  the 
Commissions  but  in  the  3d  &  4th  Regi- 
ment. It  is  said  Mr.  Marshal  cannot  take 
Capt.  Ruly's  Place  untill  the  Proceedings 
are  had  to  dismiss  the  latter  agreeable  to 
the  inclosed  Resolution  of  Congress — the 
other  Appointments  in  Consequence  of 
Mr.  Marshal's  Promotion    will    of    course 

be  postponed. — The  same  Difficulty  in 
Case  of  Ensign  Peter  Smith  or  rather 
Lieutenant  King.  It  is  also  queried  how 
Mr.  Onial  was  dismissed  from  the  Sur- 
geoncy of  the  10th  Reg',  you  will  please 
to  have  this  explained  or  I  fear  his 
Appointment  will  also  be  delayed. 

As  to  the  4th  Regim* — The  Rank  of 
Messrs.  Beecher  &  Steddiford  must  be 
settled  before  any  Commissions  can  issue, 
and  as  the  Gentlemen  who  have  been  Pri- 
soners have  some  Reason  in  my  Opinion  to 
complain  I  flatter  myself  due  Considera- 
tion will  be  had  to  the  Justice  of  their 
Cases  on  the  present  Occasion. — We  have 
received  a  Remonstrance  from  the  other 
Officers  but  as  it  is  a  Rule  with  us  not  to 
interfere  in  these  Questions  we  hope  the 
matter  will  be  settled  at  Camp,  until  which 
nothing  can  be  done  here. 

Col.  Butler  is  anxious  for  the  Confirma- 
tion of  some  Ensigns  appointed  by  Gen1. 
Sullivan  but  as  the  General  had  no  Autho- 
rity to  make  such  an  Appointment  we 
cannot  violate  a  Rule  of  Congress  as  well 
as  our  own  Determination  or  the  Appoint- 
ment of  any  new  Officers  but  in  the  Mode 
which  the  Resolution  of  Congress  directs 
viz — special  Recommendation  of  the  Com- 
mander in  Chief  to  which  we  shall  pay 
proper  Attention.  You  will  easily  see 
that  if  done  in  one  Case  every  other  Colonel 
will  expect  it  and  as  the  Right  of  Appoint- 
ment is  in  the  State  we  cannot  waive  it. 
I  mention  this  because  it  has  been  observed 
that  Colonels  admit  young  Fellows  to  do 
Duty  &  then  ground  a  Claim  for  a  Com- 
mission on  their  having  served  some  Time 
which  makes  us  mere  Cyphers  &  is  a  De- 
viation from  the  Letter  &  Spirit  of  the 
Rule  of  Congress.  If  it  was  known  that 
the  Council  did  not  think  themselves  at  all 
bound  by  this  Circumstance  it  would  save 
us  the  painful  Necessity  of  declining  to 
confirm  their  Appointments. — I  am  in  haste 
dear  Sir 

Your  obed  Hbble  Serv 
Jos.  Reed. 
If  Gen1.  St.  Clare  is  at  Camp  please  to 
communicate  this  Letter  to  him. 




Dear  Sir 

I  shall  be  glad  to  meet  the  Officers  of 
the  Pennsylvania  Line  collectively  next 
Monday  at  12  o'clock  at  the  City  Tavern, 
&  shall  be  much  obliged  to  you  to  acquaint 
them  with  my  Wishes. 

As  I  do  not  know  the  Quarters  of  the 
Field  Officers  now  in  Town  must  also 
request  you  to  convey  my  Compliments  to 
them  &  request  the  Favour  of  their  Com- 
pany to  dine  with  me  on  Wednesday  next, 
3  o?clock.  I  mean  the  Officers  of  the  Six 
Regiments  as  I  shall  have  Opportunities  to 
see  the  other  Gentlemen — but  the  Officers 
who  continue  will  probably  leave  Town  in 
a  little  Time.  You  will  also  oblige  me 
with  your  own  Company  at  the  same  Time. 
I  am  Sir 

Your  obed  &  very 

Hbble  Serv 

Jos.  Reed. 

Market  Street 
Jan.  27, 1781. 

Philad.,  July  19, 1780. 

Dear  Sir 

I  duly  received  your  Favour  of  the  12th 
Inst. — &  of  this  I  cannot  say  I  am  disap- 
pointed in  the  Result  of  the  Board  of 
General  Officers  yet  I  wish  they  had  seen 
their  Way  in  proceeding  to  a  Determina- 
tion, because  that  of  Congress  will  be 
tedious  &  probably  intermingled  with 
political  Sentiments  which  do  not  pervade 
the  Camp. 

I  have  shewn  your  Letter  to  one  of  our 
Delegates  who  seems  generally  to  be  of 
Sentiment  with  you.  However  I  have  a 
doubt  in  one  Point  and  that  is,  whether 
the  Reference  does  not  come  more  properly 
from  the  General  to  Congress  than  from 
the  State.  In  that  Case  the  matter  would 
be  taken  up  more  free  from  Prejudice,  than 
I  am  sure  it  would  be  if  urged  by  our  Dele- 
gates— &  the  less  the  Prejudice  the  better 
Prospect  of  your  succeeding  fully  & 
quickly.  Your  Proposition  of  putting 
Gen1.  Hand  on  the  general  Scale,  seems 
most  likely  to  take  if  properly  managed, 
<fc  I  am  of  Opinion  it  will  end  there  as 
North  Carolina  has  already  her  full  Share 
of  Brigadiers.  My  Advice  therefore  would 
be  to  get  the  General  to  state  the  Result 

of  the  Board  of  Officers  with  their  Diffi- 
culties &  press  Congress  to  a  Determina- 
tion, least  he  should  be  embarrassed  in 
disposing  the  Commands. 

Mr.  Searle  has  sailed  for  Europe  a  Week 
ago  partly  on  private  Business  &  partly  to 
procure  the  necessary  Supplies  of  Cloathing 
&c.  which  cannot  be  done  here — if  he 
arrives  safe  &  succeeds  in  his  errand  I 
trust  the  Pennsylvania  Line  will  make  an 
Appearance  not  only  superiour  to  any  in 
America  but  equal  to  any  Thing  in  Europe 
— we  have  carried  our  Orders  down  to  a 
Sleeve  Button  with  every  Thing  answerable 
both  for  Officers  &  Men. — I  wrote  to  Gen. 
St.  Clair  a  few  Days  ago  requesting  that 
Lieuts.  Bigham  &  Benne  might  be  sent 
down  to  confront  a  Capt.  Gardener  whom 
we -have  in  Custody  for  insulting  them 
while  searching  for  Deserters.  We  are 
resolved  to  make  an  Example  of  him  if  the 
Facts  appear  as  we  presume  they  will  from 
the  Report  made  formerly  by  these  Gen- 

We  are  sorry  to  find  some  Gentlemen 
express  themselves  so  indiscreetly  in  Camp 
&  write  to  their  Friends  here  in  the  same 
Style  with  Respect  to  the  new  Recruits. 
We  have  gone  on  Gen.  Washington's 
Opinion  on  draughting  preferably  to  vo- 
luntary Inlistment.  Draughts  you  know 
must  be  for  short  Duration  &  with  good 
Management  many  may  be  entered  for  the 
War.  But  this  is  not  all,  we  attempted 
voluntary  Inlistment  for  the  War  last 
Spring  without  any  Success — but  not  dis- 
couraged <fc  willing  to  please  all  we  have 
now  began  again — I  advanced  this  Morning 
10  half  Johannes  &  I  dare  say  many  others 
will  do  the  like  to  try  what  can  be  done — 
some  Gentlemen  took  it  up  about  3  Weeks 
ago  got  a  Subscription  but  went  no  farther. 
You  may  depend  upon  it  there  are  no  Men 
in  America  more  anxious  to  fill  up  the 
Line — but  Pennsylvania  you  must  be  sen- 
sible is  composed  of  such  a  Mixture  of 
People  &  we  have  so  much  Opposition 
that  a  Man  might  as  reasonably  expect  the 
Fruits  of  our  Climate  to  grow  in  another 
as  to  expect  that  the  same  Efforts  could 
succeed  in  one  State  as  another.  Indeed 
I  must  declare  it  as  my  Opinion  that  the 




Strength  of  an  Army  does  not  consist  in 
its  Numbers — Appointments  comfortable 
Cloathing  Equipments  of  various  Kinds 
are  as  necessary  as  Men^fc  a  well  appointed 
Army  is  equal  to  double  its  Numbers 
destitute  of  the  Necessaries  &  Conve- 
niences of  Military  Life.  And  in  this 
Respect  Envy  &  111  Nature  must  do  us 
Justice  &  we  depend  especially  on  our 
Officers  whose  Comfort  &  Honour  is 
deservedly  dear  to  us  to  support  ours 
agl  Reproach.  I  am  Dear  Sir,  with  real 

Your  most  obed. 

Hbble  Serv 
Jos.  Reed. 
P.  S.  Gen.  Armstrong  came  to  Congress 
some  Time  ago. 

War  Office,  March  27,  1T81. 


Col.  Forrest  has  arrived  here  with   an 
account  of  the  111  Temper  of  the  Artifi- 
cers   at    Carlisle    for    Want    of  Pay    & 
Cloathing  &  it  seems  the  same  Spirit  per- 
sists among  them  as   to  their  Discharges 
which  took  Possession  of  the  Pennsilvania 
Line.    Since  the  Precedent  has  taken  Place 
with  respect  to  Discharges  we  do  not  see 
that  any  Difference  of  Treatment  can  be 
held  up  &  therefore   we  think  those  en- 
listed for  three  Tears  or  duri?ig  the  War 
must  be  discharged  at  the  Expiration  of 
the  three  Years.     But  it  seems  they  will 
not  take  their  Discharges  unless  they  are 
paid  &  we  are  informed  they  have  thrown 
out  Threats  to  sieze  the  Stores  and  pay 
themselves.     Their  Pay  is  certainly  due 
them  yet  they  have  less  Reason  to  com- 
plain than  the  Troops  in  the  Field  as  they 
have  been  paid  within  six  Months.     What 
they  should  receive  would  the  farther  dis- 
able the   Public  from  paying  the  Troops 
and  as  these  Men  have  all  Trades  it  should 
seem  that  they  could  better  support  the 
Want  of  Pay  than  the   Soldiers.     It  ap- 
pears to  us  totally  out  of  the  Power  of 
Congress  to  pay  the  Artificers  at  this  Time 
&  therefore  if  those  entitled  to  them  were 
discharged  &  permitted  thereby  to  be  at 
Liberty   to   follow  their    several   Occupa- 
tions in  their  own  account  they  ought  to 

be  satisfied.  If  we  could  get  Guards 
from  the  Regiment  of  Continental  Troops 
to  secure  the  Stores  the  Artificers  might 
be  discharged  &  sent  about  their  Business. 
But  as  probably  this  Expedient  would  be 
creating  another  Evil  considering  these 
Troops  are  under  the  same  Predicament 
we  have  thought  it  best  to  state  the  Matter 
to  you  that  you  might  fall  on  some  Mea- 
sures for  securing  the  Stores  and  having 
the  three  Years  Men  discharged  &  sent 
from  the  Post.  Probably  some  of  the  citi- 
zens might  be  prevailed  on  to  take  the 
Guard  of  the  Stores  till  the  Men  who  have 
evidenced  a  Disposition  to  seize  them 
should  be  gone.  But  we  leave  the  Matter 
to  your  Discretion  &  if  you  find  Diffi- 
culties too  great  for  the  Attempt  you  will 
inform  us  as  the  Matter  should  not  be 
began  unless  there  is  a  Certainty  of  its 
being  carried  thro'.  If  it  is  possible  to 
furnish  Money  it  shall  be  done  so  far  as  a 
Months  Pay;  but  at  present  wTe  see  no 
Prospect  of  it.  It  is  really  lamentable 
that  the  Public  should  be  in  this  Situation 
but  it  is  not  in  our  Power  to  remedy  it. 
We  are  Sir 

with  much  Esteem 

Your  very  obed  Servants 
Richard  Peters 
By  order 
Brigadier  General  Irvine 

In  Council,  Philadelphia,  June  18th,  1781. 

Whereas  Brigadier  General  Irvine  has 
represented  to  this  Council,  that  a  number 
of  spirited  well  affected  Inhabitants  of  the 
Counties  west  of  the  Susquehanna,  have 
signified  their  intentions  of  equipping 
themselves  to  act  as  Light  Horsemen  and 
Volunteers,  to  be  in  readiness  to  repel  any 
Incursion  of  the  Enemy  in  this  State,  and 
in  case  of  necessity  to  march  to  the  relief  , 
and  assistance  of  our  neighbouring  States, 
now  invaded  by  the  Enemy  and  in  great 

Resolved,  That  this  Board  do  highly 
approve  the  spirit  manifested  on  this  occa- 
sion, and  also  of  General  Irvines  intention 
to  form  said  Volunteers,  and  take  charge 
of  them  in  the  proposed  service,  and  do  for 
that  purpose  assure  him,  and  them,  that 




they  shall  receive  all  proper  and  necessary 
encouragement  from  this  Board. 
Extract  from  the  Minutes 

T.  J.  Matlack  Secy 
Brigadier  General  Irvine. 


In  Council  Philadelphia  July  23rd.  1781 

I  duly  received  your  letter  of  the  six- 
teenth Instant,  and  have  laid  it  before  the 
Council.     As  you  was  in  Town  at  the  time 
of  the  Change  of  our  system  of  supplies, 
it  is  hardly  necessary  to  inform  you,  that 
M"  Morris  undertook  to  procure  for  this 
State,  the  articles  required  by  Congress, 
which  of  course  included  the  support  of 
all   Continentals  in  the    State,  this   com- 
menced   on    the     twentieth    Instant    by 
agreement  with  Mr  Morris,  who  then  con- 
ceived himself  in  a  condition  to  assume  it. 
MT.  Morris  afterwards  objected  to  the  num- 
ber of  posts  in  the  Country,  and  made  it 
a  point  to  confine  his  Contracts  to  certain 
enumerated  places,  which  did  not  include 
Lebanon,  Hanover,  or  Yellow  Springs, — 
the  latter   he   has   since   taken   up.      But 
with  respect  to  the  others  there  is  a  real 
difficulty   as  all  the  moneys  designed  for 
these    purposes    were    taken    out   of   our 
hands,  and  transferred  to  Mr  Morris,  so 
that  we  apprehend  it  will  be  necessary,  if 
Mr.  Morris  cannot  be  induced  to  extend  his 
contracts    (which  we    do    not  expect)   to 
move  the   several  parties  down  to  those 
places  where  contracts  are  made,  viz1  York 
and  Lancaster.     And  as  the  prisoners  are 
to  be  five  miles  from  York,  and  the  uncon- 
ditional prisoners,  closely  confined  in  Lan- 
caster, we  hope  this  may  be  done,  as  it 
will  be  a  great  relief  to  us  in  the  business, 
having  no  money,  and  little  credit,  and  if 
you  concur  in  opinion  with  us,  we  request 
you  will  give  the  necessary  orders  as  Gene- 
ral Sl  Clair  is  not  here.     Your  observation, 
that  recruits  must  have  provision  and  quar- 
ters immediately  on  inlisting,  is  very  just, 
but  we  apprehend  this  would  be  more  pro- 
perly done  by  granting  assistance  at  two 
shillings  per  day,  until  they  reached  the 
rendezvous  which  in  the  case  of  the  rifle 

Corps  to  be  raised,  we  have  fixed as 

per  Copy  of  the   recruiting  Instructions 

HIST.  MAO.      VOL.  VIII.  1 8 

sent  you  inclosed.     The  number  of  class 
recruits  got  in  Philadelphia  by  our  last  ac- 
count was   thirty  three,   of   whom    I  am 
sorry  to  inform  you  sixteen  had  deserted. 
We  had  earnestly  requested  they  might  be 
sent  off  as  soon  as  they  amounted  to  five, 
or  six,  but  some  delay  happened,  and  pri- 
vateers sailing  in  the  mean  time  it  is  pro- 
bable many  of  them  are  gone.     We  have 
not  had  regular  accounts  from  the  Coun- 
try but  we  fear  the  harvest  will  make  the 
business  more  tedious  and  difficult  than  we 
could  have  expected.     York  and  Cumber- 
land, have  been  generally  slow  upon  these 
occasions.      It   has   been    observed  and  I 
believe  with  justice,  that  those  Counties 
who  suffered   least   by  the   Enemy  have 
been   most  backward   in  furnishing  their 
proportions  of  publick  duty  of  every  kind, 
and  your  remark,  that  the  people  are  as 
secure  as  if  there  was  no  War  in  the  Coun- 
try,  is   applicable   to   more  parts  of  the 
State,  than  you  have  under  your  Eye.     I 
send  you  General  Waynes  letter  to  me  on 
the  affair  of  the  sixth  Instant,  which  came 
to  us  at  first,  in  very  alarming  colours,  but 
rather  seems  to  do  us  honour  at  present, — 
tho'  our  loss  is  to  be  regretted  when  we 
see  what  difficulty  there  is  in  getting  Men, 
and  training  them.     By  our  accounts  from 
Europe  the  prospect  of  possessing  all  the 
Southern    States,  and  reducing  Maryland 
and  Pennsylvania  this  Campaign,  will  pro- 
tract, if  not  frustrate  all  negotiations  this 
summer.    General  Washington  is  at  Kings- 
bridge  or  its  neighborhood,  but  his  opera- 
tions are  so  slow  that  I  suspect  he  is  wait- 
ing for  something,  perhaps  the  fleet  of  the 
Count  d'Grass   this  would  give  us  some 
spirits  and  afford  a  favourable  prospect  of 
breaking  up  that  important  Post. 
I  am  sir  with  much  respect 

Your  obedient  and  very 
humble  servant 
Jos.  Reed  Presid! 
Brigadier  General  Irvine 


In  Council  Philadelphia  August  29th,  17S1 

I  received  your  favour  of  the  ninth  In- 
stant per  M'  Blaine,  who  returned  before 
I  had  time  to  prepare  an  answer.  The 
movements  of  the  British  army,  having 




relieved  us  from  apprehensions  for  the  pri- 
soners we  have  in  concert  with  General 
S  Clair,  been  endeavouring  to  arrange  and 
equip  the  Troops  now  in  the  State,  which 
we  compute  at  five  hundred.  Captain 
Zeigler  has  accordingly  received  very  suf- 
ficient supplies  for  that  number,  consisting 
of  shirts,  shoes,  overalls,  hats  and  hunting 
shirts ;  blue  cloth  not  being  procurable  at 
any  rate  or  price.  I  have  also  the  satisfac- 
tion to  inform  you  that  Captain  Mason 
from  Amsterdam  acquaints  us,  that  Mr 
Searle  has  succeeded  in  that  part  of  his 
mission  which  relates  to  military  stores, 
that  he  was  shipping  them  early  in  the 
summer,  on  board  a  ship  of  most  reputable 
force  so  that  they  may  be  hourly  expected. 
Captain  Mason  having  been  taken  and  his 
papers  destroyed,  we  have  no  particulars 
but  are  much  flattered  by  the  prospects  he 
gives  us.  As  soon  as  I  received  your  let- 
ter due  inquiry  was  made  with  respect  to 
the  supply  of  the  post  at  York,  and  it  ap- 
pears that  Colonel  Blaine  and  his  brother 
had  taken  that  contract ;  that  the  Brother 
had  expected  Instructions  and  Money  from 
Philad.'  which  not  receiving,  he  came  down 
here,  but  his  brother  and  Mr  Morris  were 
all  at  Camp.  However  I  endeavoured  to 
hurry  him  back  as  fast  as  possible  and 
hope  that  by  this  time  the  matter  is  in  a 
more  favourable  train. 

You  have  judged  very  properly  with 
respect  to  the  nature  of  Mr  Morris's  en- 
gagements on  account  of  the  State.  But 
should  any  like  embarrassment  arise,  or 
any  deficiency  of  provisions  be  apprehend- 
ed, it  will  undoubtedly  be  proper  to  ad- 
dress him,  either  in  the  first  instance  or 
thro'  the  medium  of  the  Board  of  War. 

There  seems  at  present  a  prospect  of  a 
considerable  part  of  our  Army  going  to 
the  Southward,  General  Washington  has 
ordered  all  the  Recruits  thither ;  which  is 
a  pleasing  circumstance  as  the  division  of 
the  Line  is  very  inconvenient  on  many  ac- 

I  am  sir  with  much  esteem, 
Your  obedient  and  very 

humble  servant 
Jos.  Reed 

To  Brigadier  General  Ikvine. 

Philadelphia  September  21st,  1781 


In  the  present  situation  of  affairs  I  should 
be  happy  in  being  assisted  with  your  good 
Judgment  and  advice,  in  forming  such  ar- 
rangements as  may  be  most  effectual,  for 
drawing  forth  the  strength  and  resources 
of  the  State  in  the  most  effectual  manner, 
and  concerting  a  previous  general  Plan  for 
this  purpose,  and  defending  this  City 

I  shall  therefore,  beg  the  favour  of  your 
Company  in  Market  street  at  one..  oClock 
to  meet  a  few  other  Gentlemen  proper  to 
be  consulted  on  such  an  occasion. 
I  am  Sir  with  much  esteem 
Your  most  obedient  and 

very  humble  servant 

Jos.  Rked 
To  General  Irvine 


According  to  Surtees'  History  of  the 
County  Durham,  the  chief  ancestor  of  the 
Washington  family  in  England  resided 
at  Washington,  a  ville  in  the  Bishopric 
of  Durham.  Bolden  Buke,  written  1180 
(27  H.  II.)  informs  us  that  Willielmus  de 
Hertburn  held  the  Manor  of  Wassyngton 
or  Wessington  of  the  L.  Bishop  of  Durham 
in  capite,  in  exchange  for  the  vill  of  Hert- 
burn, rendering  four  pounds  and  doing 
service,  therefore,  in  the  great  chace  of  the 
lord  bishop,  with  two  greyhounds,  and  also 
paying  one  mark  to  the  palatine  aid,  when 
such  tax  should  be  raised.  Towards  the 
middle  of  the  thirteenth  century  the  resi- 
dent family,  as  was  customary,  had  as- 
sumed the  name  of  the  manor,  which  was 
situated  a  few  miles  from  the  mouth  of  the 
river  Wear,  near  Hilton  Castle  ;  and  we 
read  of  one  William  de  Wessynton  living 
in  this  vicinity  as  early  as  1274  (3  Ed.  I.). 
About  the  year  1328  (2  Ed.  III.)  Wanter  de 
Wessyngton,  on  giving  his  daughter  Isabel 
in  marriage  to  Marmaduke  Basset,  granted 
unto  the  latter  the  Manor  of  Ossinton  in 
Co.  Durham. 

Sir  William  de  Wessyngton,  Knight, 
was    in  active  service  during  the  Scotch 




wars  of  King  Edward  III.,  and  took  pri- 
soner with  his  own  hands  in  battle  a  Mon- 
sieur Robert  de  Colvill  of  the  Manor  of 
Oxenham.  An  order,  issued  Dec.  8,  1346 
(20  Ed.  III.)  desires  Wm,  de  Weshynton  to 
bring  his  Scotch  prisoner,  Alexander  de 
Haliburton,  to  the  Tower,  and  Thomas 
Grey  received  similar  orders  respecting 
his  prisoners  David  Graham  and  John  de 
Haliburton.  The  Scotch  hostages  being- 
released  by  an  order  of  Aug.  16,  1357, 
Monsieur  de  Wessyngton  appears  at  the 
time  to  have  been  the  custodian  of  Patrick, 
son  and  heir  of  Lord  David  of  Graham. 
An  inquisition  post-mortem,  held  in  the 
twenty-second  year  of  the  pontificate  of 
Bishop  Hatfield,  informs  us  that  the  good 
Knight,  Sir  William  Wessington,  died  in 
the  year  1366,  leaving  a  widow  Katherine 
and  an  heir  bearing  his  own  name,  and 
that  at  his  death  he  held  the  manor  and 
ville  of  Wessington  by  the  same  service 
as  has  been  above  mentioned. 

Cotemporary  with  Sir  William  was 
Thomas  de  Wessyngton,  who  married 
Isabella,  youngest  daughter  of  Jacobus  de 
Use  worth.  Isabella's  brother  Richard  died 
sine  prole  in  1362,  and  her  sister  Dionisia, 
wife  of  Cuthbert  de  Kendale,  died  soon 
after,  whereupon  she  and  her  sister  Alice, 
as  coheiresses,  came  into  possession  of  the 
manor  of  Little  Us  worth.  Thomas  de 
Wessyngton  died  in  1378  (1  R.  II.)  aged 
37,  being  seized  of  a  fourth  part  of  the 
vill  of  Great  Usworth,  parish  of  Wash- 
ington, Co.  Durham,  and  a  moiety  of  the 
manor  of  Little  Usworth  ;  his  daughter 
Christina  married  William  de  Chestre, 
wrho  at  his  death  was  found  to  be  seized  of 
one-half  the  last  named  manor  de  jure 
uxoris.  Usworth  was  in  the  immediate 
vicinity  of  the  manor  of  Wassyngton. 

Edmundus  de  Wassyngton,  with  others 
of  the  comitia  of  John,  Duke  of  Lancaster 
and  King  of  Castile,  received  royal  letters 
of  protection  from  Richard  II.,  dated 
March  4,  1378,  which  were  to  remain  in 
force  till  the  next  feast  of  St.  Michael 
(Sept.  29).  By  inquis  p.  m.  John  de 
Washington  held  Milborn  manor,  in  county 
Westmoreland  on  the  borders  of  Cumber- 
land, in  1397  (21  R.  II.),  Walter  de  Wis- 

singdon,  living  in  1409  near  New  Castle, 
had  free  warren  on  the  lands  of  the  Bis!, op 
of  Durham.  In  the  retinue  of  the  Duke 
j  of  Gloucester,  at  the  battle  of  Agineouit, 
in  1415,  was  John  Wissington,  and  a 
follower  of  Sir  John  West  at  the  same 
time  was  named  John  Wassyngton  ;  while 
the  Prior  of  Durham,  elected  5th  Nov., 
1416,  was  another  John  de  Wessyngton,  a 
person  of  much  learning,  who,  dying  in 
1446,  was  buried  in  the  Cathedral. 

In  Bishop  Langley's  time,  1406-37,  the 
Washington  Estate  had  passed  to  tLeBlay- 
kestons,  of  Blakiston,  Coxhowe,  etc., — an 
old  Durham  family  whose  arms  were  "  ar- 
gent, two  bars  gules,  and  in  chief  three  cocks 
of  the  second."  Yet  we  elsewhere  learn 
that  before  1 400  the  direct  male  line  expired 
in  a  Sir  William  de  Washington,  Knt.,  of 
Washington,  whose  only  daughter  Dionisia 
(or  Eleanor)  married  Sir  Wm  Tempest, 
Knt.,  of  Studley-Royal,  E.  R.  of  York,  who 
was  M.  P.  for  that  county  in  1401  (2  H.  IV.). 
The  Lady  Tempest  died  Jan.  2,  1451,  and 
her  granddaughter,  Dionisia  Temple,  mar- 
ried Sir  Wm.^Mallory,  of  Mobberley,  Co. 
Chester,  from  which  family  the  Washington 
estate  passed  to  the  Aislabies. 

But  notwithstanding  the  extinction  of 
the  eldest  male  line,  younger  branches  of 
the  Washingtons  are  supposed  to  have 
been  still  in  existence,  and  from  an  early 
period  the  family  were  much  scattered. 
We  have  already  seen  one  of  the  name 
located  in  the  north  of  Westmoreland 
towards  the  close  of  the  fourteenth  century, 
but  some  of  the  family  were  resident  in 
the  southern  part  of  this  country  almost 
one  hundred  and  fifty  years  previous, 
being  thus  cotemporary  with  the  earliest 
of  the  Durham  stock.  James  Lawrence 
(son  of  Sir  Robert  Lawrence,  of  Trafford, 
Co.  Lane.)  living  1252  (37  H.  III.),  married 
Matilda  the  sole  daughter  and  heiress  of 
John  Washington,  and  by  his  marriage 
acquired  the  Manors  of  Washington  and 
Sedgwick  (or  Seggeswick).  His  son  and 
successor  John  Lawrence  levied  a  fine  of 
Washington  and  Sedgwick  in  1283,  and 
was  father  of  a  second  John,  who  pre- 
sented to  the  church  of  Washington  in 
1326,   and    died    about    1360,   leaving   as 




his  son  and  heir  Sir  Robert  Lawrence. 
Seggeswick,  on  the  river  Can,  in  Co. 
"Westmoreland,  was  about  six  or  seven 
miles  north  of  Warton,  Lancashire,  which 
in  turn  was  situated  near  the  influx  of  the 
Decker  into  the  Kent  Sands.  At  Warton, 
during  the  latter  half  of  the  fifteenth 
century,  was  living  Robert  Washington, 
Gent  (the  son  of  John  W.),  and  the 
family  arms,  "  argent,  two  bars  gules  and 
in  chief  three  mullets  of  the  second — " 
are  to  be  found  on  the  north  side  of  the 
door  of  the  parish  church.  Robert  Wash- 
ington had  children  by  each  of  his  three 
marriages ;  his  first  wife  being  a  Westfield  ; 
the  second  a  daughter  of  Miles  Whitting- 
ton,  of  Barwick  (or  Borwick  juxta  Warton 
manor),  Co.  Lane,  and  the  third  Agnes, 
daughter    of Bateman,    of   Hersham 

(or  Heversham),  near  Carton  el-Fells,  Co. 
Westmoreland.  From  this  family,  as  is 
alleged,  was  descended  George  Washing- 
ton, President  of  the  United  States,  while 
the  last  of  the  name  remaining  in  the 
original  locality  was  the  Rev.  Thomas 
Washington,  Vicar  of  Warton,  who  died 
about  the  year  1823. 

Again  running  backward  in  the  course 
of  time,  we  find  Richard  de  Washington 
appointed  March  2,  1273,  to  the  Chantry 
or  Chapel  in  the  parish  of  Watton-at- 
Stone,  Co.  Herts,  where  he  died  about 
1322.  In  the  same  county,  George  Wash- 
ington, cap.,  was  appointed  Rector  of 
Stapleford,  May  4,  1504,  and  resigned  in 
1506  ;  Thomas  Washington,  Clk.,  was  ap- 
pointed Oct.  24, 1556,  as  Rector  of  Widial, 
and  died  in  1559;  while  Adam  Wash- 
ington, Et-q.,  a  barrister  of  Lincoln's  Inn, 
and  of  Beaches  (parish  of  Brent-Pelham), 
on  the  borders  of  Essex,  married  Elizabeth 
Fiyer  in  1639,  and  bore  the  same  arms  as 
the  Washingtons  of  Lancashire,  as  before 

Robert  de  Washington,  living  1349 
(23  Ed.  III.),  married  Margaret,  daughter 
and  heiress  of  Andrew  Hawkyn,  who 
owned  lands  at  Preston,  in  Holderness,  E. 
R.  of  York.  This  Robert  may  have  been 
an  ancestor  of  Richard  Washington,  who 
under  the  reign  of  Edward  VI.  held  the 
Ma;. or  of  Armethorpe  and  lands  at  Hampall 

(both  near  Dancaster),  Co.  York,  together 
with    the    rectory    of   Sharpe    and   lands 
called  Threplondes  in  Co.  Westmoreland, 
while   his  son   James,  who  died  in   1580, 
aged   44,  held   in  addition  the  Manor  of 
Adwickle-street,    Co.    York.     A  pedigree 
of  this  family,  from  the  Heraldic  Visita- 
tion of  1666,  exists  among  the  Harl.  MSS. 
of  the  British   Museum,  and  it  has   been 
still   further    extended    since  that  period; 
from   Richard  Washington   and   his   wife 
Jane  Lunde*  was  descended,  in  the  eighth 
generation,  Godfrey  Washington  of  Don- 
caster,  coroner  of  the  W.  R.  of  Yorkshire, 
who  died  in  1770  aged  60,  and  it  is  pro- 
bable the  latter  gentleman  was  a  cousin,  in 
the  third  or  fourth  degree,  of  Baron  James 
Washington  who  in  1844,  at  the  age  of  66, 
was   the  Royal   Chamberlain  of  Bavaria. 
The  arms  of  this  family  are  given  the  same 
as  those  of  the  Lancashire  stock,  with  a 
crescent   for   diiference,  though   it  is  said 
they   earlier   bore    arms    "billetee,    on    a 
bend  three  swans,"  coloring  not  defined. 

Besides  the  place  called  Washington,  or 
Wassinton,  in  Co.  Durham,  we  have  Wes- 
sington,  Co.  Northumb.,  north-east  of 
Heddon-on-the-Wall ;  Washington  west  of 
Alfreton  in  Derbyshire,  called  on  Cam- 
den's maps  of  1610  "  Wessinton  ;"  and 
lastly  in  Co.  Sussex  the  parish  of  Wash- 
ington. The  latter  place  was  known  in 
the  tenth  century  as  Wasingatune,  and 
herein,  in  963,  King  Edgar  granted  certain 
lands  to  the  chief  Athelwold ;  under  the 
Norman  Conqueror  it  was  held  by  William 
de  Braose,  and  subsequently  passed  into 
the  possession  of  the  Dukes  of  Norfolk. 

I.  J.  G. 


Fkom  the  time  that  Mexico,  under  the 
name  of  New  Spain,  became  subject  to 
Spanish  rule,  until  the  period  of  her  Inde- 

*  Lunde  Washington  was  at  one  time  manager  of 
Mt.  Vernon  estate  for  his  kinsman  Gen.  Geo.  Wash- 




pendence,  in  the  year  1821,  the  Province 
was  governed  by  a  series  of  officials  with 
the  title  of  Viceroy.  With  some  noble 
exceptions,  these  rulers  were  men  remark- 
able principally  for  their  indolence,  ineffi- 
ciency, and  rapacity.  We  do  not  propose 
to  linger  upon  those  who,  with  a  little 
brief  power  in  their  hands,  turned  it  only 
to  selfish  purposes,  leaving  the  people  they 
professed  to  protect  in  a  degraded  and 
miserable  condition  ;  but  to  point  for  a 
moment  to  some  of  those  whose  glory,  like 
the  glory  of  the  stars,  will  never  wane, 
because  they  identified  themselves  and 
their  efforts  with  the  great  cause  of  huma- 
nity and  human  elevation. 

As  a  luminary  of  the  first  magnitude 
stands  the  name  of  Don  Juan  Vicente 
Giiemes  Pacheco  Horcasitas  y  Aguayo, 
Conde  de  Revilla-Gigedo.  That  his  cha- 
racter, genius,  and  peculiar  difficulties  may 
be  better  comprehended,  and  his  labors 
better  appreciated,  a  glance  at  his  imme- 
diate predecessors,  and  the  state  of  the 
country  he  governed,  will  be  necessary. 

Between  the  years  1*783  and  1789  no 
fewer  than  five  Viceroys  had  received  the 
staff  of  office.  The  first,  Don  Matias  de 
Galvez,  was  a  brother  of  the  celebrated 
minister  and  visitador,  Don  Jose  de  Gal- 
vez, but  he  was  destitute  of  the  ambition, 
brilliant  endowments,  and  capacities  which 
marked  the  career  of  his  distinguished 
relative.  From  the  office  of  Captain- 
General  of  Guatemala,  through  the  influ- 
ence of  Don  Jose,  he  was  promoted  to  the 
Viceroyship  of  New  Spain  in  the  year 
1783,  towards  the  close  of  the  reign  of 
Carlos  III.,  and  though  old  and  infirm,  he 
labored  earnestly  to  acquit  himself  well  in 
whatever  pertained  to  the  exalted  post  he 

The  colony  at  this  period  was  in  a  state 
of  almost  sluggish  tranquillity.  Little 
seemed  to  be  required,  and  correspond- 
ingly little  was  accomplished.  The  author- 
ity of  the  Viceroys  was  established  and 
respected,  the  period  of  turbulence  among 

which  the  gradual  advancement  of  the 
population  might  require.  But  the  admi- 
nistration of  Don  Matias  was  not  entirely 
without  historic  results  ;  he  began  the 
work  of  paving  the  streets  of  the  capital, 
and  fostered  the  Academy  of  Fine  Arts 
founded  by  his  predecessor.  Some  of  the 
best  models  in  marble  which  adorn  the 
collection  of  San  Fernando  at  the  present 
day  were  placed  there  in  his  time.  The 
sentence  of  suppression  was  removed  from 
the  Gaceta,  and  it  reappeared  ;  the  nation- 
al Bank  of  San  Carlos  was  established,  a 
bubble  Avhich  subsequently  burst  and 
involved  many  in  ruin. 

The  administration  of  Don  Matias  conti- 
nued but  little  more  than  a  year ;  over- 
powered with  infirmities,  he  resigned  his 
authority  into  the  hands  of  the  Royal 
Council,  and  died  on  the  3d  of  November 
in  the  year  1784. 

His  successor  Don  Bernardo  de  Galvez, 
son  of  Don  Matias,  was  one  of  the  most 
distinguished  Governors  of  the  colony. 
From  the  Captain-Generalship  of  Havana, 
through  the  influence  of  his  uncle,  the 
Marquis  of  Sonora,  he  was  elevated  to  the 
office  made  vacant  by  the  death  of  his 
father.  Young,  zealous,  ambitious,  and 
popular,  he  undertook  various  works  of 
public  utility.  He  made  or  laid  out  several 
causeways  from  the  city  of  Mexico,  paved 
many  streets,  began  the  system  of  street- 
lighting,  and,  with  a  view  to  beautify  his 
capital,  embellished  the  vice-regal  residence 
and  commenced  the  towers  of  the  cathe- 

But  the  most  conspicuous  measure  of 
his  rule  was  the  rebuilding  of  the  palace  of 
Chapultepec  and  the  construction  of  a 
fortress  within  it.  The  popularity  of  this 
undertaking  and  the  ostentation  in  which 
the  young  Viceroy  lived,  combined  with 
an  act  of  royal  clemency  which  he  had 
the  presumption  to  perform,  in  pardoning 
some  criminals  whom  he  had  designedly 
met  on  their  way  to  the  scaffold,  attracted 
the  attention  of  the  suspicious  court.    How- 

the  royal  officials  had  passed,  the  spirit  of  ever  this  may  be,  without  any  known  cause, 
independence  which  was  wont  to  animate; this  young  man,  gay,  vigorous,  and  full 
the  Aztec  bosom  slumbered,  and  the  Vice-  of  flattering  expectations,  yielded  to  the 
roys   had    only   to    project   improvements ,  undermining  power  of  a  hidden    malady, 




and  descended  swiftly  to  the  grave,  after 
having  held  his  authority  one  year  and  five 
months.  His  exequies  were  solemnly  per- 
formed in  the  Cathedral,  and  in  the  dark- 
ness of  the  night,  amidst  the  lamentations 
of  the  people,  military  display  and  funeral 
music,  giving  to  the  pageant  an  august- 
ness  almost  royal,  his  remains  were  depo- 
sited in  the  church  of  San  Fernando. 

The  powers  of  government  fell,  as  usual 
on  the  decease  of  the  Viceroy,  into  the 
hands  of  the  Heal  Audiencia.  Shortly, 
however,  news  came  that  His  Majesty  of 
Spain  had  named  Archbishop  de  Haro  for 
the  vacancy.  He  was  a  man  of  great  learn- 
ing and  benevolence ;  his  short  government, 
however,  was  unmarked  by  any  notable 
historic  event.  In  a  few  months  he  resign- 
ed his  authority  to  Senor  Don  Manuel 
Antonio  Flores,  Lieutenant-General  of  the 
Royal  Armada,  and  Viceroy  of  Santa  Fe 
de  Bogota.  Old,  in  enfeebled  health,  and 
with  few  endowments  for  command,  almost 
nothing  can  be  said  of  his  administration 
further  than  that  he  organized  three  mili- 
tary battalions,  commenced  the  Botanical 
Garden,  and  paid  some  attention  to  the 
mining  interests  of  the  country.  The 
death  of  Carlo  III.,  and  his  celebrated 
minister,  Don  Jose  de  Galvez,  occurred 
during  his  government.  Unfitted  for  the 
exalted  position  he  had  attained,  both  by 
his  tastes  and  qualifications,  in  a  little  more 
than  a  year  Flores  sent  his  resignation  to 
his  royal  master,  and  the  thanks  he  gave 
the  king  for  his  acceptance  of  the  resigna- 
tion demonstrated  that  he  sincerely  re- 
nounced the  office,  and  earnestly  desired 
to  retire  to  the  more  quiet  enjoyments  of 
domestic  life.  In  October,  1789,  a  ship 
arrived  at  Vera  Cruz,  bringing  his  succes- 
sor, the  second  Count  Revilla-Gigedo.  At 
Guadalupe,  Flores,  according  to  the  royal 
order,  delivered  to  him  the  staff  of  office, 
and  soon  set  sail  for  Spain  in  the  same  ves- 
sel that  had  brought  the  new  Viceroy. 

With  the  departure  of  Senor  Flores  for 
his  native  land,  all  obstacles  are  removed 
to  the  introduction  of  the  main  subject 
of  our  sketch — Don  Juan  Vicente  Giiemes 
Pacheco  Horcasitas  y  Aguayo,  Conde  de 
Revilla-Gigedo,  52d  Viceroy  of  New  Spain. 

This  remarkable  man  came  from  an 
illustrious  ancestry.  His  father  was  Vice- 
roy of  Mexico  as  early  as  1749.  In  his 
childhood,  his  parents  designated  him  for 
the  quiet  and  comparative  obscurity  of 
cloistral  life  ;  but  the  activity  and  enthusi- 
asm of  his  inclinations  defeated  this  inten- 
tion, and  he  embraced  the  more  congenial 
profession  of  arms.  He  held  a  command 
at  the  siege  which  the  Spaniards  so  obsti- 
nately maintained  at  Gibraltar  in  1782,  and 
acquitted  himself  with  distinction  in  that 
desperate  conflict.  At  the  decease  of  his 
father  he  inherited  his  title,  and  was  deser- 
vedly honored  by  his  royal  master  with 
many  dignities  in  Spain,  and  on  the  resig- 
nation of  Flores,  as  we  have  seen,  he  wras 
appointed  Viceroy  of  Mexico. 

His  predecessors  had  made  no  conside- 
rable improvements  in  the  general  adminis- 
tration of  the  colony,  ashasbeen  intimated, 
until  a  certain  temporary  vigor  was  infused 
into  affairs  by  the  arrival  of  the  royal 
Commissioner  {Visitador),  Don  Jose  de 
Galvez,  who  came  clothed  with  authority 
to  adjust  whatever  might  require  adjust- 
ment. Active,  ambitious,  inventive,  and 
restless,  he  directed  his  efforts  to  a  class  of 
creations,  excisions,  and  reforms  which 
should  tend  to  exalt  his  own  efficiency  in 
the  eyes  of  the  Crown,  and  prove  the  inca- 
pacity and  uselessness  of  the  Viceroys. 
Don  Manuel  Flores  had  not  the  executive 
qualities  necessary  to  sustain  and  perfect 
the  improvements  initiated  by  Don  Jose. 
He  might  be  a  man  of  judgment,  but  he 
was  not  informed  upon  the  affairs  of  the 
colony,  was  slow  to  comprehend  the  im- 
port of  his  office,  and  averse  to  burden 
himself  with  the  thousand  details  with 
which  it  was  necessary  to  have  minute 
acquaintance.  But  whatever  Don  Jose 
might  have  done  for  the  colony,  it  is  certain 
that  Revilla-Gigedo  encountered  defects, 
abuses,  and  disorders  almost  without  num- 
ber, which  the  broad  comprehensiveness  of 
his  understanding  seized,  and  the  energy 
of  his  character  corrected. 

He  assumed  the  government  in  October, 
1789,  and  the  first  event  which  displayed 
his  vigilance  and  integrity  was  the  consign- 
ing to  summary  justice  the  perpetrators  of 




certain  notorious  assassinations,  which  by 
their  atrocity  had  thrown  the  kingdom 
into  consternation.  A  short  experience 
convinced  the  new  Viceroy  that  labor,  in 
every  sense,  could  alone  give  order  and 
form  to  the  mass  of  disorder  which  had 
been  mis-called  government.  A  glance  at 
the  situation  of  the  Province  in  1789  will 
convey  the  best  idea  of  the  merit  of  this 
celebrated  magistrate,  whom  neither  limited 
time,  social  considerations,  nor  the  constant 
and  daring  struggle  with  antiquated  and 
deep-rooted  prejudices,  deterred  from  his 
career  of  progress. 

The  streets  of  the  capital  were  without 
drains,  sidewalks,  or  pavements.  They 
were  the  depositories,  moreover,  of  all  the 
impurities  from  the  houses  ;  and,  in  pro- 
cess of  time,  these  filthy  accumulations 
exhaled  vapors  extremely  deleterious  to 
the  health  of  the  population.  The  market 
stood  opposite  the  palace,  and  was  con- 
structed with  an  open  space  in  the  centre, 
surrounded  by  wooden  sheds  in  which 
provisions  were  exposed  for  sale,  and  the 
refuse  thrown  on  one  side,  awaiting  the  good 
offices  of  swine,  which  fed  at  large  in  the 
city.  The  sheds  afforded  asylum  at  night 
for  a  promiscuous  company  of  men  and 
women,  vagrants  and  drunkards.  The 
baths  were  open  to  all  who  paid  the  required 
fee ;  and  no  reference  was  had  to  the  pro- 
prieties arising  from  the  distinctions  of  sex. 
Alter  nine  o'clock  it  was  dangerous  to  go 
out,  since  the  streets  were  lighted  only  by 
an  occasional  lamp,  hung  by  the  owners  at 
the  doors  of  shops  and  houses,  in  obedience 
to  a  municipal  regulation.  This  requisition 
even  was  either  neglected  altogether,  cr 
the  light  withdrawn  at  an  early  hour.  The 
lower  classes  went  almost  naked,  their  only 
clothing  consisting  of  a  sheet-like  garment 
(which  also  performed  the  office  of  coun- 
terpane), and  a  palm  hat.  It  was  as  cus- 
tomary to  sell  the  clothing  of  the  dead  in 
public  shops  as  it  was  to  bury  them  in  the 
churches  of  small  towns.  These  practices, 
superadded  to  the  foul  condition  of  the 
streets,  produced  many  epidemics. 

In  the  erection  of  edifices  no  regard 
was  observed  to  harmony  or  regularity. 
The  city  was  destitute  of  public  prome-| 

nades,  except  the  single  one  planted  by 
the  Viceroy  Bucareli.  The  fountains  were 
large  basins  of  mason-work,  foul  with  se- 
diment, the  dust  of  the  street,  the  contact 
with  the  hands  of  water-carriers ;  nor  was 
the  addition  uncommon  of  that  with  which 
both  hands  and  feet  had  been  laved. 

Another  fertile  source  of  public  disorder 
and  demoralization  existed  in  the  abundance 
of  drinking  establishments  called  pulque- 
rias,  where  was  sold  the  intoxicating  be- 
verage pidque,  made  from  the  juice  of  a 
species  of  aloes.  Nearly  all  the  squares 
contained  a  pulqueria — an  enormous  hut 
or  wigwam — and  in  the  centre  stood  huge 
jars  of  the  fermented  liquid.  Around  these 
tempting  vessels  gathered  half  naked 
leper os,  beggars,  prostitutes,  and  all  the 
worst  elements  of  the  population ;  and 
here,  amidst  gambling,  licentiousness,  and 
drunken  merriment,  germinated  plots  for 
thefts,  assassinations,  and  their  attendant 

In  fine,  the  condition  of  affairs,  moral 
and  physical,  was  quite  bad  enough  to 
chill  the  courage  of  the  most  undaunted. 
Who  but  a  man  of  unconquerable  energy 
would  have  had  the  heroism  to  attack  such 
a  mass  of  disorder  writh  any  hope  of  its 
correction  ? 

Great  as  were  these  evils,  still  greater 
existed  in  the  judicial  organization  of  the 
kingdom.  There  were  tribunals  and  sys- 
tems without  end,  nominally  for  the  admi- 
nistration of  justice,  but  they  were  really 
only  so  many  systems  of  oppression.  The 
Acordata  alone  exercised  its  tyrannical 
iurisdiction  by  means  of  twenty-five  hun- 
dred subordinates,  and  imposed,  without 
appeal,  restraint,  or  molestation,  the  most 
opprobrious  punishments — even  death  itself. 

Neither  was  this  multitude  of  judicial 
branches  regulated  by  codes  of  laws  or  any 
other  fixed  rules;  each  had  its  peculiar 
formularies,  and  no  organization  existed 
which  afforded  guarantees  to  litigants  or 
determined  the  attributes  of  the  Judges. 
Revilla-Gigedo  himself  stood  aghast  before 
systems  so  monstrous  and  so  complicated. 

The  provision  for  education,  also,  was  to 
the  last  degree  worthless.  No  school  for 
primary  gratuitous  instruction   had   been 




established  in  the  capital  or  any  part  of  the 
kingdom.  Before  the  expulsion  of  the 
Jesuits,  in  1*767,  the  care  of  the  youth  had 
devolved  upon  them.  Subsequently,  the 
few  schools  that  remained  fell  into  the 
hands  of  ignorant  and  cruel  teachers,  who 
nourished  the  hearts  of  the  children  with 
absurd  fictions,  and  brutalized  them  by 
ridiculous  and  inefficient  discipline. 

The  roads  of  the  kingdom  were  in  such 
condition  that  the  only  available  method 
of  travel  and  transportation  was  on  mule- 
back.  The  corporations  of  towns  wasted 
their  funds  in  sky-rockets,  festivities,  and 
all  sorts  of  useless  expenditures.  Officers 
and  office-holders  were  in  unison  with  all 
this  disorder.  There  were  neither  data 
nor  ideas  how  to  form  statistics ;  books, 
entries,  and  judicial  writings  conformed 
only  to  the  caprices  of  the  chiefs.  The 
tribunal  of  accounts,  a  place  of  pride  and 
highly  aristocratic,  having  its  three  minis- 
ters in  large  wigs  and  its  army  of  account- 
ants, was  the  most  delinquent  and  worthless 
of  any.  It  assumed  great  superiority,  and 
the  idlers  at  its  head  sometimes  believed 
themselves  above  even  the  Viceroy  him- 

The  military  organization  was  equally 
useless  and  incomplete.  In  the  city  and 
provincial  militia,  there  was  neither  instruc- 
tion nor  discipline.  The  coasts  and  frontiers 
were  without  custody ;  and  the  few  small 
veteran  bodies  that  existed  were  unworthy 
of  confidence,  since  military  rank  was  con- 
sidered salable  and  transferable — a  kind  of 
speculation  of  which  several  of  the  Viceroys 
had  availed  themselves. 

This  is  but  an  outline  of  the  state  of 
things  in  New  Spain  when  Revilla-Gigedo 
entered  upon  his  duties  as  chief  officer  of 
the  Province.  To  ordinary  minds,  the 
remedy  for  these  complicated  evils  would 
require  years  of  study  or  perplexed  experi- 
ment. The  acute  comprehension  of  the 
Count  de  Revilla-Gigedo  soon  unmasked 
the  origin  of  the  difficulties,  namely :  the 
indolence  and  avarice  of  most  of  the  gov- 
ernors, whose  only  aim  seemed  to  be  the 
accumulation  of  a  fortune  to  carry  back  to 
Spain  when  the  period  of  their  control 

With   a  firm   and   confident   hand   the 
Count  applied  methods  of  reform  to  the 
shapeless  mass,  and  truly  entitled  himself 
to  a  higher  tribute  of  gratitude  than  the 
nation  for  which  he  labored  has  awarded 
him.     Declining  all  the  festivities  usually 
proffered   to  a   Viceroy,  he   directed   his 
attention  to  the  condition  of  the  fortresses 
and  other   provisions  for  defence  ;  to  the 
purification  of  the  palace ;  to  the  removal 
of  those  unsightly  old  sheds  that  had  served 
for  markets,  and  the  construction  of  others 
more  decent  and  commodious ;  to  sanitary 
regulations  respecting  the  streets  ;  to  mea- 
sures by  which  the  hall-naked  laboring  class 
should  be  induced  to  clothe  themselves;  to 
the  establishment  of  ordinances  concerning 
the  public  baths ;  the  erection   of  edifices 
with  some  view  to  order ;  the  paving  and 
lighting  of  streets ;  provision  for  a  night- 
watch  and  police  system ;  the  extinguish- 
ment   of    fires ;    the    suppression    of   the 
disorders  of  the pulquer'ias  /  the  construc- 
tions of  aqueducts  and  fountains,  by  which 
the  health  of  the  population  was  materially 
promoted.      He  further  provided  for    the 
same  object,  by  prohibiting  the  sale  of  the 
clothing   of   the   dead,  and   stopping    bu- 
rials in  churches.     The  cemeteries  of  Vera 
Cruz  and  Puebla  resulted  from  this  pro- 
hibition.     He   repaired   public   highways 
and  causeways,  and  established  a  Botanical 
Garden  at   Chapultepec,  which  had  been 
projected  by  one  of  his  predecessors.     He 
caused  primary  schools  to  be  opened  in  most 
of  the    important   towns ;    furnished    the 
Academy  with  professors  in  Architecture, 
Sculpture,  Painting,  &q. ;  wrought  a  general 
reform  in  the  ordinances  by  which  crafts 
and  trades  were  regulated;  and,  as  by  a 
species  of  magic,  gave  life  and  animation 
to  useful  establishments,  which  neither  time 
nor  revolution  has  destroyed. 

Neither  did  the  Viceroy  restrict  his 
reforms  to  things  merely  material ;  he 
devised  expedients  to  remove  abuses  in 
the  moral  administration,  and  cure  some  of 
its  palpable  evils, — though  many  of  those 
expedients,  of  the  highest  importance,  were 
so  hampered,  benumbed,  and  opposed  in 
the  Court  of  Spain  that  they  were  not 
carried  into  effect.     For  all   in  which  he 




did  succeed,  he  had  to  struggle  with  the 
sluggishness  of  magistrates,  inveterate  pre- 
judices, and  all  the  train  of  obstacles  they 
bring,  and  to  plunge,  sword  in  hand,  upon 
the  hoary  vices  he  would  extirpate;  but 
his  projects  were  so  evidently  good,  and 
conformable  to  justice,  that  the  Court 
could  not  withhold  its  sanction. 

Mining,  agriculture,  and  manufactures 
also  received  special  attention  from  Revilla- 
Gigedo,  and  strong  impulses  were  imparted 
to  them  through  his  wisdom  and  energy. 
With  respect  also  to  whatever  facilitated 
communication,  the  purposes  of  the  Viceroy 
were  magnificent ;  but  limited  power,  lim- 
ited time,  and  limited  means,  together  with 
the  obstructions  interposed  by  paltry  private 
interests  or  favoritism,  defeated  many  of 
his  grandest  schemes. 

In  order  to  accomplish,  in  the  short 
space  of  five  years,  the  reforms  we  have 
mentioned,  and  many  others  to  which  time 
does  not  allow  us  to  refer,  the  most  inde- 
fatigable industry  was  necessary.  Revilla- 
Gigedo  only  allotted  to  himself  three  or 
four  hours  for  sleep,  retiring  regularly  at 
nine  in  the  evening  and  rising  at  one,  to 
pursue  his  labors,  or  to  sally  out  that  he 
might  personally  observe  the  manner  in 
which  the  municipal  laws  were  heeded. 

He  was  neat  and  elegant  in  his  person, 
and  a  strict  observer  of  etiquette.  He  ate 
only  twice  in  the  day ;  and,  while  he  support- 
ed all  the  proprieties  of  a  state  table,  never 
tasted  anything  from  his  own  table,  but 
received  his  food  prepared  and  seasoned 
from  the  convent  of  the  Capucins.  It  was 
sent  to  him  in  a  small  trunk,  locked,  which 
had  two  keys — one  kept  by  himself,  the 
other  by  the  Abbess. 

Many  curious  anecdotes  are  related  of 
this  remai-kable  man.  One  or  two  may 
serve  to  illustrate  more  fully  the  striking 
features  of  his  character. 

On  a  certain  occasion  he  went  to  the 
Tribunal  of  Accounts,  an  office  for  which  he 
had  an  aversion  by  reason  of  the  pride  and 
indolence  of  its  chiefs.  It  was  ten  o'clock, 
and  not  a  soul  was  present.  The  Viceroy 
undertook  to  arrange  a  packet  of  papers, 
which  were  in  the  greatest  confusion. 
When  the   employes   entered,  they  were 

HIST.    MAG.      VOL.    VUI.  19 

almost  petrified  with  astonishment.  Revilla- 
Gigedo  then  took  his  hat,  and,  with  a  sar- 
donic smile,  said  to  them: — "Gentlemen, 
from  eight  to  eleven  I  shall  come  to  regulate 
this  archive  ;  meanwhile,  there  is  no  neces- 
sity that  you  should  fatigue  yourselves. 
You  can  sleep  and  breakfast,  confident 
that  the  service  of  the  king  suffers  no  loss." 
The  following  is  related  by  Don  Carlos 
Bustamente  in  his  "  Continuacion  "  of 
Padre  Cavo : 

A  certain  widow  stated  to  the  Viceroy 
that   her  husband   on   his   death-bed   had 
been  arrested  for  debt,  and  that  she  had 
taken  care  to  place  in  safety  a  small  cof- 
fer   of  jewels    which    were    her    dowry. 
These  jewels  she  had  intrusted  to  a  gen- 
tleman,  without    exacting   any  receipt  or 
equivalent.     Urged   by   the   necessities  of 
her  widowhood,  she  had  petitioned  for  her 
treasures,  and  he  had  not  only  denied  that 
he  had  received  them,  but  had  treated  her 
as  if  she  were  mad.   The  fertile  mind  of  the 
Viceroy  soon  suggested  a   method  of  re- 
dress.    The  following  night  he  concealed 
her  in  a  place   from  which  she  was  to  sally 
at  a  preconcerted  signal.     The  recipient  of 
the  jewels  was  summoned,  and  in  a  friendly 
manner  wras  solicited  to  return  them  ;  but, 
as  before,  he  denied  all  knowledge  of  the 
matter.    The  demand  was  politely  renewed, 
with  promises   that   his   honor   should  be 
protected  ;  still  he  persisted  in  the  denial. 
In  the  course  of  conversation,  the  Viceroy 
inquired  if  he  took  snuff. 

"  Yes,  Senor,"  he  replied,  offering  his 
box.  "  Take  what  your  Excellency  pleases.,, 
Affecting  distraction  and  urgency  to  dis- 
patch some  important  business,  the  Vice- 
roy left  him,  and  calling  a  confidential 
assistant,  sent  him  with  the  snuff-box  to  the 
wife  of  the  depositorio,  with  directions  to 
ask  for  the  coffer  of  jewels  which  had  cer- 
tain marks  such  as  had  been  described  by 
the  lady.  In  a  short  time  the  messenger 
returned  with  the  little  trunk.  The  widow 
was  then  called  from  her  place  of  conceal- 
ment, and  asked  if  that  was  the  box  she 

"  It  is  the  same,  Senor,"  she  answered, 
"  which  I  intrusted  on  deposit  to  this  gen- 




The  Viceroy  gave  him  a  glance  of  indig- 

'*  How  have  yon  dared  to  deceive  me,  a 
genleman  and  a  Viceroy,  when  I  removed 
all  difficulties  out  of  the  way  in  order  to 
cover  your  honor,  and  to  satisfy  this  unfor- 
tunate woman  ?  Henceforth  you  shall 
understand  I  am  not  to  be  trifled  with.  I 
have  ordered  a  coach  to  convey  you  to  the 

In  May,  1794,  Revilla-Gigedo  resigned 
his   office*  into   the  hands  of  Branciforte, 

*  One  of  the  remarkable  events  which  occurred 
during  the  government  of  Revilla-Gigedo,  was  the 
appearance  of  an  Aurora  Borealis  of  unusual  splen- 
dor in  the  year  1789.  A  manuscript  letter,  written 
by  his  Secretary  and  signed  by  tlie  Viceroy,  giving 
an  account  of  this  phenomenon  and  the  consternation 
it  produced,  has  been  preserved.  We  subjoin  a 
translation  from  the  original  document : — 
Most  Excellent  Senor: 

At  8  o'clock  on  the  night  of  the  14th  of  November, 
an  Aurora  Borealis  appeared  in  this  city.  The  Indians 
of  the  country,  who  are  greatly  without  instruction 
and  are  very  faint-hearted,  began  to  be  terrified  and 
to  make-  such  a  tumult  that  the  streets  became 
thronged  with  people,  who  shrieked  and  wailed, 
believing  that  fit  e  was  about  to  fall  from  heaven — 
that  the  city  was  about  to  be  overwhelmed — or  other 
-  similar  absurdity  which  this  or  that  fanatic  invented 
and  propagated,  the  excited  people  immediately 
believing  it.  The  Ecclesiastics,  who  ought  to  have 
tranquillized  the  ignorant,  undeceived  thein  and  drawn 
them  away  from  their  error,  assisted  in  confirming 
them  in  it.  They  began  to  ring  bells  for  the  Suppli- 
catory ;  they  opened  the  churches,  and  even  the 
Brotherhood  of  St.  Augustin  came  forth  carrying  in 
procession  St.  Nicholas.  Other  priests  began  to  preach, 
and  all  the  town  wandered  about  crazy,  shrieking, 
praying,  and  performing  acts  of  contrition  in  the  streets. 
The  number  of  persons  who  went  out  to  Guadalupe 
to  commend  themselves  to  the  Virgin  was  very  con- 
siderable; and  though  the  phenomenon  disappeared 
before  ten  o'clock,  even  as  late  as  two  in  the  morning 
many  people  were  still  roaming  about  with  burning 
brands,  and  praying  in  the  public  ways. 

Seeing  that  the  inhabitants  left  their  houses 
unprotected,  I  determined  that  patrols  should  go  the 
rounds  to  guard  the  property  fear  had  caused  the 
owners  to  forsake.  I  likewise  sent  a  request  to  the 
Archbishop,  that  he  would  command  the  calling  of 
Supplications  to  cease,  that  the  churches  might  be 
closed ;  on  his  own  part  taking  the  necessary  steps  to 
quiet  the  tumult  and  disorder,  since,  as  it  could  at 
once  be  perceived,  the  cause  deserved  not  the  least 
dread  or  solicitude.  I  caused,  moreover,  that  several 
officers  should  go  through  the  streets  in  a  manner  the 
most  favorable  to  undeceive  the  people  of  their  error 
and  induce  them  to  return  to  their  houses. 

who  had  been  appointed  his  successor,  and 
soon  after  embarked  for  Spain,  where  he 
became  director  of  artillery,  a  military 
position  of  importance  and  responsibility. 
Five  years  later,  May  2d,  1*799,  he  died  at 
Madrid,  universally  lamented,  as  he  was  in 
Mexico  also,  where  the  memory  of  his 
good  deeds  is  never  to  be  obliterated. 

The  celebrated  "  Instruccion,"  which  he 
wrote  for  the  benefit  of  Branciforte,  is  a 
memorial  of  the  most  important  events  that 
happened  during  his  government.  It  is  a 
national  treasure  which  has  been  most 
jealously  cared  for,  and  remained  unpub- 
lished until  1831.  The  attentive  reader 
can  glean  from  it  the  principles  which 
guided  the  policy  of  the  Cabinet  at  Madrid, 
in  order  to  maintain  the  strong  hand  Spain 
had  extended  over  Mexico ;  the  source, 
amount,  investment,  etc.,  of  the  large  sums 
with  which  this  Province  had  enriched  the 
Royal  Treasury  ;  it  brings  into  near  inspec- 
tion the  judicial  system  ;  acquaints  us  with 
the  character  of  the  population,  the  military 
organization,  the  condition  of  agriculture 
and  the  mining  interests,  home  and  foreign 
commerce,  the  state  of  arts  and  industry, 
and  the  policy  of  the  Viceroy  ship,  both 
general  as  regards  the  colony  at  large,  and. 
particular  as  regards  the  capital.  It  also 
records  curious  and  acute  observations, 
indicates  reforms  and  projects,  and  em- 
bodies reflections  which  disclose  the  upright 
and  magnanimous  principles  of  the  writer 
— bis  deep  desire  for  the  prosperity  of  the 
nation  he  ruled,  and  furnishes  to  legislators 
suggestions  well  worthy  their  consideration. 

It  is  to  be  regretted  that  so  far  as  Branci- 
forte is  concerned,  it  was  practically  an  effort 
expended  in  vain.  He  neither  thought  nor 
worked  like  his  illustrious  predecessor, 
though  he  contributed  to  give  the  last  touch 
to  the  reputation  of  Revilla-Gigedo,  by 
influencing  the  Council  to  accuse  him. 
Envy  seems  to  be  indispensable  in  order  to 

I  give  Your  Excellency  this  account  lest,  perhaps, 
notice  through  another  source  might  arrive,  of  such 
character  as  to  cause  anxiet}\ 
Exmo.  Senor, 

El  Conde  de  Revilla-Gigedo. 

Mexico,  30th  Nov.,  1789. 

Exmo.  Sekor  Don  Antonio  Porlier. 




lift  the  splendor  of  great  men,  as  the 
clouds  of  heaven  are  necessary,  which,  dis- 
persed, cause  the  sun  to  shine  with  more 
clearness  and  brilliancy. 


Old  Portrait  of  Franklin. — Dr.  Ed- 
ward Vanderpool,  206  Fourth  street,  in 
this  city,  has  in  his  possession  a  por- 
trait of  Dr.  Franklin,  painted  at  Tren- 
ton, N\J.,  a  year  or  two  before  his  death, 
by  an  English  artist  named.  Stibbs,  which, 
with  a  very  close  likeness  both  in  face 
and  attitude  to  the  well  known  Cochin 
Portrait,  represents  him  with  the  marks 
of  much  more  advanced  age  than  any 
of  the  engraved  likenesses.  It  is  in  oil 
on  canvas,  stretched  on  board  5£  by  4£ 
inches  in  size,  with  powdered  wig  and  a 
red  coat,  one  hand  over  the  other  resting 
on  a  cane.  The  expression  is  smiling,  but 
evidently  senile.  It  is,  however,  a  most 
interesting  relic,  and  its  authenticity  un- 
doubted, the  picture  having  been  given 
by  the  artist's  daughter  to  Dr.  Vander- 
pool. •  G.  G. 

one  of  our  current  witticisms  is  not  as 
new  as  may  be  generally  supposed. 

"Instead  of  that  alacrity  with  which 
every  man  in  the  United  States  was  to 
turn  out,  as  a  volunteer,  to  light  Great 
Britain,  as  triumphantly  foretold  by  the 
administration  prints,  we  hear  of  nothing 
but  lamentations  and  dissatisfaction  from 
every  militia  man  who  has  been  so  fortu- 
nate as  to  draw  a  prize,  as  it  is  called,  by 
which  he  becomes  liable  to  be  called  on 
any  moment  to  join  the  detachment  of 
thirteen  thousand  men  that  make  up  the 
quota  of  this  State." — New  York  Even- 
ing Post,  May  12th,  1812. 

I  have  a  strong  impression  that  "  copper- 
heads" is  used,  with  its  present  political 
meaning,  by  the  journal  quoted  above  or 
some  of  its  contemporaries.  But,  wThether 
this  is  so  or  not,  it  is  quite  evident  from 
the  above  extract  that  if  the  word  did 
not  exist  at  that  time,  it  was,  at  least, 
sadly  needed.  S.  W.  P. 

Intellectual  Capacity  of  Negroes  in 
Boston. — Phillis  Wheatley's  was  not  the 
only  instance  in  Boston,  of  the  negro's  capa- 
city for  intellectual  improvement.  A  worthy 
Englishman,  Richard  Dalton,  Esq.,  a  great 
admirer  of  the  Greek  classips,  because  of 
the  tenderness  of  his  eyes,  taught  his  negro 
boy,  Caesar,  to  read  to  him  distinctly  any 
Greek  writer,  without  understanding  the 
meaning  or  interpretation. — Douglass,  ii. 

In  the  Boston  Chronicle  for  September 

Phillips  and  Davis — A  Coincidence. 
—On  the  8th  of  December,  1837,  Wendell 
Phillips,  speaking  in  Faneuil  Hall,  Bos- 
ton, in  reply  to  one  who  vindicated  the 
mob  that  murdered  Elijah  P.  Lovejoy,  at 
Alton,  the  previous  month,  used  the  fol- 
lowing language : — 

"Sir,  when  I  heard  the  gentleman  lay 
down  principles  which  place  the  murderers 
of  Alton  side  by  side  with  Otis,  and  Han- 
cock, and  Quincy,  and  i\dams,  I  thought 
those  pictured  lips  [pointing  to  the  por- 
traits in  the  hall]  would  have  broken  into 
voice  to  rebuke  the  recreant  American — 
the  slanderer  of  the  dead." 

Twenty  years  later,  October  11th,  1858, 
Jefferson  Davis  spoke  in  Faneuil  Hall,  and 
used  similar  imagery.     He  said  : — 

"  If  those  voices,  which  breathed  the 
first  instincts  into  the  Colony  of  Massachu- 
setts, and  into  those  colonies  which  formed 

21      769    is  advertised:-'' To  be  sold    a  the  United  State s,  t0  pnK.,aiin  community, 

^kely  Little  negroe  boy,  who  ea»wo&<Ae.nd        de  nd    a53ei.t  it         in3t   t£e 

French  language,  and  very  fi   tor  a  Valet.     pow[,,.ful  mothel.  oountry  .  if  tl?ogo  voices 

live   here   still,  how  must   they  feel   who 
come  here  to  preach  treason  to  the  consti- 

Draw  a  Prize. — The  following  extract 
from  an  old  newspaper  may  interest  some!tution,  and   assail   the   Union  it  ordained 
of  your  readers,  as  serving  to  show  that !  and  established  ?     It  would  seem  that  their 




criminal  hearts  would  fear  that  those  voices, 
so  long  slumbering,  would  break  their  si- 
lence, that  those  forms  which  look  down 
from  theee  walls  behind  and  around,  would 
come  forth,  and  that  their  sabres  would 
once  more  be  drawn  from  their  scabbards, 
to  drive  from  this  sacred  temple  these  fana- 
tical men,  who  deserve  it  more  than  did 
the  changers  of  money  and  those  who  sold 
doves  in  the  temple  of  the  living  God." 

It  is  hardly  credible  that  at  the  very 
time  that  Davis  uttered  these  scorching 
words  against  those  who  lift  up  their  hands 
against  the  Union  and  the  Constitution, 
his  "  criminal  hearty  was  meditating  the 
treason  that  it  has  since  perpetrated  ;  but 
we  have  evidence  that  compels  us  to  be- 
lieve such  to  have  been  the  case. 

X.    Y.    Z. 

Revolutionary  Pensioners. — We  have 
noticed  with  pleasure  the  unanimous  pas- 
sage in  the  House  of  Representatives,  at 
Washington,  of  a  bill  adding  one  hundred 
dollars  per  annum  to  the  pensions  of  the 
little  band  of  Revolutionary  veterans  who 
still  survive,  and  whose  lives,  it  is  to  be 
hoped,  may  be  prolonged  to  witness  the  full 
triumph  of  those  liberties  which  their  valor 
helped  to  establish.  It  appears,  by  an  of- 
ficial return,  that  the  number  now  living 
of  the  heroes  whose  efforts  in  behalf  of 
their  country  are  still  gratefully  remem- 
bered, is  but  twelve.  Of  these  the  oldest 
has  attained  the  age  of  105  years,  and  the 
youngest  is  94.  The  names  and  ages,  with 
amount  of  pension  allowed  under  existing 
laws,  are  stated  in  a  communication  from 
the  Pension  Bureau,  as  follows  : — 

Amaziah  Goodwin,  born  in  Somersworth, 
N,  H.,  Feb.  16,  1*759  ;  pension  $38  33. 
John  Goodnow,  born  in  Sudbury,  Mass., 

Jan.  30,  1762  ;   pension  $36  67. 

Adam   Link,  born  in  Washington   Co., 

Pa., — 1762  ;  pension . 

Daniel  Waldo,  born  in  Windham,  Conn., 

Sept.  10,  1762;  pension  $96. 

Jonas  Gates,  born  in   Barre,  Mass.,  — , 

1763  ;  pension  $96. 

Benjamin   Miller,    born    in    Springfield, 

Mass.,    April    4,    1764;    pension    $24  54. 

(Died  Sept.  1863. — ed.  h.m.) 

James  Barham,  born  in  Southampton 
Co.,  Va.,  May  18,  1764  ;  pension  $32  33. 

William  Hutchings,  born  in  York,  Me., 
— ,  1764  ;  pension  $21  66. 

John  Pettingill,  born  in  Windham, 
Conn.,  Nov.  30,  1766;  pension  $50. 

Alexander  Maroney,  enlisted  at  Lake 
George,  1ST.  Y.,  born  — ,  1770  ;  pension 

Samuel  Downing,  served  in  the  2d  1ST.H. 
regiment ;  pension  $80. 

Lemuel  Cook,  on  the  roll  at  Albany, 
jfif.  Y. ;  pension  $100. 

With  regard  to  the  last  three,  it  will  be 
observed  that  full  particulars  are  wanting. 
In  the  case  of  Maroney,  the  files  state  that 
he  was  "  enlisted"  by  his  father,  being  a 
minor.  To  all  of  the  pensions  here  stated, 
it  is  now  proposed  to  add  $100  per  an- 

There  were  at  the  date  of  the  latest  re- 
port in  print  seven  pensioners  on  the  State 

oil  of  Massachusetts  receiving  pensions 
from  the  treasury  of  this  Commonwealth, 
under  resolves  of  the  Legislature  indepen- 
dently of  the  action  of  Congress.  Of  these 
Benjamin  Smith,  of  Grafton,  who  receives 
the  largest  sum,  viz.  $150  per  annum,  is 
described  as  "  a  soldier  of  the  Revolution," 
and  we  believe  that  some  of  the  others 
received  their  pensions  in  respect  of  Revo- 
lutionary services. 

The  names  of  the  others  are  Martin 
Wheelock,  Lyman  Webster,  Peter  Jowder, 
James  Pomeroy,  John  T.  Stone,  James 
Daniels.  If  authorized  by  a  vote  of  the 
Legislature  similar  to  the  movement  in 
Congress  which  called  forth  the  interest- 
ing facts  above  noted,  respecting  the  Unit- 
ed States  pensioners,  the  Secretary  of  the 
Commonwealth  would,  perhaps,  be  able, 
by  a  search  of  the  files,  to  furnish  com- 
plete information  on  the  subject. — JBoston 

Daniel  Taylor,  the  Spy. — The  physi- 
cian who  administered  to  Daniel  Taylor  (the 
British  spy)  the  emetic  on  October  9,  1777, 
which  brought  up  the  silver  ball  in  which 
was  inclosed  the  short  letter  from  Sir 
Henry  Clinton  toBurgoyne,  was  Dr.  Moses 
Higby,  afterwards  of  Newburgh,  in  this 




State.  He  resided  at  the  time  near  the  old 
Fall's  house,  at  the  Square  in  the  town  of 
Xew  Windsor,  where  General  (afterwards 
Governor)  George  Clinton  had  his  head- 
quarters temporarily  in  the  fall  of  1777,1 
subsequently  to  the  defeat  at  Fort  Mont- 
gomery. He  died  in  Newburgh  May  3,  | 
1823,  at  the  age  of  eighty,  and  had  prac- 
tised there  and  in  New  Windsor  for  nearly ; 
sixty  years.  The  letter  inclosed  in  the 
ball  was  written  on  the  previous  day  atj 
Fort  Montgomery,  and  was  intended  to  j 
inform  Burgoyne  (then  encamped  near 
Saratoga)  that  ho  colonial  troops  inter- 
vened their  respective  forces  (which  they 
intended,  if  possible,  to  unite)  except  the 
command  of  Gates,  and  expressed  the  hope 
that  the  recent  English  success  at  the  Fort 
would  facilitate  his  contemplated  operations 
both  above  and  below  Albany.  Immedi- 
ately after  the  storming  of  the  Fort,  Gen. 
George  Clinton  made  his  head-quarters  at 
Mrs.  Fall's  house  to  collect  his  men,  who 
had  become  scattered  on  the  night  of  the 
storming,  in  order  that  he  might  march 
them,  together  with  such  new  recruits  as 
he  might  obtain,  to  Esopus  (now  Kingston) 
to  prevent  the  English  from  landing  from 
their  vessels  at  that  place,  which  he  had 
been  advised  by  his  brother  Col.  James 
Clinton  (serving  under  him),  they  would 
do  if  the  vessels  could  break  the  chain 
which  was  across  the  river  near  the  Fort 
(this  obstruction  across  the  river  from  near 
St.  Anthony's  Nose  to  Fort  Montgomery 
was,  in  fact,  a  chevaux  de  frize,  and  was 
arranged  by  Capt.  Machen,*  the  Engineer 
of  Fort  Montgomery,  with  the  assistance 
of  Capt.  Hazel  wood,  whose  similar  work 
across  the  Delaware  River  had  been  so 
effectual  previously;  it  was  1860  feet  long, 
and  separated  in  a  few  hours,  by  reason  of 
the  tide,  after  its  completion,  but  was  soon 
after  relaid  in  another  position  under  the 

*  Capt.  Machen  came  to  America  about  1766  as 
an  officer  in  the  English  service,  but  soon  resigned. 
He  then  opened  the  outlet  to  "  -Machen's  Pond,"  now 
called  Orange  Lake,  four  miles  west  of  Newburgh,  and 
erected  a  small  building  in  which  he  made  copper  coin 
for  change,  and,  though  it  was  illegal,  yet  he  was  not 
interfered  with.  The  public  regarded  the  coinage  as 
a  convenience  which  was  not  at  that  early  day  suffi- 
cieutly  supplied  by  the  government. 

suggestion  of  Mai.  Gen.  Heath.  It  cost 
£50,000,  and  weighed  170  tons.  When 
it  broke,  Congress  refused  to  pay  the  bill 
for  the  iron-work  upon  it,  until  the  quality 
of  the  iron  was  investigated.  The  investi- 
gation proved  satisfactory). 

He  did  not  rally  his  men  in  time,  but 
when  he  reached  Kingston  (by  way  of  the 
valley  of  the  Wallkill),  he  discovered  that 
the  English  vessels  had  ascended  the  river, 
landed  troops,  set  fire  to  the  village,  and 
had  just  retired,  leaving  it  still  in  flames. 
The  spy  was  captured  before  Clinton  start- 
ed from  the  Square.     It  is  not  known  by 
what  route  the  spy  came  from  Fort  Montgo- 
mery on  his  intercepted  way  to  Burgoyne, 
and  he  refused  to  state  it.    His  person  was 
searched  and  the  ball  was  accidentally  found 
in  his  hair,  where  it  had  been  ingeniously 
fastened,  and  probably  before  he  started. 
Its  form  was  oval,  about  the  size  of  a  bullet, 
and  consisted  of  two  sections  which  were 
firmly  united  by  a  screw  in  the  centre.     It 
was  pure  silver,  for  the  probable  reason  that 
if  the  bearer  should  be  compelled,  by  any 
exigency,  to  swallow  it  for  its  and  his  safety, 
the  metal   might   not  affect  him  as  lead, 
brass,  or  copper  would.     The  shell  of  it 
was  about  the  thickness  of  a  common  wafer ; 
and  compactly  folded  in  it  was  the  short 
letter  to  Burgoyne,   written  on  thin  silk 
paper.     The  letter  contained  but  three  sen- 
tences, and  was  forwarded  by  Gen.  Clinton 
to  the  u  Council  of  Safety,"  after  the  court- 
martial  of  Taylor.    When  the  ball  was  dis- 
covered, Taylor  snatched  it  from  the  search- 
ing officer,  and  under  pretence  of  throwing 
it  away,  swallowed  it.     This,  however,  was 
noticed.     Clinton  immediately  sent  for  Dr. 
Higby,  who,  instantly  upon  his  arrival,  ad- 
ministered with  much  difficulty  a  powerful 
emetic.    The  ball  was  thrown  up  almost  im- 
mediately ;  and  Taylor  picking  it  up,  ran  a 
short  distance,  was  overtaken,  and,  upon 
being  brought  back,  the  ball  could  not  be 
found,  and  he  refused  to  state  what  he  had 
done  with  it.     Clinton  promptly  informed 
him  that  he  believed  he  had  again  swallowed 
it,  and  that  if  it  was  not  produced  at  once, 
he  should  instantly  order  him  to  be  hung, 
and  that  he  should  be  cut  open  to  obtain 
it.     He  then  produced  it.     Taylor  was  a 




major  in  the  English  service.  He  was 
taken  by  Clinton  to  Kingston  with  the 
troops,  and  was  there  tried  before  a  Court- 
Martial  (of  which  Capt.  John  Woodward, 
the  father  of  Judge  Woodward  who  was 
afterwards  one  of  the  Justices  of  the  Su- 
preme Court  of  this  State,  was  Judge  Ad- 
vocate), and  was  unanimously  condemned 
as  a  spy,  and  was  hung  the  next  day  from 
an  apple-tree  on  the  outskirts  of  the  vil- 
lage, and  buried  under  it.  He  wore  a 
citizen's  dress  at  the  time  of  his  capture, 
was  about  forty  years  of  age,  and  was  pri- 
vileged by  Clinton  to  write  several  letters 
to  relatives  in  England,  which,  after  being 
read  and  found  not  to  communicate  any 
military  information,  were  sent  to  Sir 
Henry  Clinton  for  further  disposition. 

His  remains  were  never  removed.  He 
was  an  officer  of  equal  rank  with  Andre 
(each  being  a  major),  and  both  were  select- 
ed as  spies,  and  executed  as  such ;  and 
both  intrusted  with  important  duties,  and 
for  the  same  government,  and  by  the  same 
officer  (Sir  Henry  Clinton),  yet  Andre 
was  exhumed  by  order  of  the  British  Go- 
vernment, and  his  remains  deposited  with 
military  honors  in  Westminster  Abbey, 
while  those  of  Taylor  have  been  neglected 
by  his  country  to  the  present  time.  The 
probable  impossibility  of  identifying  the 
particular  spot  of  his  burial  may  constitute 
the  reason  why  his  bones  wTere  not  removed 
at  the  time  when  Andre's  were.  The  grave' 
of  the  latter  was  marked  by  a  stone  imme- 
diately after  his  execution,  and  a  willow 
planted  by  it,  both  of  which  remained 
there  at  the  time  of  the  removal  to  Eng- 
land. No  mark  was  put  upon  Taylor's 
grave,  and  the  old  apple-tree,  no  doubt, 
had  long  since  gone,  and  probably  no  one 
then  living  or  accessible  could  identify 
the  spot. 

John  M.  Eager,  JYew  York. 

Names  and  Location  of  Tribes  on  the 
Androscoggin,  by  N.T.True. — The  tribes 
of  New  England  were  settled  on  the  princi- 
pal rivers.  On  the  Connecticut  were  the 
Mohegans.  Those  on  the  sources  of  the 
Connecticut  river  were  called  Micmacs  or 
Fresh  Water  Indians.     On  the  Merrimac 

were  the  Pennacooks.  On  the  Saco  were 
the  Sokokis,  of  w7hom  the  Pequakeys  at 
Fryeburg  were  a  branch.  On  the  Andros- 
coggin were  the  Anasagunticooks,  of 
which  tribe  were  the  Rokomekos  at  Canton 
Point,  and  the  Pejescots  on  the  Lower 
Androscoggin.  The  Norridgewocks  lived 
on  the  Kennebec.  The  Penobscots,  or 
Tarratines,  as  they  were  often  called,  on 
the  Penobscot;  theWawenocks,  on  the  St. 
George's,  Sheepscot,  and  Pemaquid  Rivers  ; 
the  Passamaquoddies  on  the  St.  Croix ;  the 
Marechites  on  the  St.  John,  and  the  Mic- 
macs in  Nova  Scotia. 

The  Indians  on  the  Androscoggin  are 
known  under  the  general  name  of  Anasagun- 
ticooks, though  it  appears  that  it  was  origi- 
nally confined  to  those  residing  above  Lewis- 
ton  Falls.  At  a  late  period  it  seemed  to 
extend  to  the  scattered  remnants  of  Indians 
on  the  river,  and  at  St.  Francis  in  Canada. 

It  is  a  curious  fact  that  the  word  Ana- 
sagunticook,  Amoscoggin,  and  Amasaconte, 
are  all  derived  from  the  same  roots,  and 
have  essentially  the  same  meaning.  Amasa- 
conte was  the  name  of  the  tribe  at  Far- 
mington,  and  as  the  carrying  place,  by 
means  of  numerous  ponds,  was  very  easy, 
it  is  probable  that  the  intercourse  between 
the  Indians  on  the  Androscoggin  and  Sandy 
Rivers  was  very  intimate,  and  may  thus 
have  rendered  them,  in  a  certain  sense, 
nearly  identical. 

The  Pejepscots  occupied  the  territory 
between  Lewiston  Falls  and  the  Kennebec 
River.  Their  headquarters  were  at  Bruns- 
wick, where  they  had  a  fort  near  the  falls. 
They  also  had  a  location  at  Little  River 
Falls.  Their  position  was  a  most  important 
one.  It  was  at  the  great  carrying  place 
between  the  Eastern  and  Western  tribes. 
It  was  also  the  turning  off  place  of  the  In- 
dians coming  down  the  river  to  Macquait. 
Their  position  early  brought  them  into  con- 
tact with  the  whites.  An  English  trader 
occupied  their  territory  below  the  Falls  as 
early  as  1624-5,  and  another  at  the  Little 
River  Falls,  consequently  they  were  the 
first  to  be  broken  up  as  a  tribe. 

They  probably  depended  largely  on  fish- 
ing for  their  support,  although  they,  no 
doubt,  had  corn  fields  in  Durham,  Bruns- 




wick,  and  Topsham.  Colonel  Church,  as 
late  as  1690,  found  a  barn  of  corn  to  a 
large  amount  at  their  fort  in  Brunswick. 
Still,  they  did  not  appear  to  have  any  fixed 
habitation  at  that  time  below  Lewiston  Falls, 
unless  it  might  have  been  on  Sabattis  river. 

It  is  doubtful  if  any  tribe  in  New  Eng- 
land had  greater  facilities  for  procuring 
food  at  all  seasons  of  the  year  than  the 
Pejepscots.  At  certain  periods,  salmon, 
sturgeon,  and  other  fish  swarmed  the  river 
at  the  Falls,  where  they  could  easily  spear 
them.  Their  hunting  grounds  were  near, 
corn  could  be  raised  or  brought  down  the 
river,  while  in  the  severest  weather,  or 
time  of  scarcity,  they  could  reach  Macquait, 
a  distance  of  three  miles,  where  clams  were 
abundant.  Like  the  immense  water  power 
at  Brunswick,  still  unimproved,  it  would 
seem  as  though  the  natives  did  not  them- 
selves appreciate  the  natural  advantages 
around  them,  though  they  may  have  been 
originally  a  populous  tribe. 

The  Rokomekos  had  their  headquarters 
at  Canton  Point,  and  this  may  be  consider- 
ed the  centre  of  the  Indian  population  on 
the  whole  river.  They  were  a  semi-agri- 
cultural people.  The  broad  intervales,  to 
the  extent  of  several  hundred  acres,  were 
cleared  and  cultivated  with  corn.  From 
what  can  be  gleaned  of  their  condition,  it 
is  probable  that  they  were  among  the  most 
populous  of  any  tribe  in  Maine,  previous  to 
1617,  when  they  suffered  from  the  plague 
which  carried  off  so  many  Indians  through- 
out New  England. 

No  tribe  of  Indians  was  more  dreaded 
by  the  whites  than  the  Rokomekos.  They 
would  turn  off  from  the  river  through  the 
northern  part  of  what  is  now  Cumberland 
County,  and  pounce  upon  the  settlers  of  the 
seaport  towns,  killing  and  taking  captive 
the  inhabitants,  or  coming  clown  the  river 
in  a  flotilla  of  canoes,  prowl  along  the 
shores,  or  at  a  later  period,  through  the  in- 
fluence of  the  French,  they  would  ascend 
the  river,  go  to  Canada,  join  the  French, 
and  again  descend  to  the  sea-coast  to  anni- 
hilate, if  possible,  the  English  settlements. 
They  embraced  the  Indians  up  and  down 
the  Androscoggin  river,  from  Lewiston 
Falls  to  its  source. 

Our  knowledge  of  the  condition  of  the 
Indians  about  Rokomeko  is  very  limited. 
They  had  cornfields  near  Rumford  Falls 
and  at  Rumford  Point. 

It  is  not  known  whether  there  was  a  dis- 
tinct tribe  at  Lewiston  Falls.  Some  of  the 
Pennacook  Indians  fled  from  their  tribe  in 
New  Hampshire  through  fear  of  the  Mo- 
hawks, and  built  a  fort  there  about  the 
year  1680,  so  that  this  place  constituted  a 
sort  of  garrison  for  the  protection  of  their 
families  while  the  men  were  away  from 
home.  The  excellent  facilities  for  fishing 
at  the  Falls  must  have  always  attracted  the 
Indians  to  that  place. 

At  Bethel,  about  two  and  a  half  miles 
above  the  village,  there  was  undoubtedly 
a  small  tribe,  possibly  a  branch  of  the  Ro- 
komekos, as  they  a'ere  said  to  have  carried 
their  dead  to  Rokomeko  for  burial.  They 
had  left  the  place  long  before  the  town 
was  settled,  as  quite  large  trees  had  grown 
up  in  their  corn-fields.  About  twenty  cel- 
lars for  the  storage  of  corn,  a  dozen  or 
more  gun  barrels,  kettles,  hoes,  and  other 
implements  were  found  by  the  first  settlers, 
indicating  that  they  had  left  in  a  hurried 

Cartridge  Paper  in  1778. — When  the 
American  army  entered  Philadelphia,  in 
June,  1778,  upon  the  evacuation  of  the 
English  troops,  there  was  a  want  of  paper 
fitted  for  the  construction  of  cartridges. 
It  was  advertised  for,  and  but  a  small  quan 
tity  procured.  An  order  was  then  issued 
demanding  its  instant  production  by  all 
people  in  that  city  who  had  it.  This  pro 
duced  but  little,  and  most  probably  on  ac- 
count of  its  scarcity.  A  file  ot'  soldiers  was 
then  ordered  to  make  search  for  it  in  every 
place  where  any  was  likely  to  be  found. 
Among  other  places  visited  in  July,  1778, 
was  a  garret  in  a  house  in  which  Benjamin 
Franklin  had  previously  had  his  printing 
office.  Here  were  discovered  about  twenty- 
five  hundred  copies  of  a  sermon  which  the 
Rev.  Gilbert  Tenant  had  written  (printed 
by  Franklin)  upon  "Defensive  War,"  to 
rouse  the  colonists  during  the  French 
troubles.  They  were  all  taken  and  used 
as  cases  for  musket  cartridges,  and  at  once 




sent  to  the  army,  and  most  of  them  were 
used  at  the  battle  of  Monmouth.  The  re- 
quisites in  cartridge  paper  were,  of  course, 
thinness,  strength,  pliability,  and  inflamma- 
bility, and  such  paper  was  necessarily 
scarce  then.  J.  M.  E. 


Indians  in  Oeakge  County.  —  Osbas- 
quemonus,  the  chief  of  the  Minsies  tribe 
(the  word  having  become  corrupted  into 
"  Minisink,"  see  Eager's  Hist,  of  Orange 
Co.,  p.  407,  and  Stone's  Life  of  Brandt), 
was  one  of  the  signers  to  the  deed  of  the 
large  Minisink  Patent.  Besides  him,  eleven 
other  chiefs  signed,  though  all  did  not  be- 
long to  the  same  tribe,  but  set  up  some 
hunting  and  other  ancient  rights  to  the 
land.  He  was  a  chief  of  the  Wawayanda 
tribe,  whose  village  was  located  as  early 
(or  rather  as  late)  as  1704,  upon  the  Otter 
Hill,  near  Campbell  Hall,  and  near  the 
point  where  the  Beaver  Dam  empties  into 
that  stream.  He  was  also  one  of  the  sign- 
ers to  what  is  known  as  the  Wawayanda 
Patent.  This  last  patent  was  intended  by 
the  chiefs  to  cover  but  sixty  thousand  acres, 
but,  when  subsequently  surveyed,  was  dis- 
covered to  contain  nearly  or  quite  one 
hundred  and  fifty;  but  as  the  grant  was 
made  by  meter  and  bounds,  and  no  parti- 
cular number  of  acres  was  mentioned  in  it, 
it  could  not,  by  the  decisions  of  the  Eng- 
lish Courts,  be  revoked,  nor  the  quantity 
of  land  be  diminished  to  the  intention  of 
the  Indians.  Its  date  was  March  5, 1703, 
and  though  the  English  Governor,  upon 
ascertaining  the  mistake,  petitioned  Queen 
Anne  to  reduce  the  quantity,  yet  nothing 
was  heard  from  the  petition — at  least  no- 
thing was  done  to  that  end.  Among  the 
other  signers  to  tins  patent  w^ere  Rapingo- 
nick  (who  died  about  1730  at  the  Dela- 
ware Gap);  Wawastawaw,  Moghopuck 
(who  subsequently  lived  on  the  flats  now 
known  asHaverstraw) ;  Comelawaw,  Nana- 
witt,  Ariwimack  (who  was  chief  of  the 
tribe  then  occupying  the  low  grounds  on 
the  Wallkill,  extending  from  near  Goshen, 
down  that  stream  to  Shawangunks  in  Ulster 
County)  ;  Rumbout  (a  Minsies)  ;  Gulia- 
paw    (whose  tribe  had  their  village  near 

Long  Pond,  one  of  the  feeders  of  the  Mor- 
ris Canal).  This  village  was  within  fifty 
rods  of  the  north  end  of  the  pond,  and  in 
the  vicinity  many  rude  utensils,  and  arrow- 
heads, and  some  stone  axes,  have  been 
found.  What  is  now  known  as  Warwick 
Creek,  was  formerly  called  Wawayanda 
Creek,  after  an  early  tribe.  At  the  early 
settlement  of  the  lands  along  it  (about  1742), 
there  were  some  evidences  of  a  fortified 
Indian  village  at  the  point  where  the  War- 
wick falls  into  the  Pochuck  Creek.  About 
1811,  a  large  number  of  Indian  bones  (sup- 
posed to  be  such  from  the  earthen-ware 
found  with  them),  were  discovered  between 
two  large  flat  stones  in  the  immediate 
vicinity  of  the  confluence  of  the  two 
streams.  There  were  evidences  of  a  vil- 
lage at  the  mouth  of  the  Tinbrook  when 
the  Wileman  Patent  was  granted  in  1709. 
Also  one  on  the  west  bank  of  the  Wall- 
kill,  near  where  apart  of  the  army,  known 
as  the  Virginia  Line,  lay  encamped  in 
1782.  Another  is  known  to  have  existed 
on  the  old  Palatine  Road,  north  of  the  vil- 
lage of  Wardsbridge  (now  Montgomery), 
and  near  the  site  of  the  Lutheran  church 
which  the  Germans  erected  who  settled 
the  Patent  called  Germantown,  guaranteed 
in  1722.  At  Crist's  Mill,  near  by,  the 
remnant  of  a  tribe  is  known  to  have  lived 
as  late  as  the  old  French  war  in  1755.  The 
streams  through  Orange  County  abounded 
in  otter  and  beaver  in  the  early  part  of  the 
last  century,  and  this  fact  probably  accounts 
for  the  large  number  of  small  tribes  who 
have  left  proofs  of  their  existence  upon  the 
banks  of  them.  Some  few  years  since  an 
instrument  of  polished  stone,  evidently 
made  to  dress  these  animals,  was  discover- 
ed in  the  bed  of  the  Beaver  Dam  near  the 
old  church  at  Neelytown.  General  John 
MacBride,  of  Hamptonburgh  (still  living), 
remembers  to  have  seen  the  remains  of  a 
beaver  dam  upon  the  small  stream  which 
empties  into  the  Otter  Kill  upon  his  farm. 
There  was  an  Indian  settlement  within 
half  a  mile  of  this  place  in  1811. 

J.  M.  E. 




The  Anniversary  of  Siiakspeare's 
Death. — We  are  glad  to  observe  that  the 
New  England  Historic  Genealogical  Society 
has  voted  to  properly  observe  the  three 
hundredth  anniversary  of  the  birth  of 
Shakspeare.  At  a  recent  meeting,  the 
details  of  the  celebration  were  referred 
to  the  government  of  the  Society.  On 
that  occasion,  one  of  the  members  spoke 
as  follows : 

Mr.  President:  With  your  permission,  I 
intend  to  bring  before  this  meeting  a  mat- 
ter which  I  believe  to  be  of  interest  to  this 
Society.  It  is  known  to  us  all  that  the 
three  hundredth  anniversary  of  the  birth 
of  Shakspeare  takes  place  on  the  twenty- 
third  day  of  April  of  the  current  year.  It 
is  understood  that  appropriate  notice  of 
this  event  will  be  taken  in  England.  But 
I  have  yet  to  learn  that  any  measures  have 
been  inaugurated  in  this  country  for  the 
celebration  of  that  day.  Should  it  be  suffer- 
ed to  pass  by  without  something  being 
done  by  way  of  commemoration  in  this 
western  world,  the  neglect  cannot  fail, 
in  my  opinion,  to  cause  us  disgrace. 

England  was,  it  is  true,  the  birthplace  of 
the  greatest  writer  in  our  language,  but  he 
belongs  to  us  as  much  as  to  the  land  of  his 
nativity.  There  are  probably  fifty  readers 
of  him  in  the  United  States  to  one  reader 
in  Great  Britain.  I  have  been  informed  by 
a  bookseller  that  he  has  frequently  sold 
new  copies  of  Siiakspeare's  works  for  one 
dollar  and  twenty-five  cents  each.  Does 
any  one  suppose  that  this  book  has  ever 
been  on  sale  in  England  at  five  or  six  shil- 
lings sterling  ? 

The  question  very  naturally  arises  : 
"  Whose  business  is  it  to  provide  for  the 
celebration  suggested  ?" 

Boston  has  long  claimed  to  be  the  Lite- 
rary Emporium,  the  Athens  of  America. 
There  are  now,  as  there  always  have  been, 
among  us  scientific  and  literary  men,  poets 
(perhaps),  poetasters  certainly,  who  in 
their  own  estimation  and  that  of  their 
friends  are  deserving  of  high  honor.  One 
would  think  that  some  of  these  would 
move  in  the  matter.  Veneration  for  the 
mighty  dead,  a  deep  appreciation  of  his 
matchless  powers,  gratitude  for  what  they 

HIST.  MAG.       VOL.  VIII.  20 

have  learned  from  him,  and  even  an  esprit 
de  corps  would,  we  should  suppose,  have 
prompted  them  to  take  measures  that  the 
birthday  of  Shakspeare  should  not  pass  un- 
noticed. But,  as  yet,  all  is  still  in  that 
quarter.  Perhaps  it  is  as  well.  Should 
some  of  them  attempt  to  commemorate 
him  in  song,  the  words  which  the  object 
of  their  rhyme  puts  into  the  mouth  of  one 
of  his  characters  might  be  applicable : 

I  had  rather  be  a  kitten,  and  cry — mew, 
Than  one  of  these  same  metre  ballad  mongers! 
I  had  rather  hear  a  brazen  canstick  turn*u\ 
Or  a  dry  wheel  grate  on  an  axletree ; 
And  that  would  set  my  teeth  nothing  on  edge, 
Nothing  so  much  as  mincing  poetry ; 
'Tis  like  the  forced  gait  of  a  shuffling  nag. 
[First  Part  King  Henry  IV.,  Act.  III.  Sc.  1.] 

If,  then,  those  upon  whom  it  might 
seem  to  be  incumbent  to  do  this  will  uot 
move,  I  would  suggest  that  this  Society 
should  do  something.  Our  title  indicates 
the  objects  of  our  labors  to  be  History 
and  Genealogy.  Both  of  these  are  so 
closely  connected  with  English  antecedents 
that  we  cannot  separate  them  if  we  would. 
English  history  is  our  history  till  within 
less  than  two  hundred  and  fifty  years ;  it  is 
measurably  our  history  till  within  less  than 
a  century ;  and  even  now  we  have  no 
small  sympathy  in  the  public  movements 
of  our  fatherland.  Our  genealogy,  how- 
ever much  it  has  become  spread  out  over 
this  u  boundless  continent,"  finds  its  source 
on  English  territory.  Shakspeare  lived  in 
an  age  when  maritime  discovery  was 
active.  One  of  his  warmest  friends  and 
most  munificent  benefactors  was  that  Earl 
of  Southampton,  whose  name  appears  in 
one  of  the  early  patents  of  the  region  in 
which  we  dwell.  The  poet's  works  an; 
marked  by  mention  of  places  discovered  in 
his  time,  and  are  illustrated  by  tales  brought 
home  by  early  American  voyagers. 

These  facts,  and  others  which  might  be 
named,  seem  to  render  it  proper  that  this 
Society  should  celebrate  in  some  way  the 
three  hundredth  anniversary  of  his  birth. 
And  should  it  so  happen  that  ours  should 
be  the  only  celebration  of  this  event  in 
America,  or  even  in  New  England,  it  will 
I  redound  much  to  the  credit  of  this  Society, 




and  be  a  pleasant  thing  in  our  annals  for 
posterity  to  read. 

On  account  of  personal  reasons,  Mr. 
President,  I  submit  no  motion,  but  would 
beg  leave  to  suggest  that  a  committee  be 
raised,  at  this  meeting,  with  full  powers  to 
make  the  necessary  arrangements  for  the 
celebration  which  has  been  spoken  of. 

Latin  Ode  on  Washington. — The  fol- 
lowing from  the  Pennsylvania  Magazine 
of  October,  1775,  may  interest  your  read- 
ers : 

In  Geo.   "Washington  dtjcis  supremi   munere  a 
senatu,  populoque  americano  donatum. 

Te  voeat  Boston,  (ubi  dux  iniquus 
Obsidit  cives  miseros,  et  obstat, 
Urbe  quo  cedant  minus;)  excitatque 

Pristina  virtus. 

Prospere  eedat,  bone,  quod  pararia. 

Occidunt  cives,  gladio  petita 

Heu  perit  virgo  misere  !    atque  clamor 

Personat  aures. 

Di  boni  dent  nunc  tibi  quse  preecamur 
Sospitem  ac  reddant  populo  dolenti : 
Hostium  turmas  subito  repellas 

Casde  furentes. 

Te  manent  plausus,  favor  et  benignus 
Omnium  quotquot  tenet  ora  nostra 
Quo  ruit  ssevus  sanie  profusus 

Indicus  olim. 

H.   P.   W. 


Descendants  of   John  Fenwicke.  — 
Where  can  I  find  a  genealogical  account 
of  the  descendants  of  John  Fenwicke,  the 
early  Quaker  settler  in  New  Jersey  ? 


Richard  Cox. — A  New  Jersey  Masonic 
Committee  appointed  to  write  a  Masonic 
History  of  that  State,  report  that  Riehard 
Cox  was  the  first  Provincial  Grand  Master 
of  America.  Where  was  Henry  Price  at 
that  time  ? 

Prison  Walls  in  Boston. — The  city  of 
Boston  has  recently  come  into  possession 
of  an  estate  upon  Cross  street,  near  North 

street,  upon  which  is  a  building  that  the 
tradition  of  the  neighborhood  says  was  at 
a  time  prior  to  the  Revolution  the  Town 
Jail.  The  walls,  from  their  thickness  and 
appearance,  would  seem  to  warrant  the 
statement  of  its  use.  As  the  city  authori- 
ties are  about  to  remove  the  building,  it 
occurs  to  the  writer  that  some  of  our  citi- 
zens may  know  the  facts  in  regard  to  it, 
and,  if  so,  would  be  glad  to  examine  the 
premises  before  the  ancient  edifice  is  taken 
down.  Can  any  antiquarian  enlighten  us 
in  regard  to  this  subject? 

A  Political  Lesson. — Can  any  of  your 
readers  give  an  explanation  of  the  follow- 
ing political  caricature?  The  plate  is  a 
well  executed  mezzotint,  ten  by  thirteen 
inches,  entitled  "  A  Political  Lesson."  It 
represents  a  richly  dressed  old  gentleman 
booted  and  spurred,  just  thrown  from  his 
horse,  his  head  striking  a  broken  mile- 
stone, on  which  is  inscribed  :  "To  Boston, 
VI.  miles."  His  hat  and  wig  are  on  the 
ground.  Near  the  milestone  is  a  finger- 
board inscribed  :  "  To  Salem."  The  sky 
looks  loving.  Besides  the  table,  the  fol- 
lowing is  under  the  plate:  J.  Dixon,  inve- 
nit  et  fecit.  Published  7  Septr.  1774.  Pr. 
Is.  6d.  Printed  for  John  Bowles,  at  No. 
13  in  Cornhill. 

A  Statue  on  the  Battery,  New  York. 
— I  recently  heard  an  old  resident  assert, 
quite  positively,  that  many  years  since  there 
stood  on  the  Battery  an  equestrian  statue, 
in  marble  or  bronze,  of  some  public  charac- 
ter. I  can  find  no  corroboration  of  this 
statement.  I  suppose  it  must  be  a  mistake 
for  the  Pitt  statue  recently  presented  to 
the  Historical  Society.  From  the  age  of 
my  informant,  it  could  not  be  the  old  leaden 

affair  of  King  George.     Can  any  reader 
enlighten  me  ? 


The  Arms  of  Harberdinck.  —  What 
has  become  of  the  arms  of  Jan  Harber- 
dinck, which  used  to  be  back  of  the  pulpit 
in  the  North  Dutch  Church,  New  York  ? 
It  is  a  pity  to  see  the  mementos  of  old 
benefactors  of  churches  thus  displaced. 






Witim  Whams. — (Vol.  vilL,  p.  79.)  A 
copy  of  this  work,  with  the  original  con- 
tract for  publishing  it,  in  the  handwriting 
of  S.  G.  Goodrich  (Peter  Parley),  and 
signed  by  him,  Nov.  15,  1827,  is  in  my 
possession.  At  that  time  the  contents  of 
the  book  had  not  been  written,  but  before 
the  ensuing  Christmas,  less  than  thirty 
days,  the  whole  matter  was  handed  to  the 
publisher.  The  authors,  who  were  mem- 
bers of  a  Literary  Club,  were  James  W. 
Miller,  Oliver  C.  Wyman,  Moses  Whitney, 
Jr.,  and  Henry  J.  Finn.  All  of  these  gen- 
tlemen, except  the  second  named,  are  de- 
ceased. Of  Mr.  Miller,  it  is  said  that  he 
has  written  some  of  the  sweetest  verses  in 
the  English  language ;  the  second  named 
is  well  known  as  one  of  our  best  writers 
of  satiric  and  humorous  verse  ;  the  third 
was  a  well  known  contributor  to  our 
magazines  and  to  the  daily  press ;  the  last 
named — the  lamented  Finn — the  inimi- 
table actor  and  artist,  was  lost  in  the  ill- 
fated  steamer  Lexington,  January  13, 
1840.  The  designs  for  the  cover  and  the 
tail-piece,  as  well  as  the  verses  on  the  title- 
page,  and  the  12,  19,  22,  27,  30,  and  31 
articles  were  written  by  him.  The  16  and 
37  were  by  Mr.  Whitney.  The  5,  7,  9,  15, 
20,  29,  33,  34,  36,  39,  40,  and  43,  were  by 
Mr.  Miller;  the  remaining  twenty-five  arti- 
cles wrere  by  Mr.  Wyman.  Soon  after  its 
issue  here,  a  London  firm  re-published  it, 
and  it  met  with  a  ready  sale. 

Mr.  Wyman  edited  "  Poems  and  Sketch- 
es," by  James  W.  Miller,  with  a  notice  of 
his  life,  in  1829. 

Of  the  three  writers  above  named,  who 
are  deceased,  their  companion  can  truly 

"  Green  be  the  turf  above  them, 
Friends  of  my  better  days ; 
None  knew  them  but  to  love  them, 
None  named  them  but  to  praise." 

J.  C. 
Boston.  March,  1S64. 

Thomas  Odiorne. — Is  the  folio  win  <r  his 

only  work  ? 

The  Progress  of  Refinement. 

A  Poem 

in  three  Books,  to  which  are  added  a 
Poem  on  Fame  and  Miscellanies.  By 
Thomas  Odiorne.  Boston  :  Printed  by 
Young  &  Etheridge,  opposite  to  the  en- 
trance of  the  Branch  Bank,  State  street, 
1791.  J.  c. 


Swittiw  ani  l($eir  JjnrmMngs. 


Chicago  Historical  Society. — The  monthly 
meeting  was  held  March  15th,  W.  L.  Newberry 
Esq.,  President,  in  the  chair.  The  total  collec- 
tions for  the  past  two  months  (including  135 
bound  books)  were  1,053,  from  106  contribu- 
tions. They  embraced  the  entire  documentary 
publications  of  the  Provincial  Government  of 
Canada,  1858-1863,  with  numerous  publications 
from  the  United  States  and  Great  Britain. 

The  correspondence  for  the  same  time — ninety- 
one  letters  written,  and  forty  received — was 
submitted.  Letters  accepting  membership  were 
read  from  Mr.  Alpheus  Todd,  Librarian  of  the 
"  Parliament  Library,"  Quebec,  Hon.  Henry 
S.  Baird  of  Wisconsin,  and  Mr.  N.  S.  Cushing 
of  Chicago. 

A  valuable  paper  was  presented  at  the  meet- 
ing from  Prof  H.  Bannister,  of  the  "  Garrett 
Biblical  Institute,"  Illinois,  being  a  translation 
from  the  German  of  J.  G.  Miiller,  executed  by 
Prof.  Bannister,  of  an  essay  on  "  The  Idea  of  the 
Great  Spirit  among  the  Indians  of  North  Ameri- 
ca" elaborately  written,  with  comprehensive 
references  to  authorities. 

Three  papers  were  then  read,  obligingly  pre- 
pared for  the  society  by  Hon.  Henry  S.  Baird. 
an  early  and  esteemed  resident  of  Green  Bay, 

Their  titles  were  as  follows :  1.  "  The  Early 
Commerce  and  Navigation  on  the  Upper  or 
Northwestern  Lakes;"  2.  "Indian  Tribes, 
Chiefs  and  Treaties;"  3.  "The  Green  Bay 
Fisheries — a  Sketch." 

The  several  papers  called  forth  interesting 
remarks,  especially  from  the  President,  who  was 
requested  to  put  in  writing  his  personal  recollec- 
tions of  the  early  commerce,  settlement,  and 
improvements  of  the  Upper  Lake  region,  for  the 
benefit  of  the  society.  Forcible  remarks  were 
also  made  on  the  naii  mat  importance  of  securing 
full,  reliable,  and  detailed  statistics  and  particu- 




lars  of  the  "  Fisheries  of  the  Great  Lakes" — an 
industry  whose  products,  it  is  believed,  much 
surpass  any  estimate  now  formed. 

Mr.  Band  reports  the  annual  catch  "  on  G-reen 
Bay  proper" — exclusive  of  the  large  fishing  es- 
tablishments situated  on  Lake  Michigan,  north 
and  south  of  the  entrance  to  Green  Bay,  also  on 
the  Fox  Eiver  above  the  Bay,  and  Winnebago 
Lake,  where  large  quantities  are  yearly  taken 
and  salted  for  export  or  consumed  at  home — at 
30,000  to  35,000  barrels. 

The  catch — classified  as  to  relative  quantities 
taken — he  thus  enumerates:  1.  White  Fish; 
2.  Trout;  3.  Herring;  4.  Pickerel;  5.  Black 
and  White  Bass,  Catfish,  Pike,  Eed-Horse,  Suck- 
ers, about  equal.  Other  varieties  taken  are 
Sturgeon,  Mullet,  Muskanongee,  with  a  great 
variety  of  "  Pan-fish."  The  Trout  abounds  in 
the  small  streams  on  the  west  side  of  Green  Bay. 

Mr.  Baird  gave  interesting  details  of  the  modes 
of  taking  fish  adopted  by  the  Indians,  and  at 
the  present  day,  noticing  the  general  complaint 
against  the  use  of  "  pound  nets,"  as  very  de- 
structive to  the  fish,  many  of  which  are  caught 
and  perish  in  the  meshes  of  the  nets,  corrupting 
the  surrounding  water. 

The  recent  decease  of  Dr.  Franklin  Scammon 
— a  founder,  late  Treasurer,  and  a  Besident  Life 
Member  of  the  society ;  also  first  Professor  of 
Botany  in  the  University  of  Chicago — was 
announced  by  the  Secretary  ;  who  was  followed 
by  impressive  remarks  from  E.  B.  McCagg,  Esq. 
Mr.  McCagg  submitted  resolutions  expressive 
of  the  high  and  honorable  esteem  in  which  the 
deceased  was  held,  which  were  unanimously 

ment  by  the  aborigines ;  and  from  the  fact  that 
they  are  invariably  so  found — though  now  mostly 
killed  out  by  sawdust  deposits — he  argued  that 
these  shell  deposits  were  formed  by  human 
hands,  the  clams  having  been  gathered  for  food. 
In  the  evening  Bishop  Burgess,  of  Gardiner, 
read  a  paper  contributed  by  Hon.  Wm.  Willis 
of  this  city — Mr.  W.  not  being  present — on 

A  letter  was  received  from  Hon.  W.  P.  Haines, 
of  Biddeford,  accompanying  an  elaborately  car- 
ved powder-horn,  the  work  of  a  soldier  at  Fort 
Wm.  Henry,  on  Lake  George,  during  the  old 
j  French  and  Indian  war.     The   presentation  of 
I  the  relic  to  the  society  was  made. 

Judge  Bourne,  of  Kennebunk,  read  a  long, 
1  elaborate,  and  very  able  paper  on  the  Popham 
I  Settlement,  in  reply  to  Thornton,  of  Boston, 
|  who  has  argued  that  a  Popham  colony  was  only 
a  penal  colony.  Judge  B.  controverted  this 



Maine  Historical  Society. — Augusta,  March, 
1864. — The  Maine  Historical  Society  held  a 
meeting  in  the  Court-House. 

Judge  Williamson,  of  Belfast,  read  a  paper  in 
"the  afternoon  on  Slavery  in  Maine,  giving  ac- 
count of  the  kidnapping  of  Indians,  and  show- 
ing that  in  early  times  negro  slaves  were  held  in 
what  is  now  the  State  of  Maine,  at  Kittery  and 
as  far  east  as  Pownalboro. 

Rev.  Mr.  Ballard,  of  Brunswick,  read  a  paper 
relating  to  Indian  Treaties. 

Rev.  D.  Cushman,  of  Warren,  an  interesting 
paper  on  the  Clam  Shell  Deposits  of  the  State, 
showing  that,  like  the  oyster  shell  deposits  on 
the  Damariscotta,  they  are  all  found  in  pleasant 
localities,  on  southern  declivities,  on  just  such 
spots  as  would  naturally  be  selected  for  settle- 

Massachusetts  Historical  Society. — Boston, 
Feb. — A  stated  monthly  meeting  of  the  Massa- 
chusetts Historical  Society  was  held  at  their 
rooms,  the  President,  Hon.  Robert  C.  Winthrop, 
in  the  chair.  After  the  transaction  of  the  usual 
business,  the  President  paid  a  tribute  to  the 
memory  of  the  late  Frederick  Tudor.  We 
copy  the  closing  portion  of  the  eulogy : 

As  a  cultivator  of  fruits  and  flowers,  and  trees, 
too,  at  Nahant,  he  not  only  placed  himself  in 
the  front  rank  of  horticulturists,  but  he  gave 
a  signal  instance  of  how  much  could  be  done  by 
ingenuity,  perseverance,  and  skill,  in  overcoming 
the  most  formidable  obstacles  of  soil  and  climate, 
and  obtaining  a  victory  over  nature  herself. 

It  has  been  said  that  New  England  is  a  region 
of  rocks  and  ice.  Mr.  Tudor  seemed  willing  to 
accept  it  as  such,  and  to  be  resolved  that  rocks 
and  ice  should  be  the  main  ministers  to  his  own 
fortune,  and  through  him  to  the  health  and  hap- 
piness of  others. 

I  may  not  omit  to  add  that  while  New  Eng- 
land was  his  chosen  and  constant  home,  he  was 
a  man  of  enlarged  and  earnest  patriotism.  Tak- 
ing pride  in  his  father's  Revolutionary  services, 
and  inheriting  his  place  in  the  society  of  the 
Cincinnati,  he  stood  fast  to  the  Stars  and  Stripes 
and  to  the  Union  cause,  of  which  they  are  the 
honored  emblem,  in  adversity  as  well  as  in  pros- 
perity ;  and  nowhere  has  our  National  banner 
been  more  frequently  or  more  eagerly  displayed 
on  every  fit  occasion  during  the  past  three  years, 
than  from  the  windows  of  his  beautiful  residence 




in  Bacon  street.  He  was  of  a  spirit  to  have  borne 
it  bravely  to  the  battle-field,  had  an  occasion 
occurred  before  age  had  impaired  the  vigor  of 
his  arm. 

Nor  did  he  fail  to  observe  and  to  honor  true 
heroism  in  other  parts  of  the  world  as  well  a? 
in  our  own.  It  is  an  interesting  fact,  that  when 
the  tidings  came  to  us  from  the  far  East  of  the 
noble  endurance  and  brilliant  achievements  of 
the  lamented  Havelock,  Mr.  Tudor,  without 
calling  any  one  to  his  counsel,  or  allowing  any 
one  to  share  the  cost,  caused  a  magnificent  sword 
to  be  made  at  Springfield,  and  prepared  it  with  a 
suitable  inscription  to  be  presented  to  that  great 
Christian  hero.  It  was  unhappily  too  late  to 
reach  him  before  his  death. 

It  only  remains  for  me  to  offer,  in  behalf  of  the 
Standing  Committee,  the  customary  resolution  : 

Resolved,  That  the  Massachusetts  Historical 
Society  have  learned  with  deep  regret  the  death 
of  their  valued  associate,  Frederick  Tudor,  Esq., 
and  that  the  President  be  directed  to  name  one 
of  our  members  to  prepare  a  memoir  of  him  for 
our  proceedings. 

The  resolution  was  unanimously  adopted. 
Hon.  Emory  Washburne  read  an  elabora'e  paper 
on  villenage  and  slavery  in  England,  which  was 
followed  by  an  interesting  discussion  on  this  sub- 
ject, in  which  Horace  Gray,  Jr.,  Esq.,  Hon. 
James  Savage,  and  Hon.  G.  T.  Davis  took  part. 
The  Society  then  adjourned. 

New  England  Historic  Genealogical  So 
ciety. — Boston,  Wednesday,  March  2. — A  stated 
meeting  was  held  this  afternoon  at  three  o'clock, 
the  President,  Dr.  Lewis,  in  the  chair. 

Rev.  M.  Bradlee,  the  corresponding  secretary, 
reported  letters  accepting  membership  from  the 
following  persons: — Solomon  Piper,  E.  B.  Fos- 
ter, Edward  S.  Rand,  Rev.  Lucius  Eastman, 
William  Whitwell,  of  Boston, — Henry  B. 
Humphrey,  of  Thomaston,  Me.,  and  George 
H.  Brown,  of  Groton,  Mass.,  as  resident  mem- 
bers; and  Alden  J.  Spooner,  of  Brooklyn, 
N.  Y.,  as  a  corresponding  member. 

Mr.  Sheppard,  the  librarian,  reported  that 
during  the  last  month  donations  had  been  re- 
ceived of  101  volumes,  G6  pamphlets,  a  port- 
folio of  manuscripts  from  the  estate  of  the  late 
George  Eddy  Henshaw,  and  an  invoice  of  1790 
of  a  Japan  merchant,  written  in  Dutch.  Seventy- 
five  of  the  above  volumes  were  the  gift  of  the  [ 
librarian  from  his  own  library. 

Mr.  Trask,  the  historiographer,  read  a  memoir  j 
of  the  late  Andrew  Henshaw  Ward,  author  of  j 
the  History  of  Shrewsbury,  &c,  a  resident  | 
member,  who  died  at  Newtonville,  February  I 
18,  in  his  eightieth  year. 

John   H.  Sheppard,  the  librarian,  who  was  a ' 

classmate  of  Mr.  Ward  at  Harvard  College, 
offered  the  following  resolution,  which  he  pre- 
faced by  some  remarks  upon  the  character  of  his 
friend.  He  esteemed  it  the  highest  praise  that 
could  be  bestowed  upon  a  man  to  s.iy  that  he 
had  been  a  useful  member  of  society.  Mr. 
Ward  he  considered  eminently  such  a  man  : — 

liesulved,  That  in  the  recent  and  sudden 
death  of  Andrew  H.  Ward,  Esq.,  of  West  New- 
ton, we  deplore  the  loss  of  a  venerable  and  very 
early  member  of  the  society ;  and  that  as  a 
benefactor,  genealogist,  and  courteous  gentle- 
man, we  shall  long  cherish  the  memory  of  this 
excellent  man. 

This  resolution  was  unanimously  adopted. 

Prof.  Calvin  E.  Stone,  D.D.,  of  Andover,  read 
a  paper  in  which  he  desciibed  the  life  and  doc- 
trines of  the  celebrated  Jonathan  Edwards.  For 
more  than  an  hour  he  held  an  unusually  large 
audience  in  profound  attention.  The  paper  was 
an  erudite,  eloquent,  and  masterly  production — 
a  voice  ex  cathedra. 

He  began  wTith  a  fascinating  picture  of  the  angel- 
like character  of  that  young  Christian  of  seventeen 
— Miss  Pierpont,  of  New  Haven,  whom  Edwards 
married  ;  and  proceeded  to  give  a  brief  narrative 
of  Mr.  Edwards's  life,  and  the  extraordinary  in- 
fluence of  his  ministerial  labours ;  perhaps  a 
purer  character  has  never  adorned  the  history  of 
New  England.  He  then  undertook  the  elabo- 
rate task  of  expounding  his  great  work  on  the 
"  Will."  After  giving  some  account  of  his  very 
numerous  writings,  some  of  which  have  never 
been  published,  he  gave  an  exposition  of  his 
theology  and  its  over-shadowing  influence  in  the 
early  Divinity  schools  ;  then  of  Samuel  Hopkin*, 
his  successor,  whose  famous  creed  for  a  term 
darkened  the  religious  world ;  then  of  Joseph 
Bellamy,  the  successor  of  Hopkins,  who  took  up 
the  line  of  religious  metaphysics  and  went  on  ; 
and  then  of  Nathaniel  Emmons,  one  of  the  best 
and  most  devout  of  men,  at  the  head  of  another 
system.  The  views  of  Dr.  Timothy  Dwight,  of 
whose  theology  he  spoke  in  exalted  terms;  of 
Dr.  Leonard  Woods,  Dr.  Lyman  Beecher,  and 
Dr.  Nathaniel  W.  Taylor,  all  eminent  divines 
and  at  the  head  of  numerous  partisans,  were  all 
set  forth,  and  Prof.  Stowe  concluded  after  all,  that 
these  systems,  and  all  other  systems  of  divinity, 
were  mere  human  inventions,  and  in  their  nature 
cannot  rest  on  any  immutable  law  ;  because  they 
have  been  and  always  will  be  changing ;  leaving 
man's  hope  of  salvation  on  the  belief  and  prac- 
tice of  a  few  simple  truths. 

Rev.  William  S.  Bai  tlet,  of  Chelsea,  proposed 
that  the  society  celebrate,  on  the  23d  of  April 
next,  the  two  hundredth  anniversary  of  the  birth 
of  Shakspeare.  In  England  appropriate  notice 
will  be  taken  of  this  event;  but  he  had  yet  to 




learn  that  any  measures  had  been  taken  in  this 
country  to  celebrate  it.  Should  it  be  suffered  to 
pass  by  without  notice  in  this  western  world,  the 
neglect,  he  thought,  could  not  fail  to  cause  us 
disgrace  ;  for  Shakspeare  belongs  to  us  as  much 
as  to  the  land  of  his  nativity,  and  he  has  a  much 
larger  number  of  readers  in  the  United  States 
than  in  England. 

The  matter  was    referred  for   action   to   the 
Board  of  Directors. 


American  Numismatic  Society. — New  York, 
March  11. — This  Society  held  a  special  meeting 
on  Friday  evening,  for  the  election  of  officers 
for  the  ensuing  year.  The  following  gentlemen 
were  elected,  the  election  in  each  case  being 
afterwards  made  unanimous  : — 

President — Frank  H.  Norton  (Astor  Library). 
Vice-President — Dr.  Geo.  H.  Perine. 
Recording  Secretary — Jas.  Oliver. 
Corresponding    Secretary — Francis    A.  Wood, 
68  E.  17th  st. 

Treasurer — J.  Hanna. 
Curator  and  Librarian — Edward  Groh. 
The  Society  took  up  the  request  of  the 
Committee  of  the  Metropolitan  Fair  for  a 
loan  for  exhibition,  laid  over  from  the  last 
meeting.  On  motion,  the  Society  resolved  to 
send  a  portion  of  its  collection  of  coins  and 
medals  as  a  loan  to  the  Fair ;  and  the  President 
appointed  Mes-rs.  Hanna,  E.  Groh,  Perine,  and 
Wood  a  committee  to  carry  the  resolution  into 

A  number  of  donations  of  coins,  Confederate 
and  other  notes,  etc.,  were  made  by  various 
gentlemen,  when  the  meeting  adjourned. 

This  Society  has  now  fully  reorganized,  and 
holds  its  regular  meetings  on  the  second  and 
fourth  Thursdays  of  each  month,  in  the  Ladies' 
Reading  Room  of  the  Society's  Library. 

Its  collection  of  coins  and  medals  comprises 
upwards  of  1000  specimens,  and  it  also  possesses 
a  library  of  about  150  volumes  and  pamphlets. 

Any  information  in  regard  to  coins  or  medals 
will  be  cheerfully  afforded  by  the  Society, 
through  its  Secretary,  who  will  also  receive  ap- 
plications for  membership. 

Buffalo  Historical  Society — Buffalo,  Feb. 
1864. — The  weekly  club  meetings  of  the  Society 
have  been  held  as  follows :  January  21st,  at 
Rev.  Dr.  Chester's,  when  a  paper  was  read  by 
La'irentius  G.  Sellstedt,  on  the  Life  and  Character 
of  the  late  Win.  J.  Wilgus,  as  an  artist;  January 

a  paper  on  the  Manufacture  of  Iron  in  Buffalo ; 
February  1st,  at  S.  S.  Jewett's,  when  a  paper 
was  read  by  Colonel  William  A.  Bird,  on  the 
Boundary  Survey  between  the  United  States 
and  the  British  Provinces. 

George  R.  Babcock  said  that  a  very  important 
era  in  our  lake  commerce,  was  the  placing  of 
the  first  steamboat  on  the  Upper  Lakes — the 
Walk-in- the- Water.  In  view  of  the  immense 
importance  which  the  steamboat  interest  has 
since  attained,  it  seems  surprising  that  persons 
yet  in  active  business  among  us  saw  that  first 
boat  built.  Henry  Daw,  of  this  city,  was  one  of 
them,  and  he  moved  that  Mr.  Daw,  at  his  con- 
venience, collect  the  facts  in  regard  to  the  build- 
ing of  that  vessel,  and  her  history  up  to  the  time 
of  her  shipwreck ;  which  motion  was  carried. 

Mr.  Daw  remarked  that,  when  at  Detroit 
recently,  he  saw  at  the  rooms  of  the  Historical 
Society  there,  a  drawing  of  the  Walk-in- the- 
Water,  made  by  a  young  man  who  was  a  passen- 
ger on  the  boat  at  the  time  she  was  lost. 

G.  W.  Clinton  thought  it  was  desirable  for 
the  Society  to  have  a  picture  of  that  first  steam- 
boat, and  also  one  of  the  last  of  the  great  side- 
wheel  steamers,  the  City  of  Buffalo. 

H.  W.  Rogers  desired  to  see  likenesses  of  all 
the  old  citizens  in  the  rooms  of  the  Society — of 
the  Mayors,  Gen.  Potter,  Col.  Blossom,  B.  D. 
Coe,  etc.  He  said  that  Dr.  Winne  had  a  pencil 
portrait  of  the  late  John  Root,  and  on  his  motion 
it  was  voted  that  application  be  made  to  Dr. 
Winne  for  it. 

The  following  gentlemen  were  elected  corre- 
sponding members : 

Austin  Flint,  M.D.,  New  York;  Chas.  A.  Lee, 
M.D.,  Peekskill ;  E.  M.  Moore,  M.D.,  Roches- 
ter ;  Wm.  H.  Bull,  Bath,  N.  Y. ;  Henry  R.  Myga't, 
Oxford,  N.  Y. ;  J.  Watts  DePeyster,  Tivoli,  N. 
Y. ;  Frank  H.  Hamilton,  M.D.,  New  Yo  k. 
Also  as  honorary  members :  Rev.  Samuel  M. 
Fisher,  D.D.,  Clinton,  N.  Y.;  Hiland  Hall, 
Bennington,  Vt. 


Historical  Society  of  Pennsylvania. — Phi- 
ladelphia, March,  1864. — The  Society  held  its 
regular  monthly  meeting  at  their  Hall  in 
the  Athenaeum.  An  unusually  large  number 
of  members  were  present,  attracted  as  well 
by  the  interest  now  so  frequently  had  in  the 
proceedings,  as  by  the  anticipation  that  pos- 
sibly some  definite  initiatory  decision  might  be 
had  on  the  subject  of  a  New  Historical  Hall. 
The  matter  had  been  introduced  .at  the  late 
25th,  at  M.  P.  Bush's,  when  John  Wilkeson  read  '  annual  meeting,  where  some  gentlemen  gave  it 




as  their  opinion  that  a  sum  could  be  raised  suffi- 
ciently large  to  erect  a  hall  somewhat  like  that 
of  the  New  York  Historical  Society  at  that  mo- 

The  following  named  gentlemen  were  appoint- 
ed a  committee  to  have  general  charge  for  the 
building  of  a  hall  for  the  Society  : — Hon.  Joseph 
R  Inger.-oll,  Hon.  John  M.  Read,  Joseph  Harri- 
son, Charles  Macalestor,  Joseph  Patterson,  John 
Jordan,  J.  Francis  Fisher,  J.  William  Wallace, 
Wm.  Duane,  Wm.  Bucknell,  J.  Morris  Wain,  A. 
G  Cattell,  A.  G.  Coffin,  A.  G.  Fell,  H.  N.  Brough- 
ton,  and  Colonel  G.  W.  Childs. 

Colonel  Childs  offered  a  resolution,  providing 
for  the  appointment  of  a  committee  to  procure 
the  photographs  of  recent  battle-fields,  which 
was  unanimously  adopted. 

A  list  of  valuable  historical  contributions  to 
the  Society  was  read  by  the  Secretary. 

Mr.  William  Dewey,  of  Philadelphia,  present- 
ed a  curious  manuscript  formerly  owned  by  Mr. 
Anthony  Benezet,  and  apparently  all  in  the 
handwriting  of  that  well  known  and  excellent 
citizen  of  ancient  Philadelphia.  It  was  a  book 
of  the  discipline  of  Friends,  and  went  back  to 
a.d.  1719.  Among  the  queries  which  Friends 
directed  to  be  made  in  1747  are  these : 

u  Are  Friends  careful  to  attend  their  meetings 
both  on  First-days  and  other  days  of  the  week  ? 
Do  they  refrain  sleeping  in  meeting,  or  do  they 
accustom  themselves  to  snuffing  or  chewing  to- 
bacco in  meeting  ?  Are  there  any  Friends  that 
frequent  music  houses,  or  go  to  dancing  or  gam- 
ing ?  Do  Friends  observe  the  advice  of  former 
meetings,  not  to  encourage  the  importation  of 
negroes,  nor  buy  them  after  imported  ?" 

Mr.  H.  G.  Jones,  the  Corresponding  Secretary, 
read  the  following  letter  from  John  William 
Wallace,  Esq.,  lately  elected  a  Vice-President : — 
No.  728  Spruce  street,  Feb.  22,  1864.— Sir :— I 
have  received  your  communication  of  the  10th 
instant,  informing  me  of  my  election  as  a  Vice- 
President  of  the  Historical  Society  of  Pennsyl- 
vania for  the  year  1864-5. 

I  am  obliged  to  the  members  of  the  Histori- 
cal Society.  Not  having  had  at  any  time  active 
relations  to  the  body,  I  receive  it  as  a  mark  of 
their  good-will. 

At  no  time,  I  think,  of  our  national  history, 
so  much  as  now,  have  duties  fallen  on  those 
persons  who  form  the  Historical  Associations  of 
the  country.  The  great,  immediate,  and  practi- 
cal interests  of  the  conflict  going  on  about  us 
are  so  absorbing  that  we  are  scarcely  conscious 
of  anything  in  the  scene  but  a  great,  immediate, 
and  practical  issue.  In  some  senses,  it  is  well 
that  we  should  see  no  more. 

Yet  in  the  moral  interest  of  it  all,  in  the  dis- 
play of  armies  which  it  exhibits,  in  the  scenes 

and  occurrences  of  battle,  which  stand  out  as 
upon  a  foreground,  it  cannot  be  doubted  that 
the  events  of  the  day  which  is  passing  over  us 
are  destined  to  form  for  succeeding  ages  a  theme 
of  inexhaustible  and  still  deepening  interest. 

We  are,  I  suppose,  so  much,  ourselves,  par- 
takers in  these  events ;  we  are  so  entirely  of 
this  age  and  of  its  type,  that  we  are  not  capable, 
perhaps,  of  estimating,  in  their  full  truth  and 
genuine  character,  either  the  events  themselves, 
or  the  persons  who  appear  to  originate  and  give 
them  definition.  We  see  no  great  deal,  perhaps, 
in  either  persons  or  events,  which  resembles  the 
type  of  that  heroism  and  of  that  statesmanship 
which  history  has  thus  far  considered  the  Ame- 
rican type,  dignified  and  remarkable  type,  no 
doubt,  and  one  which  perhaps  will  never  be  re- 
produced ;  the  type,  I  mean,  of  that  day  which 
achieved  our  Independence,  and  established  our 
Constitution;  the  day  of  1776  and  1787. 

Yet  it  cannot  be  denied,  I  apprehend,  that 
both  the  events  and  the  men  of  this  day  have 
their  own  type ;  a  remarkable  type  also  ;  one 
which,  if  it  finds  no  exemplar  in  any  previous 
age  or  in  any  other  country,  is  probably  not  the 
less  a  genuine  type  in  its  relations  to  greatness. 
It  is  a  type  cast  in  the  mould  of  a  new  and  in- 
dividual creation  ;  the  product  of  that  indigenous 
and  self-vital  spirit  which  inhabits  a  vast  country 
of  popular  institutions ;  a  spirit  of  power  strong 
in  its  own  strength. 

Time  alone,  "  in  whose  train  Truth  walks  ever 
slow  and  late,"  can  reveal  how  far  the  whole,  or 
part  of  this,  is  true. 

In  the  meantime,  sir,  it  seems  to  me  that  the 
Historical  Society  of  Pennsylvania  rightly  en- 
larges its  designs  and  labors.  Not  forgetting 
the  ancient  duties  of  the  past,  and  continuing 
still  to  rescue  from  dumb  forgetfulness  the  re- 
cords of  earlier  days,  it  is  of  late,  in  some  sort, 
"leaving  the  things  that  are  behind,"  in  order 
to  preserve  for  future  times  our  now  present 
fame  and  records ;  records  and  a  fame  which, 
when  this  present  shall  have  become  the  past, 
will  thus  stand  forth  genuine,  undimmed,  and 

The  Society,  I  believe,  is  now  corecting,  in 
justice  to  her  children,  whatever  illustrates 
great  passing  events,  and  whatever  conduces  to 
the  true  appreciation  of  distinguished  living  cha- 
racter among  them.  Trophies  of  Gettysburg 
which  are  now  gathered  in  its  halls  prove  this. 
The  zeal  with  which  she  has  co-operated  in  esta- 
blishing the  State  Cemetery  on  that  battle-field 
is  an  evidence  in  the  same  direction.  The  pro- 
position lately  made,  I  understand,  for  the  erec- 
tion of  a  new  Historical  Hall  and  for  placing 
the  historical  honor  of  the  Commonwealth 
with  greater  external   dignity  before  its  peo- 



[April,  1864. 

pie,  includes  perhaps   and  illustrates  the  same 

Certainly,  in  a  country  like  ours,  where  every- 
thing which  belongs  to  individual  or  family  dis- 
tinction is  fugitive,  where  neither  the  greatest 
of  our  statesmen  nor  the  most  successful  of  our 
Generals  can  become  the  founder  of  a  powerful 
and  enduring  house,  it  is  the  duty  of  our  histo- 
rical societies  to  collect  and  preserve  the  muni- 
ments of  true  greatness  wheresoever  exhibited 
throughout  the  country.  History,  in  her  own 
time,  will  assume  the  pen  and  immortalize  it  for 
the  nations. 

Were  the  Historical  Society  of  Pennsylvania 
less  fortunate,  sir,  in  its  President,  or  were  my 
fellow  officers  less  able  to  discharge  the  duties 
in  his  rare  and  always  regretted  absence,  I 
should  hardly  be  willing  to  accept  the  post  you 
offer  me,  when  duties,  such  as  those  I  speak  of, 
attend  its  offices  of  trust.  As  it  is,  sir,  I  receive 
the  mark  of  your  kindness  with  thanks,  and 
with  the  expectation  of  indulgence  fcr  my  dis- 
charge of  its  labors. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be,  with  great  truth,  your 
obedient  servant, 

John  William  Wallace. 

Horatio  Gates  Jones,  Esq.,  Corresponding  Se- 
cretary of  the  Historical  Society  of  Pennsylva- 

Mr.  H.  G\  Jones,  the  Corresponding  Secretary, 
exhibited  an  original  unpublished  letter  of  Gene- 
ral Washington,  in  these  wods.  The  address, 
fortunately  for  the  fame  of  the  person  to  whom 
it  had  been  directed,  had  been  torn  off : — 

Headquatiters,  MORR18TOWN,  ) 
22d  February,  1777.  J 

Sir: — The  cry  of  want  of  provisions  comes 
to  me  from  all  quarters.  General  Maxwell 
writes  word  that  his  men  are  starving.  Gene- 
ral Johnson,  of  Maryland,  yesterday,  informed 
me  that  his  people  draw  none.  This  difficulty, 
I  understand,  prevails  also  at  Chatham.  What, 
sir,  is  the  meaning  of  this?  And  why  were 
you  so  desirous  of  excluding  o'hers  from  this 
business,  when  you  are  unable  to  accomplish  it 
yourself?  Consider,  I  beseech  you,  the  conse- 
quences of  this  neglect ;  and  exert  yourself  to 
remedy  the  evil  and  complaints,  which  cannot  be 
less  fatal  to  the  army  than  disagreeable  1  o 
Sir.  your  very  humble  servant, 

Go.  Washington. 

After  the  trinsaction  of  a  few  items  of  busi- 
ness of  no  public  interest,  the  meeting  adjourned. 

ing  the  above  name  has  been  organized  in  the 
City  of  Prov.dence  by  a  few  gentlemen  interested 
in  Numismatics. 

In  consideration  that  they  are  as  yet  upon  the 
first  round  of  the  ladder,  their  prospects  are  very 
auspicious,  and  as  the  members  all  manifest  deep 
interest  in  the  cause,  they  hope  to  make  an 
interesting  and  profitable  association. 

The  meetings  are  held  monthly.  The  follow- 
ing are  the  officers  elected  for  the  year  ensu- 

President — Eobert  B.  Chambers;  Vice-Presi- 
dent— George  J.  Paine  ;  Secretary — Desmond 
FitzGerald  ;  Treasurer — Edward  H.  Eobinson ; 
Cabinet  Keeper — Charles  A.  Cooper. 



The  Rhode  Island  Numismatic  Association- 
— Providence,  March  \bth,  1864.    A  society  bear- 

As  a  step  in  bibliographical  progress,  may  be 
noticed  the  first  successful  attempts  at  piinting 
on  vellum  in  this  country.  The  earliest  actual 
specimens  executed  were  three  copies  of  a  rare 
Cromwellian  tract,  Tie  Soldiers  Pocket  Bible — a 
little  manual  of  Scripture  texts,  drawn  up  for 
the  use  of  the  Commonwealth  Army,  and  re- 
printed by  Mr.  George  Livermore,  from  one  of  the 
two  known  copies  that  are  extant.  It  consists 
of  three  or  four  leaves  only.  The  vellum 
copies  were  printed  by  Houghion,  of  Cambridge, 
at  the  well  known  Riverside  press.  More  re- 
cently Prof.  Allen,  of  the  University  of  Penn- 
sylvania, has  caused  two  copies  of  his  Life  of 
Piiilidor  to  be  p  inted  on  velium,  at  the  office 
of  Sherman  and  Co.,  of  Philadelphia.  It  forms 
a  post  octavo  volume  of  some  200  pages,  so  is  a 
considerable  specimen  of  this  elegant  application 
of  the  typographic  art.  We  have  not  heard  how 
far  these  specimens  have  overcome  the  difficul- 
ties presented  by  the  material;  but  both  in 
England  and  France  all  attempts  at  producing 
an  article  like  the  delicate  soft  vellum  of  a  rich 
C;eam  color,  or  ivory  hue,  employed  by  the 
Italian  printers  of  the  fifteenth  and  sixteenth 
centuries,  have  failed,  and  the  secret  of  its 
manufacture  may  be  considered  one  of  the  lost 
arts.  Even  the  bibliographical  enterprise  of  Dr. 
Dibdin  failed  before  the  difficulties  of  a  vellum 
impression  of  any  of  his  wo:  ks.  He  commenced 
to  print  a  single  copy  of  his  Typographical  A><ti- 
qudies  of  England  in  this  style,  but  abandoned 
the  attempt  when  a  few  sheets  had  been  exe- 
cuted, and  the  unique  copy  of  this  specimen,  as 
far  as  it  was  proceeded  with,  is  now  in  the 
choice  library  of  an  amateur  at  Providence,  R.  I. 



Vol.  VIII.] 

MAY,  1864. 

[No.  5. 

(Smntl  g^prtnunt. 


It  is  with  no  ordinary  feelings  of  regret 
that  we  devote  a  small  space  in  the  present 
number  to  the  late  William  Jackson  Davis, 
a  warm  personal  friend,  a  constant  contri- 
butor to  the  magazine,  and  a  historical 
scholar  of  unpretending  and  unambitious 

Although  but  little  known  as  an  author, 
and  never  claiming  to  be  one,  his  rank  as 
a  historical  student  and  local  antiquarian 
was  very  high.  His  knowledge,  patiently 
acquired,  minute,  authentic,  and  impartial, 
was  always  at  the  service  of  other  students. 

In  the  Historical  Magazine  he  always 
took  a  deep  interest,  and  his  contributions 
to  its  columns,  directly  from  his  own  re- 
searches and  obtained  from  other  sources, 
as  in  examining  them  he  came  upon  suit- 
able matter,  were  constant  and  always  of 
the  greatest  value  and  importance ;  while  in 
the  minor  departments  he  was  always 
ready  to  give,  in  Notes  and  Replies,  guid- 
ance to  the  inquirer. 

His  special  study  was  the  history  of  the 
city  of  New  York,  as  to  which  he  was  an 
authority.  He  had  collected  all  the  early 
published  accounts  and  views  of  the  city, 
its  buildings  and  streets,  as  well  as  informa- 
tion and  portraits  of  its  prominent  citizens; 
and  Valentine's  Manuals  of  the  Common 
Council  were  enriched  with  many  of  the 
interesting  views  of  early  New  York  by 
the  zeal  and  industry  of  our  late  friend. 

The  editor  of  that  repository  of  New 
York  city  history  says:  "I  have  been  in- 
debted to  him  for  many  interesting  picto- 

IIIST.  MAG.      VOL.  VIII.  21 

rial  illustrations  connected  with  our  city, 
and  he  also  contributed  to  the  Manual  an- 
nually compiled  by  me  interesting  articles, 
among  others  one  on  the  Old  State  Prison, 
published  in  the  Manual  of  1853  ;  articles 
on  the  King's  Arms  Tavern,  Fraunce's 
Tavern,  and  the  Old  Bridewell,  in  that  of 

Some  of  these  papers,  with  others  by  his 
friend  Henry  B.  Dawson,  Esq.,  were  print- 
ed separately  in  a  small  volume  entitled: 
"Reminiscences  of  New  York  and  its  Vi- 
cinity."    New  York.     1855. 

The  interesting  matter  which  he  collected 
regarding  the  Bridewell  was  also  embodied 
in  a  paper  read  before  the  New  York  His- 
torical Society. 

His  active  connection  with  that  society 
was  not  his  only  historical  labor.  Mr. 
Davis  was,  we  may  say,  the  originator  of 
the  Bradford  Club,  having  suggested  the 
idea  and  the  name,  and  in  conjunction  with 
some,  if  not  all  the  present  members,  issued 
in  1857  "A  Journal  of  the  Expedition  to 
Quebec  in  the  year  1775,  under  the  Com- 
mand of  Colonel  Benedict  Arnold,  by 
James  Melvin,  a  Private  in  Captain  Dear- 
born's Company,"  which  he  edited  and 
prepared  for  the  press;  and  also  in  1858, 
the  "  Diary  of  Washington  ;  from  the  first 
day  of  October,  1789,  to  the  tenth  day  of 
March,  1790,  from  the  Original  Manuscript, 
now  first  printed,"  a  volume  edited  by 
Benson  J.  Lossing,  Esq. 

The  subsequent  publications  bear  the 
name  of  the  Bradford  Club,  and  are  well 

The  Hon.  George  Bancroft,  to  whom 
Mr.  Davis  for  a  considerable  period  acted 
as  private  secretary,  a  position  completely 
hi  accordance  with  his  tastes,  thus  writes 
of  him :  "  The  most  remarkable  trait  in  the 




character  of  our  late  friend,  Mr.  William 
Jackson  Davis,  was  his  sweetness  of  dispo- 
sition. Long  a  sufferer  and  slowly  wasting 
away,  he  never  murmured,  he  never  was 
peevish,  he  never  was  impatient.  He  was 
free  from  guile,  and  never  harbored  a  harsh 
thought,  never  uttered  harsh  words  against 
any  one.  His  delicate,  gentle  nature  loved 
to  lean  on  others,  and  in  his  attachments 
he  was  a  most  devoted  friend.  His  know- 
ledge of  the  special  history  of  the  city  of 
New  York  and  its  environs,  his  minute 
acquaintance  with  their  old  buildings  and 
celebrated  spots,  exceeded  that  of  any  one 
I  have  met,  and  his  memory  was  very 
unusually  retentive.  His  leading  passion 
was  for  books.  He  spent  all  the  money 
that  he  could  spare  from  the  necessary 
subsistence  of  his  family  in  purchasing  rare 
and  curious  ones ;  and  he  was  skilled  in 
illustrating  them.  The  company  he  liked 
best  was  that  of  book  collectors.  His 
happiest  hours  were  those  which  he  passed 
in  reading  the  details  of  by-gone  years; 
and  sometimes  he  would  sit  silent  and  alone 
in  his  room  and  find  pleasure  enough  in  just 
gazing  at  his  own  library,  which  now  forms 
the  chief  part  of  what  he  has  left  for  his 
children.  Writing  very  little  himself,  his 
sympathies  went  out  freely  to  every  one  of 
his  acquaintance  who  was  engaged  in  ma- 
king sketches  of  old  times,  old  fortifica- 
tions, old  mansions,  or  old  traditions. 

"He  was  a  most  faithful  member  of  the 
New  York  Historical  Society,  and  took 
pride  in  its  officers,  its  meetings,  its  papers, 
and  in  every  effort  of  any  and  every  one 
of  its  members." 

Mr.  Davis  was  born  in  Queens  County, 
December  20,  1818.  Losing  his  mother 
while  an  infant,  he  did  not  escape  the  con- 
sequences of  a  loss  of  maternal  care,  which 
no  other,  even  the  most  affectionate,  can 
replace.  He  grew  up  by  no  means  strong, 
and  was  forced  by  his  precarious  health  to 
abandon  the  business  of  engraving,  to 
which  he  first  applied  himself. 

Employment  in  one  of  the  offices  of  the 
municipal  government  enabled  him  to  in- 
dulge his  antiquarian  taste,  and  he  soon 
became  an  impassioned  student  of  the  his- 
tory of  the  great  city. 

He  died  in  New  York  on  the  26th  day  of 
March,  1864. 

Mr.  Davis's  library ,though  comparatively 
small,  was  well  chosen  and  confined  almost 
exclusively  to  a  few  historical  departments. 
Besides  several  of  the  earlier  works  on 
America  and  histories  of  the  French  war, 
it  embraced  all  the  important  histories  of 
the  Revolution,Warren,  Andrews,  Ramsay, 
Murray,  Botta,  the  Memoirs  of  Lee, 
Heath*  Thatcher,  Simcoe,  Reidesel,  Moody, 
Gano,  Dring,  Andross,  Sherburne,  Willet : 
biographies  of  all  the  prominent  men  in 
the  struggle;  separate  histories  of  the 
various  states ;  and  especially  a  fine  collec- 
tion on  New  York,  embracing  all  the  vari- 
ous "  Pictures  of  New  York  ;"  the  early 
works  of  De  Vries,  Jogues,  Yanderdonck, 
the  Brieden-Radt ;  the  Colonial  Docu- 
ments, Collections  of  the  New  York  His- 
torical Society  and  addresses  bearing  on 
New  York  history. 


"  Lord  George  Sackville,  a  younger  son 
of  the  first,  and  father  of  the  last  Duke  of 
Dorset,  commenced  his  political  career  as 
Chief  Secretary  for  Ireland,  when  his  father 
was  for  the  second  time  Viceroy,  and 
afterwards  attained  high  military  rank. 
Prince  Ferdinand  of  Brunswick,  nephew  of 
Frederick  the  Great,  Was  commander-in- 
chief  of  the  allied  army  on  the  Continent, 
destined  for  the  }3rotection  of  Hanover ; 
but  the  British  troops  of  which  it  was 
partly  composed  were  under  the  command 
of  the  high  English  aristocrat.  Dissen- 
sions soon  arose  between  him  and  the 
foreign  prince,  who  was  his  superior  officer ; 
in  the  words  of  Walpole,  "  both  liked  to 
govern,  neither  liked  to  be  governed."  At 
the  battle  of  Minden,  on  the  1st  of  August, 
1*759,  when  the  French  infantry  reeled  before 
the  British  battalions,  Sackville  was  at  the 
head  of  the  Blues.  At  the  critical  moment  of 
confusion  in  the  enemies'  rank,  he  received 
orders  to  advance  with  the  English  and 
Hanoverian  cavalry,  which  were  separat- 
ed from  the  infantry  by  a  wood.  These 
orders    he    undoubtedly    disobeyed.     His 




personal  courage  having  been  previously 
suspected,  he  had  preserved,  and  was 
proud  of  exhibiting,  the  uniform  he  had 
worn  at  Fontenoy,  pierced  by  a  musket 
ball,  which  on  that  fatal  day  wounded  him 
in  the  breast.  His  disobedience  at  Minden 
was  attributed  by  his  friends  to  the  orders 
being  ambiguous  and  even  contradictory, 
while  his  enemies  traced  it  to  the  effect  of 
panic,  or  to  the  impulse  of  unwarrantable 
pique  and  wounded  pride.  He  appeared 
after  the  battle,  at  dinner  in  the  tent  of 
his  victorious  commander,  who  remarked 
to  the  other  officers  present,  "Look  at 
that  man !  As  much  at  his  ease  as  if  he 
had  done  wonders."  The  general  order 
of  the  prince  contained  a  direct  imputa- 
tion ;  it  declared  that  if  Lieutenant-General 
the  Marquis  of  Granby  had  had  the  good 
fortune  to  have  been  at  the  head  of  the 
cavalry,  his  presence  would  have  greatly 
contributed  to  make  the  decision  of  the 
day  more  complete  and  more  brilliant. 
Stung  to  the  quick  by  this  public  rebuke, 
feeling  that  the  indignation  which  pervaded 
the  camp  had  spread  through  the  court 
and  the  country,  he  wrote  for  liberty  to 
resign  his  command,  and  return  to  Eng- 
land to  brave  a  storm  of  obloquy  which, 
after  the  recent  fate  of  Byng,  was  far  more 
terrible  to  a  soldier  than  the  worst  perils 
of  the  battle-field. 

On  his  arrival  he  found  himself  sum- 
marily dismissed  from  the  colonelcy  of  his 
regiment,  and  struck — by  the  hand  of 
George  the  Second,  who  was  deeply  in- 
censed, and  resolved  to  make  his  degrada- 
tion more  galling — from  the  list  of  generals. 
Having  demanded  a  court-martial,  a  ques- 
tion arose  whether  a  man  who  had  ceased 
to  be  in  the  army  was  still  subject  to 
military  law,  but  the  court  assembled  on 
the  29th  of  February,  1760,  and  was  com- 
posed of  sixteen  members,  all  general 
officers.  The  accusations  were  three  in 
number.  First,  for  refusing  to  advance 
with  the  cavalry  and  sustain  the  infantry 
when  engaged ;  second,  after  the  cavalry 
were  in  motion,  in  needlessly  halting  them; 
third,  that  he  moved  so  slowly  as  not  to 
reach  the  action  in  time  to  join  in  the 
pursuit.     Assuming   a  dictatorial  tone  to 

the  court,  he  complained  that  he  had  been 
punished  before  trial;  and,  while  he  relied 
on  the  ambiguity  of  the  orders,  it  was  but 
too  evident  that  they  did  not  direct  him  to 
stand  still.  Forgetting  that  the  moment 
of  the  enemies'  signal  discomfiture  was  his 
opportunity,  he  attempted  in  his  defence 
to  justify  his  inactivity  on  the  ground  that 
the  movement  of  the  cavalry  was  unneces- 
sary. "  The  glory  of  that  day,"  said  he, 
"  was  reserved  for  the  six  brave  (English) 
regiments,  who,  it  will  scarcely  be  credited 
in  future  ages,  by  a  single  attack  put  forty 
battalions  and  sixty  squadrons  to  flight." 
The  allusion  would  seem  to  have  been 
peculiarly  inopportune,  for  while  those  six 
infantry  regiments  suffered  a  loss  of  one 
thousand  three  hundred  and  seventy-nine 
men  and  officers,  the  Gazette  does  not 
record  a  single  casualty  amongst  the 
British  cavalry.  According  to  Walpole, 
"Whatever  were  his  deficiencies  in  the 
day  of  battle,  he  has  at  least  shown  no 
want  of  spirit  either  in  pushing  on  his 
trial,  or  during  it.  He  had  a  formal  mes- 
sage that  he  must  abide  the  event,  what- 
ever it  should  be ;  he  accepted  that  issue, 
and  during  the  course  of  the  examination 
attacked  judges,  prosecutor,  and  evidence. 
Indeed,  a  man  cannot  be  said  to  want 
spirit  who  could  show  so  much  in  his 
circumstances.  I  think,  without  much  hero- 
ism, I  would  sooner  have  led  the  cavalry 
up  to  the  charge  than  have  gone  to  White- 
hall to  be  worried  as  he  was.  One  hour 
of  such  resolution  at  Minden  would  have 
established  his  character  for  ever."  Gray, 
the  poet,  wrote  at  the  time,  "  The  old 
Rundles  who  sat  on  Lordly  Sackville,  have 
at  last  hammered  out  their  message.  He 
is  declared  disobedient  and  unfit  for  all 
military  command.  The  unembarrassed 
countenance,  the  looks  of  revenge,  con- 
tempt, and  superiority  that  he  bestowed 
on  his  accusers,  were  the  admiration  of  all. 
You  may  think,  perhaps,  he  intends  to  go 
abroad  and  hide  his  head — au  contraire 
all  the  world  visits  him  on  his  condemna- 
tion." The  court  discharged  their  duty 
with  firmness,  neither  misled  by  his  per- 
suasive powers,  nor  irritated  by  his  over- 
bearing pride ;  and  it  was  said  that  seven 




of  the  members  were  in  favor  of  capital 
punishment.  The  promulgation  of  the  sen- 
tence was  followed  by  his  name  being 
struck  off  the  list  of  privy  councillors ;  and 
the  announcement  of  its  confirmation  de- 
clared it  to  be  his  majesty's  pleasure  "that 
the  sentence  be  given  out  in  public  orders, 
that  officers  may  be  convinced  that  neither 
high  birth  nor  great  employments  shall 
shelter  offences  of  such  a  nature." 

If  disaster  had  attended  the  English 
arms  at  Minden,  Sackville  would  inevitably 
have  shared  the  fate  of  Byng;  but  the 
splendid  successes  of  Wolfe  in  the  conquest 
of  Canada,  following  fast  after  that  victory, 
had  tranquillized  popular  feeling,  and, 
strange  to  say,  on  the  accession  of  the  new 
sovereign,  he  found  favor  with  George  the 
Third,  by  whom  he  was  named  for  office 
in  1765,  but  the  other  members  of  the 
new  ministry  refused  to  act  with  a  man 
who  had  been  so  publicly  disgraced.  Hav- 
ing, in  1770,  acquired  property  under  the 
will  of  Lady  Elizabeth  Germain,  who  had 
been  a  favorite  correspondent  of  Swift,  on 
condition  that  he  should  thenceforth  bear 
her  name,  we  may  well  believe  that  he 
eagerly  seized  on  any  occasion  that  afforded 
even  a  hope  of  retrieving  his  sullied  repute. 
It  was  a  period  "when  corruption  did, 
indeed,  glitter  in  the  van  and  maintain 
a  standing  army  of  mercenaries,'*  and 
Lord  George,  aspiring  to  be  a  patriot, 
having  expressed  himself  in  parliament 
warmly  on  some  popular  question,  Go- 
vernor Johnson  replied  that  "  he  wondered 
the  noble  lord  should  interest  himself  so 
deeply  in  the  honour  of  the  country,  when 
he  had  hitherto  been  so  regardless  of  his 
own."  On  a  refusal  to  retract  an  insult 
so  publicly  given,  Lord  George  demanded 
an  immediate  meeting,  and  named  the 
ring  in  Hyde  Park ;  but  as  the  challenged 
was  then,  as  a  member,  attending  a  com- 
mittee of  the  House  of  Commons,  lie  hoped 
that  a  meeting  within  an  hour  would  be 
satisfactory.  The  subsequent  incidents  are 
characteristic  of  the  taste  for  duelling  then 
in  fashion.  The  combatants  would  seem 
to  have  arranged  all  the  preliminaries 
between  themselves ;  the  governor  sug- 
gested that  one  second,  the  bearer  of  the 

message,  Mr.  Thomas  Townsend,  after- 
wards Lord  Sydney,  would  answer  for 
them  both;  and  as  he  had  an  open  wound 
in  his  arm,  and  his  legs  were  very  much 
swelled,  he  expressed  a  wish  to  use  pistols 
— a  request  to  which  his  opponent  politely 
acceded.  In  hurrying  to  the  appointed  spot, 
the  governor  met  Sir  James  Lowther  in  Pic- 
cadilly, who  accompanied  him  as  his  friend, 
and  when  on  the  ground,  Lord  Georgey 
accosting  his  adversary,  desired  Mm  to 
take  whatever  distance  he  pleased.  Being 
placed  at  twenty  short  paces  apart,  Lord 
George  called  on  the-  governor  to  fire,, 
which  the  other  refused,  declaring  that, 
as  his  lordship  had  brought  him  there, 
he  must  fire  first.  Neither  of  the  shots- 
took  effect,  but  his  opponent's  second  ball 
broke  Lord  George  s  pistol,  and  one  of  the 
splinters  grazed  his  hand.  The  seconds 
then  interfered,  and  the  governor  after- 
wards avowed  that  he  had  never  met  a 
man  who  behaved  with  more  coolness  or 

Some  remarkable  coincidences  gave  cre- 
dence for  a  time  to  a  surmise,  now  con- 
sidered palpably  erroneous,  that  Lord: 
George  Germain  was  the  author  of  Junius. 
The  hostility  of  that  celebrated  assailant 
of  character  to  the  Marquis  of  Granby 
was  accounted  for  by  this  theory,  and  his- 
detestation  of  the  Scotch  was  traced  to 
the  fact  that  ten  ©f  the  members  of  the 
court-martial  had  been  natives  of  Scotland. 
"Time  works  wonders."  The  object  of 
much  and  merited  obloquy  in  1775  was- 
selected  in  the  administration  of  Lord 
North  for  the  high  office  of  Secretary 
of  State  for  the  Colonies-.  His  policy  as 
a  minister  was  destined  to  be  as  disastrous 
as  his  military  career  had  been  disgraceful ; 
he  was,  in  office,  the  determined  foe  of 
American  independence,  and  he  directed 
those  measures  which  severed  her  transat- 
lantic provinces  from  Great  Britain.  Ben- 
jamin Franklin,  in  an  early  letter  to  Priestly, 
thus  predicted  the  consequences:  "When 
Lord  Germain  is  at  the  head  of  affairs,  it 
cannot  be  expected  that  anything  like 
reason  or  moderation  could  be  attended 
to.  Everything  breathes  rancour  and  des- 
peration, and  nothing  but  absolute  impo- 




tence  will  stop  their  proceedings.  We, 
therefore,  look  on  final  separation  from 
yon  as  a  certain  and  speedy  event !" 

On  his  resigning  the  seals  in  1782,  he 
was  raised  by  royal  favour  to  the  peerage, 
by  the  title  of  Viscount  Sackville:  an 
elevation  which  revived  all  the  bitter  re- 
collections of  days  gone  by,  and  was  thus 
denounced  in  a  spirited  satirical  produc- 
tion of  the  period. 

The  Robe  Patrician  now  shall  cover  all! 

Disgrace  no  more  degrade,  or  fear  appal ; 

The  guilt  is  lost,  that  once  the  conscious  plain 

Of  Minden  blushing  saw  through  all  her  slain. 

Such  is  the  magic  of  this  crimson  vest, 

When  clasped  with  royal  hands  across  the  breast ; 

It  mounts  the  coward  to  the  hero's  place, 

Wipes  from  the  recreant  brow  each  foul  disgrace; 

Confounds,  perverts  all  honours  and  degree, 

And  makes  a  hero  e'en,  Germain,  of  thee ! 

Know,  haughty  peer,  the  western  world  disdains 

Such  tools  of  office,  and  such  feeble  chains, 

As  hands  like  thine,  or  stronger  hand  of  George, 

Or  heads  or  hands  more  wise  and  strong  can  forge. 

The  newly  created  peer  on  his  introduc- 
tion into  the  House  of  Lords  was  destined 
to  endure  perhaps  the  most  galling  of  his 
many  humiliations ;  he  heard  his  igno- 
minious sentence  and  its  confirmation  read 
aloud,  and  himself  denounced  as  "the 
greatest  criminal  this  country  ever  knew." 
He  was  accused  not  only  of  misconduct 
in  the  field,  but  of  being  the  author  of  all 
the  calamities  of  the  recent  war.  It  was 
moved  that  the  admission  of  a  man  whose 
disgrace  had  been  entered  on  the  orderly 
book  of  every  regiment,  would  be  dero- 
gatory to  the  dignity  of  that  assembly, 
and  the  House  was  earnestly  invoked  not 
to  suffer  him  to  enter  it  and  contaminate 
the  peerage.  The  obnoxious  viscount  de- 
fended himself  with  courage  and  calmness ; 
the  prerogative  of  the  crown  was  recog- 
nised ;  but  a  protest  recorded  the  sen- 
timents of  nine  peers,  and  the  object  thus 
arraigned  did  not  long  survive  the  accu- 
mulated indignities  to  which  he  had  been 
forced  to  submit. 


Dear  Sir: 

Hearing  that  you  are  desirous  of  obtain- 
ing information  of  any  kind  concerning  the 
aborigines  of  the  country,  I  venture  to  for- 
ward you  a  few  observations  on  the  man- 
ners and  customs  of  the  Esquimaux  and 
Loucheux,  made  during  a  visit  among  them 
last  summer.  They  are  very  broken  and 
fragmentary,  but  they  may  perhaps  furnish 
you  with  materials  to  work  up  in  a  better 
way.  Should  incidents,  apparently  trifling 
in  themselves,  be  noticed,  it  will  not  be 
without  design,  for  in  savage  life  they  often 
prove  the  truest  indices  to  character,  and 
help  us  to  understand  much  that  we  might 
otherwise  fail  to  comprehend. 

I  left  here  on  the  29th  of  May  in  a  small 
canoe,  paddled  by  a  couple  of  Chipewyan 
Indians  belonging  to  my  mission.  We 
followed  the  ice  down  the  McKenzie,  and 
on  the  11th  of  June  entered  the  frigid 
zone.  Then,  however,  it  was  more  like  a 
torrid  one,  for  the  sun  shed  upon  us  abun- 
dance of  light  and  heat  for  the  whole 
twenty-four  hours.  When  near  Point  Se- 
paration we  met  with  the  first  party  of 
Esquimaux,  and  between  there  and  the 
fort  on  Peel's  river  we  saw  great  numbers, 
all  of  whom,  from  their  thievish  propensi- 
ties, gave  us  a  great  deal  of  trouble.  They 
are  a  fine-looking  race  of  people,  and,  from 
their  general  appearance  and  habits,  I  ima- 
gine them  to  be  much  more  intelligent  than 
the  Indians.  And  if  proof  were  wanting, 
we  have  it  in  a  girl  who  was  brought  up 
from  the  Arctic  coast,  and  is  now  living  at 
my  house.  She  is  remarkably  clever  and 
active,  and  reads,  speaks,  and  writes  the 
English  language  very  correctly.  The  men 
are  tall,  active,  and  exceedingly  strong; 
most  of  them  have  a  profusion  of  beard  and 
whiskers.  The  women  are  rather  short, . 
but  comparatively  fair,  and  possess  very 
regular  and  by  no  means  badly  formed  fea- 
tures. The  peculiarity  in  both  sexes  con- 
sists in  the  obliquity  of  their  eyes  and 
somewhat  pear  shape  of  their  face.  The 
females  have  a  singular  practice  of  periodi- 
cally cutting  the   hair  from  the  crow  n   of 




their  husbands'  heads,  and,  fastening  the 
spoil  to  their  own,  wear  it  in  large  bundles, 
one  on  each  side  of  the  face,  and  a  third 
on  the  top  of  the  head,  somewhat  in  the 
manner  of  the  Japanese  visitors  recently  in 
the  United  States.  This  practice  by  no 
means  improves  either  their  figure  or  ap- 
pearance, and  as  they  advance  in  life  the 
bundles  become  uncomfortably  large.  Both 
sexes  are  inveterate  smokers,  but  they 
smoke  very  little  at  a  time.  Their  pipes 
are  made  principally  of  copper,  and  are  of 
their  own  manufacture.  In  shape  the  bowl 
is  very  like  a  reel  used  for  cotton,  and  the 
aperture  for  receiving  the  tobacco  not 
much  larger  than  the  hole  through  the  cen- 
tre of  the  reel.  This  they  fill  with  finely 
cut  tobacco,  and,  when  lighted,  withhold 
respiration  till  the  pipe  is  finished.  The 
smoke  is  all  swallowed,  none  being  allowed 
to  escape  even  through  the  nose.  The 
effect  is  very  great  upon  their  nervous  sys- 
tem, and  when  a  pipe  is  finished  they  will 
sometimes  lie  for  ten  minutes  trembling 
like  an  aspen  leaf.  All  that  I  saw  were 
exceedingly  well  dressed  in  deer-skin  cloth- 
ing, with  the  hair  outside  ;  and,  being  new 
and  nicely  ornamented  with  white  seal- 
skins, looked  clean  and  comfortable.  Their 
little  kiyacks  or  canoes  were  beautifully 
made,  and  all  well  armed  with  spears, 
bows,  and  arrows  of  their  own  manufacture. 
Their  omiacks,  or  boats,  were  clumsy  look- 
ing articles,  and  consisted  of  a  rough  frame- 
work of  wood,  lashed  together  with  walrus 
lines,  over  which  a  lining  of  parchment 
was  tightly  stretched.  They  are  used  solely 
by  the  women  and  children,  each  one  being 
large  enough  to  hold  three  or  four  families, 
with  their  baggage. 

At  Peel's  river  I  met  with  a  large  num- 
ber of  Loucheux  Indians,  and  with  a  far 
greater  number  at  the  Youcon.  They  are 
a  fierce,  turbulent,  and  cruel  race,  much 
more  nearly  approximating  to  Algonquin 
tribes  than  to  the  quiet  Chipewyans  of  the 
McKenzie  valley.  They  extend  from  about 
65°  N".  to  very  nearly  the  Arctic  coast, 
and  from  the  McKenzie  westward  to  Beh- 
ring's  Straits.  They  were  once  very  nume- 
rous, but  wars  among  them  and  with  their 
Eskimo  neighbors  have  diminished    their 

numbers  a  good  deal.  They  are  still,  how- 
ever, a  strong  and  powerful  people. 

They  are  doubtless  of  Tartar  origin ;  for 
their  personal  appearance,  the  practice  of 
Shamanism,  scarifications  in  sorrow,  burn- 
ing their  dead,  infanticide,  a  species  of 
caste,  and  many  other  customs,  point  us  at 
once  to  the  inhabitants  of  Eastern  Siberia 
as  the  parent  stock.  And,  though  there 
are  now  many  important  differences  both 
in  habits  and  language,  they  are  evidently 
a  branch  of  the  Chipewyan  or  Tinne  race. 
And  if  this  be  so,  then  the  Tinne  family 
holds  a  very  important  position  among  the 
aborigines  of  the  country,  extending  as  it 
does  in  an  unbroken  line  from  Hudson's 
Bay  to  the  Pacific  Ocean,  and  in  a  broken 
though  visible  chain  from  near  the  Arctic 
coast  to  the  Gulf  of  Mexico.  How  many 
centuries  they  took  to  traverse  and  occupy 
this  immense  extent  of  country,  break  up 
into  bands,  which  grew  up  into  tribes,  and 
by  non-intercourse  acquire  habits  and  dia- 
lects of  their  own,  I  can  form  no  conjec- 
ture. But,  with  their  wandering  habits, 
nothing  could  be  more  easy;  and  with 
abundant  means  of  life,  there  would  soon 
be  a  rapid  increase  in  numbers.  A  careful 
comparison  of  the  vocabularies  in  HaWs 
Ethnology  with  several  that  have  been 
taken  in  this  district,  and  with  the  aid  of  a 
valuable  and  beautiful  map  of  the  aborigi- 
nal tribes  of  the  country,  lately  published 
by  the  United  States  Government,  shows 
at  once  the  vast  range  the  Tinne  family 
takes.  According  to  the  above  authorities, 
together  with  a  census  of  the  tribes  here, 
taken  a  few  years  ago  by  the  Hudson's 
Bay  Company,  the  Tinne  number  forty-one 
tribes,  amounting  in  the  aggregate  to  about 
32,000  souls.  Many  subjects  of  interest 
here  suggest  themselves  for  remark ;  but 
as  they  apply  to  the  Tinne  generally,  and 
not  to  the  Loucheux  in  particular,  I  must 
not  indulge  myself  with  them. 

The  Loucheux  are  divided  into  many 
petty  tribes,  each  one  having  its  own  chief, 
as  the  Hun-Kootchin  (River  Indians),  Vun- 
ta-Kootchin  (Lake  Indians),  Toucjion-Koot- 
chin  (Wood  Indians),  and  many  others; 
but  the  general  appearance,  dress,  habits, 
and  language  are  very  much  the  same  in 




all,  and  all  go  under  the  general  names  of 
Loucheux  and  Kootchin.  The  latter  is 
their  own  appellation,  meaning  literally 
41  the  people,"  and  of  course  is  the  one  by 
which  they  ought  always  to  be  designated. 
The  former  was  given  to  them  by  the  whites 
who  first  came  to  trade  with  them.  There 
is  another  division  among  them  of  a  more 
interesting  and  important  nature  than  the 
petty  tribes  just  referred  to.  All,  irre- 
spective of  tribe,  are  divided  into  three 
grades,  faintly  resembling  the  upper,  mid- 
dle, and  lower  classes  of  civilized  nations. 
These  are  termed  respectively  Chit-sa, 
Nate-sa,  and  A-teet-sa,  the  former  being 
the  richest  and  the  latter  the  poorest. 
They  differ,  however,  from  the  customs  of 
civilized  life  in  this,  that  it  is  the  rule  for  a 
man  not  to  marry  in  his  own,  but  to  take 
a  wife  from  either  of  the  other  classes.  A 
Chitsa  nobleman  will  marry  an  A-teet-sa 
peasant  without  any  feeling  of  infra  dig. 
This  marriage  code  must  have  a  beneficial 
influence  in  allaying  feuds,  as  in  every  case 
the  children  belong  to  the  grade  of  the 
mother,  and  the  different  families  and 
tribes  that  belong  to  the  same  grade  will 
never  make  war  with  each  other.  A  man's 
children  may  belong  to  the  grade  against 
which  he  is  called  upon  by  his  chief  to 
fight,  in  which  case  he  will  naturally  seek 
for  peace.  And  so  it  has  been,  for  there 
is  very  little  warfare  among  them  now. 

Their  dress  is  the  same  in  all  the  tribes, 
and  very  nearly  so  of  both  sexes.  It  con- 
sists of  a  sort  of  tunic  or  pointed  shirt,  and 
trowsers,  to  which  the  shoes  are  attached. 
The  pointed  shirt  and  shoes  attached  to 
the  trowsers  are  two  differences  between 
their  dress  and  that  of  the  Tinne.  It  may, 
however,  be  a  difference  only  of  recent 
date.  For  if  the  derivation  of  the  word 
Chipewyan  be  "  pointed  shirt "  in  the  Cree, 
and  not  "  dead  dog,"  as  some  have  said, 
then  undoubtedly  the  Tinne  wore  garments 
of  that  shape  when  the  Crees  first  met 
them.  The  only  difference  observable  be- 
tween the  dress  of  the  women  and  that  of 
the  men  is  that  the  tunic  of  the  women  is 
rather  longer,  rounded  a  little  in  front,  and 
more  profusely  decorated  with  either  beads 
or  hyaquois  shells,  of  which  both  sexes  are 

passionately  fond.  Their  dresses  are  all 
made  of  leather,  and  when  new  look  be- 
coming and  comfortable. 

The  men  paint  their  faces  something  like 
the  Crees ;  and  all  have  the  septum  of  the 
nose  pierced,  through  which  two  or  more 
hyaquois  shells  are  placed,  giving  a  most 
extraordinary  expression  to  the  face.  The 
women  tatoo  their  chins  in  vertical  lines, 
from  one  corner  of  the  mouth  to  the  other ; 
and  in  some  few  instances  I  observed  two 
or  three  horizontal  lines  from  the  outer 
corners  of  their  eyes.  Neither  of  these 
customs  is  practised  by  the  Tinne  of  the 
McKenzie  valley,  but  both  are  adopted  by 
the  Moyave  (Tinne)  tribes  of  the  south. 

The  Kootchin  are  the  only  Indians  in 
the  Hudson's  Bay  territories  who  collect 
wealth  or  have  a  system  of  barter  among 
themselves.  Both  are  much  practised  by 
them,  hyaquois  shells  or  beads  being  the 
medium  of  currency.  The  man  who  has 
the  most  beads  is  considered  the  richest. 
After  they  are  purchased  from  the  Compa- 
ny's stores  they  are  threaded  by  the  women 
on  strips  of  leather  a  fathom  long,  and  are 
thus  kept  and  bartered  among  themselves. 
Some  never  hunt  a  fur,  but  trade  them 
from  more  distant  tribes,  among  whom 
they  make  annual  expeditions  for  that  pur- 
pose. Were  they  in  a  country  more  acces- 
sible and  hospitable  this  propensity  might 
be  turned  to  a  good  account,  and  they  be- 
come as  renowned  as  their  congeners,  the 
Navajos,  who  are  rich  in  agricultural  and 
commercial  wealth. 

The  Kootchin  women  are  inferior  in 
looks  and  fewer  in  number  than  the  men. 
The  former  arises,  probably,  from  the  harsh 
treatment  they  receive  and  the  heavy  work 
they  have  to  perform;  the  latter,  I  fear, 
must  be  attributed  to  female  infanticide, 
which  is  but  too  prevalent  among  them. 
The  Company's  officers  have  made  strenu- 
ous and  laudable  efforts  to  abolish  so  cruel 
a  practice,  and  in  many  cases  I  rejoice  to 
know  were  successful ;  but  it  still  obtains 
to  a  large  extent  among  them.  Polygamy 
is  also  the  source  of  many  evils  among 
them.  The  Kootchin  multiplies  his  wives 
as  a  farmer  increases  his  beasts  of  burden. 
The  more  wives  he  has  the  more  work  he 



gets  clone.     Hence  it  is  not  uncommon  for 
an  influential  Indian  to  have  as  many  as 
four  or  five  at  the  same  time.     The  effect 
of  this,  where  the  number  of  females  is  so 
much  below  that  of  the  males,  may  be  easily 
conceived ;  dissatisfaction,  jealousies,  quar- 
rels, and  murders  are  the  natural  results. 
There  is  no  marriage  ceremony  of  any  kind, 
nor    previous    courtship    required.      The 
only  thing  necessary  is  the  consent  of  the 
bride's  mother ;  that  is  a  sine  qua  non  in 
all  cases.     Neither  father  nor  brothers  have 
a  voice  in  the  matter,  and  would  rather  sit 
and  see  the  girl  torn  in  pieces  by  contend- 
ing   rivals    than    interfere    in    any   way. 
Youths  of  both  sexes  mature  very  early. 
Girls  generally  have  their  first  menses  from 
thirteen  to  fourteen  years  of  age.     On  their 
first  appearance  the  unfortunate  creature 
is  banished  from  the  camp  for  a  whole  year. 
A  little  tent  is  built  for  her  at  a  distance 
from  the  others,  in  which  she  has  to  pass 
the  whole  of  that  time  alone.     Should  she 
walk  out  at  all,  it  must  be  with  a  kind  of 
bonnet  on  her  head,  with  long  fringes  at- 
tached, which   nearly    cover   her   face.     I 
saw  one  thus  exiled  near  to  Fort  Youcon. 
Formerly  it  was  the  practice  of  the  whole 
nation  to  burn  their  dead,  after  which  the 
ashes  were  collected,  and  being  carefully 
sewed  up  in  a  leather  bag,  were  suspended 
from  the  top  of  a  painted  pole  placed  in  a 
clear  and  elevated  spot.     But  owing  to  the 
long  residence  of  the  whites  at  Peel's  river, 
the  inhabitants  of  that  vicinity  now  bury 
on  stages  or  in  the  ground.     Their  neigh- 
bors of  the  Youcon  are  more  or  less  adopt- 
ing the  same  methods.     There  is  but  little 
ceremony  at  the  time  of  interment,  unless 
the  deceased  had  been  a  chief  or  some  other 
notable  personage.     The  property  is  inter- 
red with  the  owner,  and  nightly  wailings 
are  kept  up  for  a  time.     During  this  pe- 
riod, indeed  for  nearly  a  year,  the  nearest 
male  relative  is  employed  in  purchasing  or 
otherwise    collecting    meat,   grease,   furs, 
beads,  etc.,  for  a  "  dead  dance."     At  the 
time  appointed  all  who  are  invited  attend. 
The  first  day  is  spent  in  feasting  upon  the 
best   they  have,  and   in   the   evening   the 
dance  commences.     It  consists  of  a  large 
number    moving   round   and   round   in  a 

circle,  each  trying  to  outstrip  the  other  in 
the  contortions  of  his  body,  but  all  beating 
admirable  time  with  their  feet.  The  dance 
is  accompanied  by  a  song  or  kind  of  dirge, 
in  which  the  qualities  of  the  deceased  are 
enumerated.  Some  of  their  airs  are  ex- 
ceedingly plaintive  and  beautiful.  This 
custom  is  kept  up  so  long  as  the  host  can 
entertain  his  guests,  after  which  time  pre- 
sents of  beads,  etc.,  are  distributed,  and  the 
ceremonies  completed.  It  is  said  of  the 
Crees  that  they  have  a  no  music  in  their 
souls."  Be  this  as  it  may,  it  would  by  no 
means  apply  to  the  Kootchin.  Mr.  Lock- 
hart  has  already  collected  eight  or  ten  of 
their  songs,  which  he  has  set  to  music,  and 
is  still  collecting  others.  Unfortunately 
he  had  none  of  their  "  dead  songs  "  when 
I  was  there,  or  I  would  have  inserted  one 

There  is  no  regular  order  of  priesthood 
among  them,  though  Shamanism  prevails 
throughout.  Any  one  wTho  feels  disposed, 
may  turn  "  medicine-man  ;"  but  some  are 
esteemed  much  more  highly  than  others. 
All,  howTever,  are  implicitly  trusted,  and 
very  liberally  paid  when  their  services  are 
required.  And  not  only  do  the  people 
think  the  "doctors"  can  charm  away  sick- 
ness and  danger,  but  also  that  they  have 
power  to  inflict  them — even  on  Indians  at 
a  distance ;  and  so  deeply  rooted  is  this 
idea  in  their  minds,  that  they  believe  all 
who  die  before  reaching  old  age  have  been 
killed  by  the  influence  of  some  conjuror 
whom  they  have  offended,  or  whom  some 
other  person  had  hired  to  do  the  deed. 
When  the  services  of  a  medicine-man  are 
required,  a  female  takes  a  quantity  of  beads 
to  the  tent  of  the  selected  doctor,  and 
without  saying  anything  throws  them  at 
his  feet  and  returns.  If  he  thinks  the  sum 
sufficient,  he  rises  and  follows  her  back  to 
her  tent,  where  the  incantations  take  place. 
If  successful,  he  receives  all  the  credit ;  if 
otherwise,  he  declares  a  distant  doctor 
opposed  him,  wrho,  being  better  paid, 
proved  the  stronger.   * 

As  in  the  case  of  most  other  uncivilized 
people,  it  is  very  difficult  to  know  what 
their  real  dispositions  are,  as  they  so  fre- 
quently do  acts  so  completely  at  variance 




with  each  other.  As  a  whole  they  are  de- 
cidedly bloodthirsty,  cruel,  and  treache- 
rous, though  to  this  charge  there  are  many 
honorable  exceptions.  That  they  are  su- 
perstitious and  credulous,  their  whole  sys- 
tem of  Shamanism  goes  to  prove.  They 
are  tolerably  honest ;  that  is,  they  will  not 
pilfer  from  the  fort,  and  yet  they  pillage 
each  other's  wives  if  they  can,  and  often 
rob  distant  Indians  of  their  furs.  They 
are  exceedingly  hospitable  to  any  one 
visiting  them  in  their  camps ;  at  the  same 
time  selfishness  is  not  one  of  their  least 
prominent  traits.  All,  I  fear,  are  confirm- 
ed liars,  as  are  all  the  Indians  throughout 
the  whole  district.  The  inferior  estimation 
in  which  women  are  held,  the  practice  of 
robbing  each  other  of  their  wives,  and  the 
facilities  for  divorce,  combine  to  produce  a 
very  low  state  of  morality  among  them. 
But  as  the  Gospel  has  now  found  its  way 
among  them,  it  will,  I  trust,  produce  its 
legitimate  fruits  among  them.  Their  pre- 
sent religious  notions  are  very  few  and  in- 
distinct. They  have  some  knowledge  of  a 
supreme  being,  but  as  they  possess  no  idea 
of  a  future  state,  this  knowledge  exerts  no 
influence  over  their  actions.  If  they  have 
any  religion  at  all  it  is  one  of  fear,  as  they 
all  more  or  less  deprecate  the  wrath  of  de- 
mons. They  possess,  however,  neither 
rites  nor  altars  of  any  kind,  nor  do  their 
medicine-men  at  all  oppose  the  preaching 
of  the  Gospel  among  them.  When  there 
last  summer,  all  at  the  fort — upwards  of 
five  hundred  in  number — attended  my 
ministry  with  the  greatest  delight  three 
times  a  day,  and  before  I  left,  medicine-men 
renounced  their  craft,  polygamists  gave  up 
their  wives,  murderers  confessed  their 
crimes,  and  mothers  told  of  deeds  of  blood 
that  sickened  one  to  hear,  and  all  sought 
for  pardon  and  amendment.  Whether 
they  were  sincere  or  not  I  cannot  tell. 
Much  may  have  been  owing  to  novelty,  as 
they  had  never  seen  a  clergyman  of  any 
kind  before ;  but  as  I  am  just  on  the  eve 
of  visiting  them  again,  I  shall  know  this 
and  many  other  things  about  them. 

With  the  aid  of  my  good  friend,  Mr. 
Ross  here,  I  have  mapped  out  the  position 
of  the  different  tribes,  but  as  I  am  not  very 

HIST.   MAG.      VOL.    VIII.  22 

certain  as  to  its  accuracy,  will  not  Bend  it 
now.  I  will,  however,  take  a  copy  with 
me  this  summer,  and  when  on  the  spot 
shall  be  able  to  correct  all  the  errors  in  it, 
and,  if  I  hear  that  you  would  like  it,  will 
forward  it  next  year. 

Should  this  paper  be  of  no  use  to  you, 
may  I  ask  you  kindly  to  forward  it  to  the 
editor   of  the   Canadian  Naturalist,  as  it 
may  furnish  him  with  an  article. 
With  very  kind  regards, 

Believe  me,  yours  sincerelv, 

W.  W.  KlRKBY. 

Fobt  Simpson,  McKewzik's  Kivek,  June  1, 1862. 


We  have  noticed  with  satisfaction  the 
interest  manifested  in  the  articles  recently 
published  in  the  Historical  Magazine  on 
the  subject  of  slavery  in  Massachusetts. 
But  we  confess  a  little  disappointment  that 
the  writer  of  those  articles  has  not  con- 
tinued the  series — which  must  be  our  apo- 
logy to  that  gentleman  if  in  the  present 
communication  we  are  anticipating  his 
treatment  of  a  part  of  his  general  subject. 
If  so,  we  beg  "  E.  Y.  E."  to  receive  it  as 
a  contribution  of  materials  only  for  him  to 
work  up,  as  he  may  please,  hereafter. 

We  desire  now  to  call  attention  to  two 
acts  of  legislation  in  Massachusetts  which 
were  passed  in  the  year  1788 — eight  years 
after  the  alleged  termination  of  slavery  in 
that  State  by  the  adoption  of  the  Constitu- 
tion. These  acts  were  passed  just  after 
the  adoption  of  the  Federal  Constitution 
by  the  State  Convention. 

The  first  is  the  only  one  directly  and 
positively  hostile  to  slavery  to  be  found 
among  all  their  statutes. 

It  is  a  very  remarkable  fact  that  the 
reluctance  of  the  Legislature  to  meet  the 
subject  fairly  and  fully  in  front  should  have 
left  their  statute  book  in  such  a  question- 
able shape.  With  Portia  glowing  with 
delight  at  the  unsuccessful  choice  of  her 
sable  suitor,  they  seem  to  have  wished  to 




"  A  gentle  riddance  :  draw  the  curtains;  go — 
Let  all  of  his  complexion  clmse  me  so." 

Merchant  of  Venice ;  Act  II.  Sc.  VIII. 

But  neither  the  cupidity  of  their  slave- 
trading  merchants  nor  the  peculiar  impro- 
vidence of  the  negro — the  one  sharpened 
by  successful  gain,  the  other  hardened  into 
hopeless  acquiescence  with  pauperism — 
would  permit  this  u  gentle  riddance,"  and 
although  the  "  curtains"  have  been  "  drawn" 
over  these  disagreeable  features  for  nearly 
a  century,  the  historian  of  slavery  must 
let  in  the  light  upon  them.  To  paraphrase 
slightly  the  verses  of  one  of  their  own 
early  elegiac  poets : — 

"  Let  all  New  England,  and  let  Boston  know, 
How  much  they  do  to  truth  for  slavery  owe." 

As  early  as  1785,  the  Legislature  insti- 
tuted an  inquiry  as  to  the  measures  proper 
to  be  adopted  by  them  to  discountenance 
and  prevent  any  inhabitant  of  the  com- 
monwealth being  concerned  in  the  slave- 
trade.  The  inquiry  was  also  extended  to 
the  condition  of  negroes  then  in  the  State, 
or  who  might  thereafter  come  or  be 
brought  into  it.  Journals  :  V.  222.  Bills 
were  prepared  and  referred  to  the  Com- 
mittee on  the  Revision  of  the  Laws,  with 
instructions  to  revise  all  the  laws  respect- 
ing negroes  and  mulattoes,  and  report  at  a 
future  session.     lb.  342. 

In  the  following  year,  a  joint  order  was 
made  for  a  committee  to  report  measures 
for  j)reventing  negroes  coming  into  the 
commonwealth  from  other  States.  Jour- 
nals: VI.  463.  Another  similar  order 
was  made  by  the  House  of  Representatives 
in  1787.     Journals:  VII.  524. 

Earlier  in  the  same  year,  a  number  of 
African  blacks  petitioned  the  Legislature 
for  aid  to  enable  them  to  return  to  their 
native  country.  lb.  "VII.  381.  A  Quaker 
petition  against  the  slave-trade  was  read  in 
the  Senate  June  20, 1787,  and  not  accepted, 
but  referred  to  the  Revising  Committee, 
who  were  directed  to  report  a  bill  upon 
"the  subject  matter  of  negroes  in  this 
Commonwealth  at  large."  Senate :  Vol. 
VIII.  81.     H.  of  B.  Vol.  VIII.  88. 

The  prohibition  of  the  slave-trade  by 
Massachusetts  was  at  last  effected  in  1788. 
A  most  flagrant  and  outrageous  case  of 

kidnapping  occurred  in  Boston  in  the 
month  of  February  in  that  year.  This 
infamous  transaction  aroused  the  public  in- 
dignation, and  all  classes  united  in  urging 
upon  the  Legislature  the  passage  of  effec- 
tual laws  to  prevent  the  further  prosecu- 
tion of  the  traffic,  and  protect  the  inhabit- 
ants of  the  State  against  the  repetition  of 
similar  outrages. 

The  movement  was  successful,  and  on 
the  26th  of  March,  1788,  the  Legislature 
of  Massachusetts  passed  "  An  act  to  pre- 
vent the  Slave- Trade,  and  for  granting 
Belief  to  the  Families  of  such  unhappy 
Persons  as  may  be  kidnapped  or  decoyed 
away  from  this  Commonwealth."  By  this 
law  it  was  enacted  "  that  no  citizen  of  this 
commonwealth,  or  other  person  residing 
within  the  same,"  shall  import,  transport, 
buy  or  sell  any  of  the  inhabitants  of  Africa 
as  slaves  or  servants  for  term  of  years,  on 
penalty  of  fifty  pounds  for  every  person 
so  misused,  and  two  hundred  pounds  for 
every  vessel  fitted  out  and  employed  in 
the  traffic.  All  insurance  made  on  such 
vessels  to  be  void  and  of  no  effect.  And 
to  meet  the  case  of  kidnapping,  when  inha- 
bitants were  carried  off,  actions  of  damage 
might  be  brought  by  their  friend's — the 
latter  giving  bonds  to  apply  the  moneys 
recovered  to  the  use  and  maintenance  of 
the  family  of  the  injured  party. 

A  proviso  was  added  "  that  this  act  do  not 
extend  to  vessels  which  have  already  sailed, 
their  owners,  factors,  or  commanders,  for 
and  during  their  present  voyage,  or  to  any 
insurance  that  shall  have  been  made  pre- 
vious to  the  passing  of  the  same."  How 
far  this  proviso  may  be  justly  held  to  be  a 
legislative  sanction  of  the  traffic  we  leave 
to  the  reader  to  decide.  It  is  obvious  that 
the  "public  sentiment"  of  Massachusetts 
in  1788  was  not  strong  enough  against  the 
slave  trade,  even  under  the  atrocious  pro- 
vocation of  kidnapping  in  the  streets  of 
Boston,  to  treat  the  pirates  who  had  al- 
ready sailed  as  they  deserved.  Rome  was 
not  built  in  a  day — neither  could  the  mo- 
dern Athens  rejoice  in  an  anti-slavery  Mi- 
nerva, fresh  in  an  instant  from  the  brain  of 
the  almighty  "public  sentiment"  of  Massa- 




This  act  was,  as  we  have  seen,  passed  on 
the  25th  of  March,  1788.  It  was  accom- 
panied by  another  act,  passed  on  the  fol- 
k> wing  day,  hardly  less  hostile  to  the  negro 
than  this  was  to  slavery — the  pioneer  of  a 
series  of  similar  acts  (though  less  severe) 
which  have  subjected  the  new  States  to 
most  unsparing  censure. 

The  Massachusetts  Act  of  March  26, 
1788,  entitled  "  An  Act  for  suppressing 
and  punishing  of  Rogues,  Vagabonds, 
common  Beggars,  and  other  idle,  disor- 
derly and  lewd  Persons,"  contains  the  fol- 
lowing very  remarkable  provision  : — 

"  V.  Be  it  further  enacted  by  the  authority  aforesaid 
[the  Senate  and  House  of  Representatives  in  General 
Court  assembled],  that  no  person  being  an  African  or 
Negro,  other  than  a  subject  of  the  Emperor  of  Mo- 
rocco, or  a  citizen  of  some  one  of  the  United  States 
(to  be  evidenced  by  a  certificate  from  the  Secretary 
of  the  State  of  which  he  shall  be  a  citizen),  shall 
tarry  within  this  Commonwealth  for  a  longer  time 
than  two  months,  and  upon  complaint  made  to  any 
Justice  of  the  Peace  within  this  Commonwealth,  that 
any  such  person  has  been  within  the  same  more  than 
two  months,  the  said  Justice  shall  order  the  said  per- 
son to  depart  out  of  this  Commonwealth,  and  in  case 
that  the  said  African  or  Negro  shall  not  depart  as 
aforesaid,  any  Justice  of  the  Peace  within  this  Com- 
monwealth, upon  complaint  and  proof  made  that 
such  person  has  continued  within  this  Commonwealth 
ten  days  after  notice  given  him  or  her  to  depart  as 
aforesaid,  shall  commit  the  said  person  to  any  house 
of  correction  within  the  county,  there  to  be  kept  to 
hard  labor  agreeable  to  the  rules  and  orders  of  the 
said  house,  until  the  Sessions  of  the  Peace  next  to  be 
holden  within  and  for  the  said  county ;  and  the  mas- 
ter of  the  said  house  of  correction  is  hereby  required 
and  directed  to  transmit  an  attested  copy  of  the  war- 
rant of  commitment  to  the  said  Court,  on  the  first 
day  of  their  said  session,  and  if  upon  trial  at  the  said 
Court,  it  shall  be  made  to  appear  that  the  said  person 
has  thus  continued  within  the  Commonwealth  con- 
trary to  the  tenor  of  this  act,  ho  or  sho  shall  be 
whipped  not  exceeding  ten  stripes,  and  ordered  to 
depart  out  of  this  Commonwealth  within  ten  days; 
and  if  he  or  she  shall  not  so  depart,  the  same  process 
Khali  be  had  and  punishment  inflicted,  and  so  toties 

The  edition  from  which  we  copy  is  the 
earliest  classified  edition  of  "  The  Per- 
petual Laws  of  the  Commonwealth  of 
Massachusetts,"  and  is  not  to  be  found  in 
Part  I.  among  those  relating  to  "  The  Pub- 
lick  and  Private  Rights  of  Persons,"  nor 
among  the  "  Miscellaneous"  Statutes,  but 
in    "Part    IV."    concerning    "  Criminal 

Matters."  We  doubt  if  anything  in  hu- 
man Legislation  can  be  found  which  comes 
nearer  branding  color  as  a  crime  ! 

By  this  law,  it  will  be  observed  that  all 
negroes,  resident  in  Massachusetts,  not 
citizens  of  some  one  of  the  States,  were 
required  to  depart  in  two  months,  on  pen- 
alty of  being  apprehended,  whipped,  and 
ordered  to  depart.  The  process  and  punish- 
ment could  be  renewed  every  two  months. 
The  only  contemporary  explanation  of  the 
design  of  the  law,  which  we  have  met 
with,  is  to  the  effect  that  it  was  intended 
to  prevent  fugitive  slaves  from  resorting  to 
that  State,  in  hopes  to  obtain  freedom,  and 
then  being  thrown  as  a  dead  weight  upon 
that  community.  Belknap:  1795.  Are- 
cent  writer  states  that  this  "  enactment 
was  said  to  have  been  the  work  of  her 
[Massachusetts]  leading  lawyers,  who  were 
sufficiently  sagacious  to  foresee  the  danger- 
ous consequences  of  the  constitutional  pro- 
vision, which,  on  restoring  fugitives  from 
labor,  not  only  threatened  to  disturb  the 
public  peace,  but  the  stability  of  the  sys- 
tem." Amory's  Life  of  Sullivan,  I.  226, 
note.  We  give  this  illustration  of  legal 
sagacity  in  Massachusetts  for  what  it  is 
worth — although  we  are  satisfied  that  the 
statute  itself  clearly  illustrates  the  intention 
of  those  who  framed  it.  Expositio  con- 
temporanea  est  optima. 

Realizing  the  "  dead  weight"  already 
resting  upon  them  in  the  body  of  their  own 
free  negroes  (though  comparatively  small 
in  number)  they  evidently  thought  it  "  saga- 
cious" to  prevent  any  addition  to  it.  Fu- 
ture research  must  ascertain  who  were  "  ci- 
tizens" of  Massachusetts  in  1788 — before 
we  can  safely  declare  that  even  Massachu- 
setts Negroes,  Indians  and  Mulattoes  were 
exempted  from  the  alternative  of  exile  or 
the  penalties  of  this  statute.  The  reader 
will  not  fail  to  notice  below  the  arbitrary 
and  illegal  extension  of  the  statute,  in  its 
application  to  "people  of  color,  commonly 
called  Mulattoes,  presumed  to  come  within 
the  intention"  of  the  law. 

We  have  met  with  one  example  of  the 
enforcement  of  this  law,  which  is  almost 
as  "  singular"  as  the  statute  itself.  In  the 
Massachusetts   Mercury,  Boston,  printed 




by  Young  and  Minns,  Printers  to  the 
Honorable,  the  General  Court,  September 
16,  1800,  No.  22,  Vol.  XVI—  the  follow- 
ing notice  occupies  a  conspicuous  place, 
filling  a  column  of  the  paper : 

The  Officers  of  Police  having  made  return  to  the 
Subscriber  of  the  names  of  the  following  persons, 
who  are  Africans  or  Negroes,  not  subjects  of  the 
Emperor  of  Morocco  nor  citizens  of  the  United  States, 
the  same  are  hereby  warned  and  directed  to  depart 
out  of  this  Commonwealth  before  the  10th  day  of 
October  next,  as  they  would  avoid  the  pains  and 
penalties  of  the  law  in  that  case  provided,  which  was 
passed  by  the  Legislature,  March  26,  1788. 

Charles  Bulfinch,  Superintendent. 
By  order  and  Direction  of  the  Selectmen. 

Prince  Paterson, 
Flora  Nash, 


Eliza  Cotton. 


Thomas  Nicholas  and 
Hannah  Champlin, 
Nancy  Scott, 
Thomas  Gardner, 
Violet  Freeman, 
Sylvia  Gardner, 
Dolly  Peach, 
Sally  Alexander, 

Philis  Nichols, 
Plato  Alderson, 
Jack  Jeffers, 
Julius  Holden, 
Cuffy  Buffum, 
Hagar  Blackburn 
Polly  Gardner, 
Philis  Taylor. 

Dinah  Miller, 
Rhode  Allen, 
Richard  Preeman, 
Nancy  Gardner, 

Bristol  Morandy, 
Scipio  Kent, 
Phoebe  Seam  ore, 
Phcebe  Johnson, 

John  Denny, 
Hannah  Burdine. 

Sally  Evens, 
Csesar  West  and 
Thomas  Peterson, 
Henry  Sanderson, 
Robert  Willet, 
Mary  Atkins, 
Amey  Spalding, 
George  Homes, 
Abraham  Fitch, 
Abraham  Francis, 
Sally  Williams, 
Rnchol  Pewnick, 
Esther  Dove, 


Silvia  Hendrick, 
Nancy  Hall, 
Elizabeth  Freeman, 
Margaret  Harrison. 


John  Cooper, 
Margaret  Russell, 
Jack  Billings. 


Thomas  Burdine. 


Thomas  Bostick, 
Prince  Hayes, 
Nancy  Hamik, 
Peggy  Ocamum, 
Sally  Freeman, 
Hannah  West, 
Thomas  Stanton, 
Henry  Wilson, 
Edward  Cole, 
Polly  Brown, 
John  Johnson, 
Prince  Kilsbury, 
Joseph  Hicks, 

Elizabeth  Francis, 
William  Williams, 
David  Dove, 
Peter  Bayle, 

Katy  Bostick, 
Margaret  Bean, 
Samuel  Beujamin, 
Primus  Hutchinson 


Mary  Smith, 
Simon  Jeffers, 
Peter  Francis, 
Elizabeth  Branch, 
William  Brown, 
Clarissa  Scotland, 
John  Gardner, 
Fortune  Gorden, 

Peter  Larkiu  and 
Stepney  Johnson, 

James  Scott, 
Jane  Jackson, 
Oliver  Nash, 
Thomas  Thompson, 

Richard  Allen, 
Samuel  Posey, 
Prince  Wales, 
Peter  Gust, 
Butterfield  Scotland, 
Cuffy  Cummings, 
Sally  Gardner, 
Samuel  Stevens. 


Jenny  Larkin, 
Anne  Melville. 


John  Evens, 
Cuffey  Cook, 
Robert  Woodson. 


James  Jurden, 
Janus  Crage, 

Polly  Johnson. 


Anthony  George,  Peter  Cane. 

Catherine  Gould, 
Cato  Small, 
Richard  M'Coy, 


Charlotte  Gould, 
Philis  Colo. 


James  Morfut  and 
Mary  Davis, 
Peter  Lewis, 
Peter  Hendrick, 
Mary  Shoppo, 
John  Pearce, 
Peter  Branch, 
Rosanna  Symonds, 
Lewis  Victor, 
John  Laco, 
Peter  Jesemy, 
David  Bartlet, 
Joseph  Lewis, 
John  Harrison, 
Boston  Alexander, 

Hannah,  his  wife, 
George  Powell, 
Charles  Sharp, 
William  Shoppo  and 
Isaac  Johnson, 
Charles  Esings, 
Newell  Symonds, 
Peter  George. 
Lewis  Sylvester, 
Thomas  Foster, 
Rebecca  Jesemy, 
Thomas  Grant, 
Hamet  Lewis, 
Mary  Brown. 


Casme  Francisco  and  Nancy,  his  wife. 

Mary  Fraceway. 


Susannah  Ross. 


John  Short. 




Charlotte  Morris, 


John  Robinson. 


Thomas  Williams. 


Henry  Taylor. 


John  Mum  ford. 


Francis  Thompson, 
Mary  Joseph, 
Samuel  Bean, 
Cato  Gardner, 
Sophia  Mitchel, 
Samuel  Blackburn, 
Joseph  Ocamum. 

John  Brown, 
James  Melvile, 
Hamlet  Earl, 
Charles  Mitchel, 
Samuel  Frazier, 
Tiimothy  Philips, 




Joseph  Lovering. 

The  following  persons,  from  several  of  the  United 
States,  being  people  of  color,  commonly  called  Mulat- 
toes,  are  presumed  to  come  within  the  intention  of 
the  same  law,  and  are  accordingly  warned  and  direct- 
ed to  depart  out  of  the  Commonwealth  before  the 
10th  day  of  October  next: 

Peter  Badger, 
Waley  Green, 

Polly  Adams, 

John  Brown, 
John  Way  and 
Peter  Virginia, 
Lucinda  Orange, 
Britton  Doras, 
Frank  Francies. 


Kelurah  Allen, 
Silvia  Babcock. 


Paul  Jones. 


Polly  Holland, 
Nancy  Way, 
Leville  Steward, 
Anna  Sprague, 
Amos  Willis, 


Hannah  Potter. 


Jacob  &  Nelly  Cummings, 
John  Sch  um  agger, 
Peggy  Willouby, 
Mary  Reading, 
John  Miles, 
Betsy  Harris, 
Susannah  Foster, 
Mary  Thomson, 
Lucy  Glapcion, 

Judeth  Chew, 
Thomas  Willouby, 
John  Reading, 
Charles  Brown, 
Hannah  Williams, 
Douglas  Brown, 
Thomas  Burros, 
James  &  Freelove  Buck, 
Lucy  Lewis, 

Eliza  Williams, 

Caesar  and  Silvia  Caton, 

James  and  Rebecca  Smith, 

Diana  Bayle, 


William  Guin. 

Elonc  Virginia, 
Lydia  Reed, 
Rebecca  Reed,  and 

Stephen  Boadley, 


Abijah  Reed,  and 
Abijah  Reed,  Jr, 
Betsy  Reed. 


Hannah  Victor. 


Polly  Boadley,  James  Long, 

Hannah  Murray,  Jeremiah  Green, 

Nancy  Principeso,  David  Jackson, 

George,  Jackson,  William  Coak, 
Moses  Long. 


Nancy  Gust. 

John  Clark, 

Sally  Hacker, 
John  Johnson, 
Anthony  Paine, 
William  Hacker, 
Betsy  Guin, 


Sally  Johnson. 



Thomas  Steward, 
Mary  Burk, 
Polly  Losours, 
Lucy  Brown. 


Nancy  Doras." 

This  notice  appears  to  have  been  gene- 
rally published  in  Boston,  and  was  copied 
in  other  cities  without  the  list  of  names. 
We  have  met  with  it  in  the  Commercial 
Advertiser  of  the  20th  September,  1800, 
and  the  Daily  Advertiser,  22d  September, 
1800,  both  in  New  York.  Also  in  the  Ga- 
zette of  the  United  States  and  Daily  Ad- 
vertiser of  23d  September,  1800,  in  Phila- 

We  have  seen  no  comments  of  the  Bos- 
ton press  on  the  subject,  but  references  to 
it  in  the  New  York  and  Philadelphia 
papers  hint  at  the  probable  cause  of  this 
stringent  and  sweeping  application  of  this 
"  singular"  statute. 

In  the  year  1800,  the  whole  country 
was  excited  by  the  discovery  of  an  alleged 
plot  for  a  general  insurrection  of  negroes 
at  the  South.  Gabriel,  the  negro  general, 
was  the  "  hero,"  though  not  the  only  vic- 
tim. The  affair  assumed  at  once  a  very 
serious  aspect,  and  the  alarm  was  "  awful" 




in  Virginia  and  South  Carolina.  The  party 
violence  of  the  day  was  not  slow  to  make 
use  of  it,  and  it  was  doubtless  true  that 
the  principles  of  Liberty  and  Equality  had 
been  in  some  degree  infused  into  the  minds 
of  the  negroes,  and  that  the  incautious  and 
intemperate  use  of  these  words  by  the 
"  fierce  democracie"  of  that  day  in  Virgi- 
nia may  have  inspired  them  with  hopes  of 

But  the  alarm  was  not  confined  to  Vir- 
ginia. Even  in  Boston  fears  were  express- 
ed and  measures  of  prevention  adopted. 
N".  T.  Advertiser,  Sept.  26,  1800.  The 
Gazette  of  the  United  States  and  Daily 
Advertiser,  by  C.  P.  Wayne,  Vol.  XVIII., 
Number  2493,  Philadelphia,  September  23, 

1800,  copies  the  "  Notice"  with  these  re- 
marks : 

"  The  following  notice  has  been  published  in  the 
Boston  papers :  It  seems  probable,  from  the  nature  of 
the  notice,  that  some  suspicions  of  the  design  of  the 
negroes  are  entertained,  and  we  regret  to  say  there  is 
too  much  cause." 

Such  was  the  act,  and  such  was  one  of 
its  applications. 

Additional  acts  were  passed  in  1798  and 

1801,  but  this  portion  was  neither  modified 
ncr  r3pealed.  It  appears  in  the  revised 
edition  of  1807,  without  change. 

In  1821,  the  Legislature  of  Massachu 
setts,  alarmed  by  "increase  of  a  species  of 
population,  which  threatened  to  become 
both  injurious  and  burthensome,"  and  fully 
alive  to  "  the  necessity  of  checking''  it, 
appointed  a  committee  to  report  a  bill 
concerning  the  admission  into  the  State  of 
free  Negroes  and  Mulattoes. 

A  report  of  this  committee  to  the  House 
of  Representatives  in  1822  refers  to  the 
statute  of  1788,  in  these  words  : 

"  They  [the  committee]  have  already  found  in  the 
Statute  Books  of  this  Commonwealth,  a  law  passed 
in  1788,  regulating  the  residence  in  this  State  of  cer- 
tain persons  of  color — they  believe  that  this  law  has 
never  been  enforced,  and  ineffectual  as  it  has  proved, 
they  would  never  have  been  the  authors  of  placing 
among  the  Statutes  a  law  so  arbitrary  in  its  principle, 
and  in  its  operation  so  little  accordant  with  the  insti- 
tutions, feelings,  and  practices  of  the  people  of  this 

this  act,  and  reported  no  new  bill  such  as 
they  were  instructed  to  prepare,  it  is  per- 
haps proper  to  infer  that  they  considered 
the  State  amply  protected  by  the  old  law. 
It  appears  again  in  the  revised  laws  of 
1823.  Another  additional  act  was  passed 
in  1825,  but  without  alteration  of  the  pro- 
vision against  negroes ;  and  this  statute, 
"  so  arbitrary  in  its  principle,  and  in  its 
operation  so  little  accordant  with  the  insti- 
tutions, feelings,  and  practices  of  the  people 
of  the  Commonwealth,"  continued  to  grace 
the  Statute  Book  of  Massachusetts  until 
the  first  day  of  April,  1834,  after  which 
time  its  repeal  no  longer  left  it  to  "  public 
opinion"  to  regulate  its  enforcement. — 
Journal  of  Commerce,  March  17,  1864. 

G.   E.   R. 

States  an&  tymm, 

"  These  be   good  words,"  but   as   the 
committee  did  not  recommend  a  repeal  of 


The  Book  of  Common  Prayer  for  the 
Confederate  States. — I  have  very  recent- 
ly examined  one  of  the  copies  of  the  Book 
of  Common  Prayer  from  the  cargo  of 
the  Anglo-Rebel  blockade-runner,  Minna, 
captured  on  the  6th  Dec,  1863,  off  Wil- 
mington, by  the  Government  despatch- 
ship,  Circassian,  Capt.  Eaton.  The  prize 
was  carried  into  Boston,  and  this  portion 
of  the  cargo  sold  there. 

The  book  was  no  doubt  printed  in  Lon- 
don. I  will  give  you  a  transcript  of  the 
title-page.  I  do  not  know  whether  Jeff. 
Davis  is  head  of  the  Church  as  well  as 
head  of  the  Confederate  States.  Whoever 
was  employed  to  correct  the  book  has  exe- 
cuted his  work  about  as  well  as  Mr.  Davis's 
other  agents ;  of  this  I  will  offer  proof 

The  following  is  the  title : — The  Book  of 
Common  Prayer  and  Administration  of  the 
Sacraments  ;  and  other  Rites  and  Cere- 
monies of  the  Church,  according  to  the  use 
of  the  Protestant  Episcopal  Church  in  the 
Confederate   States  of  America,  together 




with  the  Psalter  or  Psalms  of  David. 
Richmond,  Virginia:  J.  W.  Randolph, 
1863.  On  the  verso  of  the  title,  "  London  : 
— Printed  by  G.  E.  Eyre  and  W.  Spottis- 
woode."  The  imprint  of  the  titles  to  the 
metrical  Psalms  and  to  the  Hymns  agree 
with  that  of  the  title  to  the  book ;  but 
there  is  no  reference  on  them  to  the  place 
of  printing  or  to  the  printers. 

The  alterations  in  the  book  itself  occur 
in  the  Prayer  for  the  President  of  the 
Confederate  States,  etc.,  in  the  service  of 
Morning  and  Evening  Prayer,  and  in  the 
Prayer  for  Congress.  But  in  the  form  of 
ordaining  or  consecrating  a  Bishop,  the 
promise  of  conformity  to  be  taken  by  the 
elected  Bishop  is  left  unchanged.  It  still 
reads,  "  I  do  promise  conformity  and  obedi- 
ence to  the  Doctrine,  Discipline,  and  Wor- 
ship of  the  Protestant  Episcopal  Church 
in  the  United  States  of  America,  etc." 

A  more  remarkable  oversight  occurs  in 
one  of  the  prayers  to  be  used  in  ships-of- 
war  at  sea.  The  following  passage  is  re- 
tained :  "  Preserve  us  from  the  dangers  of 
the  sea  and  from  the  violence  of  the  enemy ; 
that  we  may  be  a  safeguard  unto  the  United 
States  of  America,  and  a  security  for  such 
as  pass  on  the  seas  upon  their  lawful  oc- 

Every  one  will  see  at  once  how  peculiar- 
ly appropriate  it  would  be  to  use  this  form 
of  prayer  on  board  of  the  Alabama  and 
the  other  Confederate  privateers. 

The  copy  I  describe  is  in  16mo ;  I  have 
seen  another  copy  in  12mo.,  but  I  have 
not  had  the  opportunity  of  examining  it.  I 
believe,  however,  that  the  two  editions 
correspond  in  all  respects. 

J.   L. 

The  Place  of  the  Death  of  Father 
Rene  Menard. — Bancroft,  in  the  third 
volume  of  his  history,  using  for  the  first 
time  the  simple  narratives  of  the  early 
mission  labors  of  the  Jesuit  Fathers,  drew 
a  picture  of  singular  beauty,  which  has 
prompted  many  to  read,  appreciate,  and 
study  the  period  and  the  men. 

Directed  to  it  myself,  I  made  his  chapter 
a  volume.  In  one  matter  I  came  to  a 
conclusion  different  from  his,  and  this  was 

as  to  the  place  where  Father  Menard  was 

"  Bidding  farewell  to  his  neophytes  and 
the  French,"  says  the  eloquent  historian, 
"  and  to  those  whom  he  never  more  should 
meet  on  earth,  Menard  departed  with  one 
attendant  for  the  Bay  of  Chegoimegon. 
The  accounts  would  indicate  that  he  took 
the  route  by  way  of  Keweena  Lake  and 
portage."  History  of  the  United  States 
HI.  147. 

The  course  indicated  in  the  Relations 
did  not  'seem  to  me  to  bear  out  the  conclu- 
sion that  he  was  going  to  Chegoimegon 
from  Keweenaw  Bay. 

He  made  a  considerable  journey  to  a 
lake,  the  source  of  a  river  which  he 
descended  to  a  portage  where  he  was  lost, 
when  within  one  day's  journey  of  the 
Huron  village  to  which  he  was  proceeding. 

I  had  found  statements  that  led  me  to 
believe  that  the  Hurons  were  then  on  the 
Noquet  Islands  on  Green  Bay,  and  con- 
cluding the  river  to  be  the  Menomomee,  I 
gave,  in  the  History  of  the  Catholic  Missions 
(p.  356),  as  the  locality  of  his  death  the 
rapid  of  that  river. 

A  subsequent  examination  of  Perrot's 
Moeurs  et  Coutumes  des  Sauvages  makes 
it  evident  that  the  Hurons  were  then  not 
on  Noquet  Island,  but  on  the  Black  River. 
Perrot  states  it  expressly  in  connection 
with  Menard's  death  and  previously.  A 
branch  of  the  Wisconsin  still  bears  this 
name,  which  its  black  water  makes  true  and 
descriptive.  A  conversation  with  the  Hon. 
Geo.  Gale  makes  me  judge  that  the  Hurons 
were  on  this  river,  and  that  Menard  died 
on  its  banks. 

The  Black  River  in  name  tallies  with 
Perrot's  account.  In  character  it  corres- 
ponds with  that  described  in  the  Relations. 
It  rises  in  a  lake,  the  journey  to  which 
from  Keweenaw  would  have  been  long  and 
toilsome.  Here  Menard  rested.  The  river 
runs  at  first  through  a  marshy  tract,  and  then 
enters  a  rough  country,  the  channel  being 
embarrassed  with  granite  rocks.  A  fall 
occurs  at  last,  and  here  was  apparently 
the  portage  where  Menard  was  lost.  What 
makes  it  the  more  probable,  is  that  a  day's 
march  below  is  a  bluff  commanding  the 




river,  evidently  an  old  Indian  village  site, 
and  recently  occupied  for  a  time  by  the 
Winnebagoes.  It  would  be  exactly  the 
spot  for  a  band  of  fugitives  like  these 
Hurons  to  plant  their  temporary  village, 
as  it  gave  them  a  look-out  and  protection 
from  attack.  J.  G.  Shea. 

Fkanklin's  House  at  Passy. — Among 
the  contributions  to  the  Metropolitan 
Sanitary  Fair  was  a  sketch  of  the  residence 
occupied  by  Franklin  when  at  Passy, 
made  by  Victor  Hugo,  and  accompanied 
by  the  following  letter  : 

"In  1836  I  happened  to  be  one  day  at 
Passy,  at  M.  Raynouard's,  the  author  of 
the  tragedy  of  the  Knight  Templars.  He 
wore  his  white  hair  streaming  on  his  shoul- 
ders, and  I  said  to  him : 

M '  You  wear  your  hair  as  Franklin  used, 
and  you  look  like  him., 

"He  said  to  me  smiling:  'This  may 
come  from  the  neighborhood,'  and  he 
pointed  to  a  house  that  could  be  seen  from 
his  garden.  4  It  is  there,'  said  he  to  me, 
1  that  Franklin  lived  in  1778.' 

"I  drew  that  house,  now  pulled  down. 
This  is  the  sketch.  I  believe  that  this 
picture  of  the  house  of  Franklin,  at  Passy, 
is  the  only  one  in  existence.  I  offer  it  to 
the  United  States  Sanitary  Commission. 

"  I  am  happy  that  the  Sanitary  Commis- 
sion have  done  me  the  honor  to  call  upon 
me,  and  afford  me  an  opportunity  to  renew 
the  expression  of  my  heartfelt  sympathy 
for  the  gallant  men  who  are  struggling  so 
gloriously  to  rid  the  great  American 
Republic  of  that  sinful  system,  Slavery. 
"Victor  Hugo. 

"  Hatttkville  House,  15th.  March,  1864." 

A     Centenarian     in      Maine. — Mrs. 

Rebecca  Pendleton,  probably  the  oldest 
person  in  Maine,  died  at  Northport,  a 
town  adjoining  the  city  of  Belfast,  on  the 
fifth  of  March,  aged  one  hundred  and  four 
years  and  six  months.  She  was  born  on 
Cape  Elizabeth,  in  September,  1759.  She 
witnessed  the  burning  of  Falmouth,  now 
Portland,  in  1779.  Her  faculties,  with  the 
exception  of  her  hearing,  were  preserved 
to  the  day  of  her  death.    When  more  than 

a  hundred  years  old,  she  walked  two  miles 
and  back  on  the  same  day,  to  attend  the 
funeral  of  her  daughter  of  eighty  years  of 
age.  j.  w. 

Belfast,  Maine. 

The  Capucin  Missions  in  Maine. — 
During  the  autumn  of  1863,  Mr.  W.  H. 
Weeks  of  Castine,  while  at  work  on  the 
road  leading  to  the  battery,  which  the 
government  was  then  erecting  near  the 
mouth  of  the  harbor,  upon  the  site  of  the 
old  brick  battery  known  as  the  Lower 
Fort,  found  near  the  fort,  and  but  little 
below  the  surface  of  the  ground,  a  piece  of 
sheet-copper.  Not  observing  anything  re- 
markable on  it,  he  cut  off  a  piece  to  repair 
his  boat ;  subsequently,  however,  he  dis- 
covered letters ;  and  an  inscription,  which 
has  been  thus  rendered,  was  found : 

1648:  8  Jun:  F. 
Leo  Parisin : 
Capuc.  Miss 
Posvi  hoc  fv- 
ndtm  in  hnr- 
em  Nrse  Dmae 
Sanctse  Spei 

Some  of  these  letters  may  not  be  correct, 
but  the  inscription  is  clear,  and  the  plate 
was  undoubtedly  once  in  the  corner-stone 
of  the  chapel  of  our  Lady  of  Holy  Hope,  in 
the  old  French  Fort.  It  runs  in  English 

1648.   June  8th,  I.  Friar 

Leo  of  Paris, 

Capucin  Missionary 

laid  this  corner  stone 

in  honor  of  Our  Lady 

of  Holy  Hope. 

The  first  French  missionary  effort  on  the 
coast  of  Maine  was  that  of  Rev.  Nicholas 
Aubri,  on  Neutral  Island,  in  1604  ;  but 
the  colony  soon  removed  to  Port  Royal, 
where  he  was  joined  by  the  Rev.  Jesse 
Fleche.  The  Jesuit  Fathers  who  came 
to  Port  Royal  in  1611,  attempted  in  1613 
to  found  a  mission  colony  on  Mount  Desert 
Island,  but  it  was  broken  up  by  Argal. 

The  two  French  fishing  companies  who 
next  obtained  rights  on  the  coast  of  Maine 
sent  out  priests.  The  first  who  came  were 
Reformed  Franciscans,  or  Recollects,  who 
had  a  convent  on  the  St.  John's.     One 




perished  in  the  wilderness  in  1623,  and 
the  rest  abandoned  the  Held  the  next  year. 

In  1630,  under  the  protection  of  Charles 
St.  Etienne  de  la  Tour,  three  Recollect 
missionaries  labored  as  far  west  as  the 

D'Aulney  established  a  Capucin  Mission 
on  the  Kennebec  in  1643,  and  the  Superior 
residing  there  had  depending  on  him  a 
hospice  on  the  Penobscot  at  the  old  fort 
near  Castine. 

The  Chapel  founded  by  Father  Leo  in 
1648  was  evidently  one  raised  to  meet 
the  requirements  of  the  increasing  number 
of  French  on  the  coast. 

There  is  no  published  account  of  the 
labors  of  these  Capucins,  and  we  have 
simply  a  few  detached  facts  and  names. 

When  the  Jesuit  Father  Druillettes 
visited  the  Kennebec  in  1646,  he  found 
Father  Ignatius  of  Paris  as  Superior.  In 
1648,  Father  Cosmas  de  Mante  held  that 
office.  Father  Leo  of  Paris  is  not  named, 
and  was  doubtless  the  chaplain  of  the 
Fort.  At  that  time,  D'Aulney's  establish- 
ment was  broken  up  before  1650,  and  the 
Capucins  carried  off. 

Lieut.  Bexjamin  Jaques,  who  was 
the  direct  agent  in  the  death  of  Father 
Rale  at  Norridgewock,  Me.,  in  1724,  was  a 
native  of  Harpswell,  in  the  same  State. 
The  account  of  that  transaction,  as  pre- 
served among  his  descendants,  has  been  for- 1 
nished  to  the  writer  by  his  great-grandson. ' 

He  states  that  Capt.  Johnson  Harnian 
of  York,  the  father-in-law  of  his  ancestor, 
and  his  frequent  companion  in  Indian 
hunting,  came  into  the  Kennebec  region 
with  a  body  of  soldiers,  with  Capt.  Moul- 
ton,  to  ascend  the  river  and  attack  the 
Indian  settlement  at  Norridgewock.  The 
movement  of  the  detachment  was  suffi- 
ciently rapid  and  secret  to  take  the  enemy 
by  surprise.  But  they  availed  themselves 
of  the  very  brief  notice  given  them  to  meet 
the  invaders  in  a  hasty  but  vigorous  con- 
flict, in  which  they  were  soon  defeated. 
Rale  was  a  fighter  with  the  rest ;  and  from 
his  wigwam  endeavored  to  destroy  as 
many  of  his  foes  as  his  opportunity  would 
allow.     Harman  seeing  the  damage  done 

HIST.    MAG.      VOL.    VIII.  23 

from  that  quarter,  ran  to  his  habitation 
with  Jaques.  They  burst  in  the  door,  and 
saw  Rale  in  the  act  of  dropping  a  bullet 
into  the  muzzle  of  his  musket.  Jaques 
asked  him  if  he  would  "  take  quarter." 
He  replied  "None,  only  what  is  in  the 
muzzle  of  my  gun."  Thereupon  Jaques 
discharged  his  musket  and  wounded  him 
mortally.  Harman  was  a  witness  of  the 
scene,  but  did  not  fire.  When  the  Indians 
saw  their  spiritual  guide  was  killed  they 
became  discouraged.  They  lessened  their 
exertions  at  resistance  and  soon  fled,  leav- 
ing the  English  masters  of  their  village, 
which,  with  its  chapel,  was  immediately  com- 
mitted to  the  flames.  They  never  returned. 
Some  time  after  this  event,  Jaques  was 
ordered  to  Bagaduce  (Castine),  under  a 
colonel  with  the  office  of  captain.  Here  he 
was  commissioned  to  go  with  a  detachment 
of  soldiers  in  boats  to  a  point  of  land  to  be 
crossed  for  the  purpose  of  discovering  the 
movements  of  the  Indians.  He  told  the 
commander  that  he  thought  the  enterprise 
would  not  be  prudent.  In  reply  for  his 
opinion  he  received  a  reproof  that  was 
equivalent  to  an  imputation  on  his  courage. 
He  said  he  "  would  not  turn  on  his  heel  to 
save  his  life;"  but  that  he  "knew  the 
modes  of  Indian  warfare  so  well  that  he 
saw  reasons  for  believing  that  the  safety 
of  the  soldiers  in  making  the  scout  would 
be  greatly  endangered  by  ambush."  He 
obeyed  the  orders,  took  the  men  and  the 
boats,  and  landed  with  his  company  on  the 
shore  proposed.  They  had  proceeded  but 
a  short  distance  into  the  woods,  on  the 
point  of  land,  before  he  saw  an  Indian  step 
from  behind  a  tree  and  level  his  gun  at 
him.  Instantly  he  did  the  same  to  the 
Indian  ;  and  if  his  gun  had  not  missed  fire, 
probably  both  would  have  fallen,  as  he 
di*d  before  the  accurate  aim  of  his  enemy. 
The  Indian  fled  at  once,  fearing  the  attack 
of  the  soldiers.  Jaques  told  them  they 
"  would  see  no  more  Indians,  and  might 
make  their  discoveries  in  safety ;"  and  so 
it  proved.  He  lived  but  a  few  months 
afterwards.  His  remains  were  taken  to 
Harpswell  and  there  buried. 


Maine,  April. 




Letter  op  Benedict  Arnold. — Phila- 
delphia, March  20,  IV 80.— Sir: — The  Pre- 
sident and  Council  of  the  State  of  Pennsyl- 
vania having  published,  and  officially  trans- 
mitted to  the  different  States  Sundry  Re- 
solutions of  theirs,  dated  Philadelphia, 
Feb.  3,  1779,  containing  heavy  charges 
tending  to  prejudice  the  minds  of  my  Fel- 
low-Citizens against  me,  previous  to  a  trial, 
which  with  much  difficulty  I  have  at  length 

The  justice  due  to  my  own  character 
(and  to  the  Public  who  have  been  so  greatly 
deceived)  will  I  trust  excuse  the  liberty  I 
take  in  transmitting  to  your  Excellency  the 
Proceedings  of  the  Court  Martial  on  my 
trial,  which  I  must  request  you  will  do  me 
the  favor  to  lay  before  the  Council  and 
General  Assembly ;  as  I  would  wish  to 
take  off  from  the  minds  of  those  gentle- 
men every  unfavorable  impression,  which 
the  unprecedented  Publication  of  the  Pre- 
sident and  Council  of  Pennsylvania  may 
have  made,  and  to  convince  them  that  my 
character  has  been  most  cruelly  and  un- 
justly traduced. 

I  have  the  Honor  to  be  with  the 
greatest  Respect 
Your  Excellency 
most  obedient  and 
very  humble  servant. 

B.  Arnold. 
His  Excellency, 
Governor  Clinton. 

surviving  revolutionary  pensioner  in  Ver- 
mont, p.  h.  w. 

Coventry,  Vt.,  27  April,  18G4. 

Revolutionary  Pensioners. — (Vol. 
viii.  p.  148.)  Jonas  Gates,  one  of  the 
twelve  pensioners  supposed  to  have  been 
surviving  when  the  additional  pensions  were 
granted,  had  then  been  dead  some  weeks. 
He  died  at  Chelsea,  Vt.,  14  January,  1864, 
aged  99  years,  six  months,  and  nine  days. 
He  was  a  native  of  Barre,  Mass.,  and 
entered  the  service  at  the  age  of  fourteen 
as  waiter  to  his  father,  who  was  a  captain. 
When  about  seventeen  years  old  he  enlist- 
ed as  a  private,  but  was  promoted  to  the 
post  of  orderly  sergeant,  which  rank  he 
held  at  the  close  of  the  war.  He  also 
enlisted  in  the  war  of  1812,  and  held  a 
lieutenant's  commission.     He  was  the  last 

Indian  Tribes,  Chiefs,  and  Treaties. 
— The  following  paper,  bearing  the  above 
title,  and  prepared  by  Hon.  Henry  S.  Baird, 
an  early,  intelligent,  and  respected  resi- 
dent of  Green  Bay,  Wisconsin,  was  lately 
read  before  the  Chicago  Historical  Society. 
Presenting  a  compact  summary  of  facts, 
derived  in  part  from  authentic  public 
documents,  and  in  part  from  the  extensive 
personal  information  possessed  by  its  au- 
thor, it  may  be  convenient  for  reference. 

In  relation  to  the  "  orthography  "  of  the 
names,  Mr.  Baird  writes :  "  I  will  not  vouch 
for  its  correctness.  I  take  it  from  treaties; 
and  on  reference  to  them,  I  find  the  same 
names  often  differently  written  in  different 
treaties.  An  Indian  language  is  difficult 
to  write  correctly.  As  there  is  no  Indian 
alphabet,  names  are  written  according  to 
their  supposed  sound.  The  Winnebago 
is  the  most  harsh  and  guttural  of  all 
languages.  The  Menomonee  is  softer  and 
more  harmonious ;  but  both  are  very  diffi- 
cult to  speak  properly  by  any  one  who  has 
no  Indian  blood  in  his  veins. 

"  The  district  of  country  bounded  by 
the  Wisconsin  River,  Lake  Michigan,  Wolf 
River,  and  on  both  sides  of  Green  Bay, 
Fox  River,  and  Winnebago  Lake,  was 
formerly  claimed  and  occupied  principally 
by  the  Menomonee  and  Winnebago  tribes 
of  Indians.  Each  of  these  tribes,  forty 
years  ago,  was  powerful,  and  numbered 
several  thousands. 

Principal  chiefs  of  the  Menomonees  — 
Oshkosh  (The  Brave),  Kaush-kaw-no-naive 

(Grizzly  Bear),  Josette  Caron  ( ), 

A-yaw-mah-taw  (Fish  Spawn),  Osh-ke- 
e-na-neur  (The  Young  Man),  Pe-wait-e- 
naw  (Rain),  Che-na-po-mee  (One  that  is 
looked  at),  Ke-ma-ni-kin  (Little  Wave), 
Ke-shee-o-quo-teur  (Flying  Cloud),  Wa-bose 
(The  Rabbit),  Wain-e-saut  (One  who 
arranges  the  circle),  Ke-shoh  (The  Sun), 
Ma-con-cee-'wa-be-no-chee  (Bear's  Child), 
A-ca-mut  (The  Prophet),  Sh  a  w-e-no-ge-shick 
(South  Sky),  Sho-ne-on  (Silver),  Shaw-baw- 
so  (Pale  Color),  Pa  w-a-ko-neur  (Big  Soldier). 




Principal  chiefs  of  the  Winnebagoes. — 
Hoo-tshoop  (Four  Legs),  Hay-tay-tshoan- 
sarp  (Black-Hawk),  Karry-man-nee  (Walk- 
ing Turtle),  Shoank-skaw  (White  Dog), 
Shoank-tshunsk-kaw  (Black  Wolf),  Maunk- 
hay-raith  (Tattooed  Breast),  Wheank-kaw 
(Big  Duck),  Spoank-ay-paw-kaw  (Dog 
Head),  Sar-ray-num-nee  (Walking  Mat), 
Waunk-tsliay-hee-sootsh  (Red  Devil), 
Waw-kawn-hoa-noa-nick  (Little  Snake), 
Non-kaw  (Wood),  Kaw-nee-show  (White 
Crow),  Hoon-kaw  (Chief),  Hoo-wawn-ee- 
kaw  (Little  Elk),  Tshay-ro-tshoan-kaw 
(Smoker),  Morah-tshay-kaw  (Little  Priest), 
Man-ah-kee-tshump  (Spotted  Arm). 

In  character  these  two  tribes  were 
essentially  different,  as  may  be  inferred 
from  a  former  paper  on  the  "  North 
American  Indians." 

The  several  treaties,  by  which  the 
Indian  title  to  the  lands  and  domain 
formerly  occupied  and  owned  by  these 
tribes  was  purchased,  or,  in  popular  phrase, 
"extinguished,"  were  the  following: 

1.  Treaty  of  Butte  des  Morts,  August 
11,1827,  with  Chippewas,  Menomonees,  and 
Winnebagoes.  Lewis  Cass  and  Thomas  L. 
McKinney,  U.S.  Commissioners. 

2.  Treaty  of  Green  Bay,  August  25, 
1828,  with  Winnebagoes,  Pottawattimees, 
Chippewas,  and  Ottawas.  Lewis  Cass  and 
Pierre  Menard,  Commissioners. 

3.  Treaty  of  Prairie  du  Chien,  August 
1,  1829,  with  Winnebagoes.  Gen.  Mc- 
Neil, Pierre  Menard,  and  Caleb  Atwater, 

4.  Treaty  of  Washington,  February  8, 

1831,  with  Menomonees.     John  H.  Eaton 
and  Samuel  C.  Stambaugh,  Commissioners. 

5.  Treaty  of  Fort  Armstrong,  September 
15,  1832,  with  Winnebagoes.  Gen.  Scott 
and  John  Reynolds,  Commissioners. 

6.  Treaty  of  Green   Bay,  October   27, 

1832,  with  Menomonees.   Gov.  George  B. 
Porter,  Commissioner. 

7.  Treaty  between  the  United  States 
and  the  Menomonee  Nation  of  Indians, 
concluded  at  "  Cedar  Point,"  on  the  Fox 
River,  near  Green  Bay,  on  1st  September, 
A.D.  1836.  Hon  Henry  Dodge,  then 
Governor  of  Wisconsin,  Commissioner  of 
the  United  States. 

8.  Treaty  between  the  United  States 
and  the  same  Tribe  of  Indians,  concluded 
at  "  Winneconnee,"  on  Lake  Winneconnee, 
near  Oshkosh,  in  November,  A.D.  1848. 
Hon.  William  Medill,  then  Commissioner 
of  Indian  Affairs,  Commissioner  of  the 
United  States. 

The  last  are  the  latest  and  most  impor- 
tant, as  by  them  the  largest  portion  of  the 
land  owned  by  the  "Menomonees"  was 
purchased  by  the  Government. 

Mr.  Crawford,  the  last  N.  S.  Loyal- 
ist.— Mr.  Archibald  Crawford,  who  died 
on  Monday  last  at  Musquodobolt  Harbor, 
in  the  101st  year  of  his  age,  was  a  native 
of  South  Carolina,  and  of  Scottish  parent- 
age. He  was  a  Loyalist,  and  witnessed 
the  first  American  Revolution ;  and  when 
that  great  revolution  was  consummated, 
young  Crawford  and  his  parents  made  the 
best  of  their  way  to  Nova  Scotia,  in  order 
to  preserve  their  allegiance  to  George  III. 
He  lived  for  many  years  on  the  Musquodo- 
bolt River,  near  Crawford's  Falls,  where 
his  hospitality  was  often  enjoyed  by 
travellers.  From  this  place  he  removed 
to  Porter's  Lake,  where  his  house  was 
always  the  home  of  Presbyterian  clergy- 
men officiating  there.  For  the  last  few 
years  he  lived  with  his  grandchildren  at 
Musquodobolt  Harbor.  His  wife,  who 
died  about  five  years  ago,  was  also  a  loyal- 
ist. Mr.  Crawford  was  probably  the  last 
of  the  Refugee  Loyalists  in  the  Province. 
He  had  a  clear  recollection  of  all  the 
stirring  times  when  the  great  Republic  first 
took  its  place  among  the  nations. — Halifax 

Beltrami,  the  Discoverer  op  the 
Northern  Source  of  the  Mississippi. 
— On  the  morning  of  the  28th  of  August, 
1823,  Beltrami,  an  ardent  Italian,  with 
only  an  Indian  guide,  and  bois-brule 
voyageur,  by  way  of  the  Red  River  of  the 
north,  boldly  penetrated  to  the  extreme 
northern  sources  of  the  Mississippi,  which 
he  designated  as  the  "Julian"  sources,  in 
compliment  to  the  esteemed  Countess  of 
Albany.  In  the  journal  of  his  tour,  he 
also  describes  Lac  La  Biche,  or  Elk  Lake, 




now  poetically  rather  than  accurately 
designated  Itasca,  and  says:  "It  is  here, 
in  my  opinion,  we  shall  fix  the  western 
sources  of  the  Mississippi." 

This  discoverer,  so  little  known  to 
Americans,  was  born  in  Bergamo,  and  in 
1807  was  chancellor  in  one  of  the  districts 
of  Italy.  In  1812  he  went  to  Florence  and 
became  one  of  an  interesting  literary  circle 
in  that  city,  of  which  the  Countess  of 
Albany  was  a  prominent  member. 

Suspected  of  "  Carbonarism,"  he  became 
an  exile,  and  visited  France,  Germany, 
England,  the  United  States,  and  Mexico. 
Later  in  life  he  resided  for  several  years 
near  Heidelberg,  but  at  length  returned  to 
his  beloved  Italia,  and  died  at  Filotrant  in 
1855,  aged  seventy-five  years. 

Prominent  in  the  public  library  of 
Bergamo,  there  is  a  finely-executed  paint- 
ing representing  Beltrami  in  a  canoe, 
pushing  towards  the  sources  of  the  Missis- 
sippi. A  letter  just  received  from  Berga- 
mo, dated  February  11,  and  addressed  to 
a  gentleman  who  has  given  great  attention 
to  the  topography  of  the  Upper  Mississippi, 
and  now  on  duty  at  the  headquarters  of 
the  army,  states  that  the  city  of  Bergamo 
is  about  to  publish  a  biographical  notice  of 
Beltrami,  with  a  portrait,  and  that  the 
work  will  be  dedicated  to  the  Historical 
Society  of  Minnesota. 

This  society  of  the  most  northern  State 
in  the  valley  of  the  Mississippi  has  become 
favorably  known  in  Europe,  through  the 
labors  of  its  members,  who  have  given  to 
the  world  the  "Dakota  Grammar  and 
Lexicon,"  issued  by  the  Smithsonian  Institu- 
tion, and  one  of  the  largest  works  on  the 
language  of  the  aborigines  of  North 
America  ever  published,  and  also  by  vari- 
ous additions  to  the  topography  and 
history  of  the  region  west  of  Lake  Supe- 
rior, printed  in  its  own  Annals,  and  other 
historical  magazines. 

Origin  of  the  Name  Pennsylvania. — 
Being  moved  to  inquire  when,  and  from 
whom,  and  under  what  circumstances  the 
State  received  its  name,  we  consulted  Day's 
Historical  Collections  of  Pennsylvania,  a 
very  good  compilation,  and  found  only  this 

simple  memorandum:  "By  the  King's 
order,  much  against  Penn's  inclination,  the 
new  province  was  to  be  called  Pennsylva- 
nia, in  honor  of  the  services  of  his  illus- 
trious father."  No  particulars  were  given 
and  no  proof  of  the  statement  was  cited. 
We  opened  a  book  of  more  research,  and 
found  the  particulars  recorded,  with  the 
authority  given.  It  was  Hazard's  Annals 
of  Pennsylvania,  a  work  which  contains,  it 
is  believed,  the  only  authentic  and  circum- 
stantial account  of  the  naming  of  the  pro- 
vince on  record.  And  now  see  how  true 
is  history : 

Hazard  quotes  from  official  records  to 
show  that  when  the  privy  council  of  Charles 
submitted  to  him  the  draft  of  the  charter 
of  the  province,  "  there  being  a  blank  left 
for  the  name,  their  lordships  agree  to  leave 
the  nomination  of  it  to  the  King."  The 
day  after  the  charter  was  granted  to  Penn, 
he  wrote  a  letter  to  a  certain  Robert  Tur- 
ner, in  which  he  gives  the  particulars  of 
the  naming  of  his  province.  The  essential 
parts  of  that  letter  we  quote : 

"  *  *  *  Know  that  after  many  waitings, 
watchings,  solicitings,  and  disputes  in  council,  this 
day  my  country  was  confirmed  to  me  under  the  great 
seal  of  England,  with  large  powers  and  privileges,  by 
the  name  of  Pennsylvania,  a  name  the  King  would 
give  it  in  honor  of  my  father.  I  chose  New  Wales, 
being  a  pretty  hilly  country ;  but  Penn  being  Welsh 
for  a  head,  as  Penmanmoire  in  Wales,  and  Penrith  in 
Cumberland,  and  Penn  in  Buckinghamshire,  the  high- 
est land  in  England,  called  this  Pennsylvania,  which 
is  the  high  or  head  woodlands ;  for  I  proposed,  when 
the  Secretary,  a  Welshman,  refused  to  have  it  called 
New  Wales,  Sylvania,  and  they  added  Penn  to  it, 
and  though  I  much  opposed  it  and  went  to  the  King 
to  have  it  struck  out  and  altered,  he  said  it  was  past, 
and  would  take  it  upon  him ;  nor  could  twenty  guineas 
move  the  under-secretaries  to  vary  the  name,  for  I 
feared  lest  it  should  be  looked  on  as  a  vanity  in  me, 
and  not  as  a  respect  in  the  King,  as  it  truly  was,  to 
my  father,  whom  he  often  mentions  with  praise." 

Although  it  may  appear  irreverent  in  us 
to  say  so,  we  cannot  resist  the  temptation 
to  remark  that  the  great  Quaker  seems  to 
have  been  a  perfect  master  of  the  art  of 
"how  not  to  do  it."  At  first  sight  the 
reader  will  probably  conclude,  as  we  did, 
that  to  the  King  do  we  owe  the  whole  of 
the  name  of  our  State;  but  a  second  look 
will  convince  him  that  we  are  indebted  to 




1*01111  for  the  Sylvania  portion  of  it.  So 
much  seems  to  be  clear  and  unquestionable. 
Now,  from  whom  came  the  prefix  Pennf 
That  is  not  so  clear.  Penn  having  at  first 
stated  with  much  positiveness  that  "the 
King  would  give"  to  the  province  "the 
name  of  Pennsylvania,''  and  having  sub- 
sequently stated  that  he  proposed  Sylva- 
nia, Ave  naturally  hesitate  to  receive  the 
remainder  of  his  statement  without  a  care- 
ful analysis  of  its  meaning.  Failing  to 
obtain  the  adoption  of  the  name  of  New 
Wales,  Penn,  as  we  have  seen,  proposed 
Sylvania,  and  immediately  afterwards  re- 
marks that  "they  added  Penn  to  it."  To 
whom  does  the  term  "  they  "  refer  ?  There 
are  three  considerations  which  point  to  the 
secretary  and  his  assistants  as  the  persons 
meant.  First,  if  Penn  had  meant  the 
King  it  is  to  be  presumed  that  he  would 
have  said  so ;  secondly,  the  term  is  plural, 
not  singular ;  thirdly,  Penn  offered  to  bribe 
the  uncler-secretaries  to  omit  the  prefix, 
which  he  would  hardly  have  done  if  the 
King  had  ordered  it  to  be  inserted.  So 
far  the  evidence  points  from  the  King. 
But  Penn  does  not  forget  himself,  and 
straightway  proceeds  to  give  evidence  on 
the  other  side — "  for  I  feared  lest  it  should 
be  looked  on  as  a  vanity  in  me,  and  not  as 
a  respect  in  the  King,  as  it  truly  was,  to 
my  father."  And  this  is  the  history  of 
the  naming  of  our  State.  That  the  King's 
privy  council,  in  submitting  to  his  majesty 
the  draft  of  the  charter  of  the  province, 
left  to  him  the  selection  of  a  name  there- 
for, Hazard  expressly  states  and  proves 
before  giving  the  Turner  letter ;  but  that 
the  King  exercised  the  privilege  is  not 
proved  from  that  letter,  nor  from  anything 
else  in  Hazard's  book. 

We  add  a  remark  or  two  appropriate  to 
the  general  subject.  Inappropriate  and 
uneuphonious  as  would  have  been  the  name 
by  which  Penn  first  proposed  to  call  our 
State — namely,  New  Wales— there  was 
nevertheless  ample  precedent  for  its  use. 
The  impulse  to  prefix  new  to  the  names  of 
provinces  and  towns  was  a  strong  one  with 
our  colonial  forefathers.  There  were  New 
England,  New  Netherlands,  New  Amster- 
dam, New  York,  New  Jersey,  New  Swe- 

den, etc.  Why  not  New  Wales  and  New 
Welshmen ! 

The  charter  of  the  province  of  Pennsyl- 
vania Avas  granted  to  AVilliam  Penn  in  con- 
sideration of  a  debt  of  £16,000  due  by  the 
King  to  his  father  at  the  time  of  his  death. 
Sir  William  Penn,  the  father,  had  been  an 
admiral  of  distinction  in  the  British  navy 
and  a  warm  personal  friend  of  his  majesty. 
The  son,  therefore,  in  reality  paid  nothing 
out  of  his  own  pocket,  as  we  say,  for  his 
province,  except  the  sum  it  cost  him  to 
make  the  Elm-Tree  treaty. 

Penn's  fears  that  the  name  of  Pennsyl- 
vania would  be  attributed  to  a  desire  on 
his  part  to  perpetuate  his  own  name  in 
that  of  his  province,  have  been  realized  in 
the  popular  opinion  of  the  day.  But  how 
many  pioneers  of  civilization  who  build 
towns  and  found  cities  in  these  latter  days 
— there  are  no  longer  any  provinces  to  be 
chartered — reflect  the  modesty  of  William 
Penn ! 

The  Late  Thaddeus  Morrice,  the 
Speaker's  Page. — No  one  who  has  been 
accustomed  to  attend  the  sessions  of  Con- 
gress during  the  past  fifteen  years  has 
failed  to  notice  at  the  right  of  the  Speaker 
a  tall,  slim,  pale-faced,  bright-looking  lad, 
who  gradually  grew  up  into  manhood,  and 
still  retained  his  position  and  title,  which 
was  that  of"  Speaker's  page."  No  matter 
what  party  was  in  power  in  Congress, 
Thad.  Morrice  was  retained.  Every  new 
Speaker  found  him  an  almost  indispensable 
assistant.  Standing  just  at  the  Speaker's 
elbow,  with  his  arm  leaning  upon  the  desk 
and  his  chin  resting  upon  his  hand,  which 
was  between  the  Speaker  and  the  audience, 
in  that  attitude  of  whispering  to  the 
Speaker,  the  faithful  Thaddeus  has  stood 
during  many  sessions  of  Congress,  the 
prompter  of  Boyd,  Banks,  Orr,  Penning- 
ton, Grow,  and  Colfax.  It  is  said  he  knew 
more  of  parliamentary  law  than  any  man 
in  America.  And  he  knew  every  member 
of  the  House  in  all  these  Congresses ;  it 
was  his  special  business  to  know  them. 
No  Speaker  could  get  along  without  such 
an  assistance  at  first.  When  Pennington 
was   Speaker   a  good   portion  of  all  the 




words  he  uttered  were  literally  put  into 
his  ear  by  Thad.  He  did  not  know  one- 
quarter  of  the  members  even  by  sight,  and 
was  sadly  deficient  in  parliamentary  law. 
When  any  member  arose  he  would,  say, 
"the  gentleman  from,"  generally  without 
the  least  idea  what  State  he  was  to  name, 
but  so  prompt  was  Thad.  to  give  it,  and  so 
unobserved,  in  doing  so,  that  not  one  in  a 
hundred  who  was  not  cognisant  of  the  pro- 
cess would  imagine  but  what  Pennington 
knew  all  the  members.  And  many  and 
many  a  time  the  old  man  would  commence 
the  statement  of  a  question,  not  knowing 
how  he  was  to  finish  his  sentence,  which 
was  furnished  and  finished  by  the  youthful 
parliamentarian  at  his  elbow. 

Old  House  in  Boston. — One  of  the 
most  noted  landmarks  in  our  city  is  about 
to  disappear.  The  ancient  building  which 
has  stood  for  nearly  one  hundred  and  fifty 
years  at  the  corner  of  Water  and  Washing- 
ton streets,  is  doomed.  Workmen  are  now 
at  work  upon  it,  and  it  is  to  be  taken 
down,  and  in  a  few  days  it  will  be  num- 
bered with  the  things  that  were.  It  is 
without  doubt  the  oldest  building  now 
standing  in  its  original  state  on  Washing- 
ton street,  it  having  been  built  in  1715-16. 
Its  dilapidated  condition  at  the  present 
time  renders  it  an  event  not  to  be  regretted, 
except  by  a  certain  few,  who  in  their  zeal 
for  the  preservation  of  the  monuments  of 
the  past,  seem  to  forget  what  is  due  to  the 
present  age.  If  such  persons  could  always 
have  had  their  way,  what  a  queer  place 
Boston  would  be  now!  There  are  reminiscen- 
ces relating  to  this  old  building  and  its  asso- 
ciations with  the  newspaper  press  in  this  city, 
as  well  as  with  the  printing  business  gene- 
rally, that  may  not  be  uninteresting. 

The  estate  formerly  belonged  to  one 
Enoch  Greenleaf,  saddler,  who,  in  1709, 
owned  seventy-one  feet  on  Washington 
street,  north  of  Water  street,  and  included 
the  site  of  the  Journal  building  that  now 
is,  and  that  now  occupied  by  Whittemore's 
book  store. 

In  April,  1716,  Greenleaf  sold  this  estate, 
measuring  twenty-four  feet  on  Oornhill 
street,  as   it  was  then   called,  to   Thomas 

Debuke,  for  £800.  Debuhe  was  a  butcher, 
and  had  for  a  long  time  occupied  part  of 
the  premises — his  slaughter-house  was  in 
the  rear.  In  June,  same  year,  he  mort- 
gaged it  to  John  Cutler,  surgeon,  for  £400 
— including  in  the  description  "  my  new 
built  messuage^  <&c.  This  fixes  the  date 
of  the  erection.  In  front  it  was  used  as  a 
butcher*  s-shop,  by  Mr.  Debuke  ;  and  for  a 
long  time  after  his  death  a  ponderous  hook 
and  staple  were  to  be  seen  affixed  to  one 
of  the  principal  beams,  upon  which  it  was 
said  he  used  to  hang  his  slaughtered  cattle. 
He  resided  there  till  his  death.  In  1731 
it  was  sold  by  his  heirs,  Thomas  and 
Jemima  Debuke,  to  James  JBowdoin,  for 
"  £1200  good  public  bills  of  credit" — he  to 
assume  the  payment  of  a  mortgage  of  £460 
to  one  John  Valentine. 

In  June,  1744,  Bowdoin  sold  the  estate 
to  Thomas  Fleet,  for  £650,  lawful  money, 
equal  to  $2167  67.  Mr  Fleet  was  a  printer, 
and  had  formerly  carried  on  his  business  in 
Pudding  lane,  now  Devonshire  street. 
He  had,  however,  occupied  these  premises 
as  a  tenant  since  1731.  He  had  designated 
the  building  as  the  " Heart  and  Crown" 
in  Cornhill — the  emblems  of  which  were 
displayed  from  the  outer  walls.  This  was 
a  common  practice  in  those  days,  the  streets 
not  bein^  numbered.  "The  Three  Kings" 
—'•The  Three  Nuns"— The  Three  Fans" 
— and  the  " Brazen  Head"  were  all  in  the 
immediate  vicinity. 

The  printing  office  was  located  in  the 
upper  rooms  of  the  building ;  the  front 
chamber  was  fitted  up  as  a  "  Vendue"  or 
auction-room,  and  was  used  for  that  purpose 
many  years  ;  and  on  the  lower  floor  was  a 
bookstore;  while  his  family  occupied  the 
other  parts  of  the  house. 

For  more  than  forty  years  a  weekly 
newspaper  was  issued  from  this  place.  The 
first  was  the  "  Weekly  Rehearsal,"  the 
fifth  newspaper  established  in  Boston  ;  the 
first  number,  dated  "Monday,  September 
27,  1731,"  and  "printed  by  J.  Draper,  for 
the  Author."  The  Author  was  Jeremy 
Gridley,  a  young  man  of  fine  literary 
acquirements,  who,  in  after  life,  attained  to 
great  distinction  in  the  Province.  The 
paper  was  more  than  half  filled  with  moral 




and  entertaining  essays,  which  were  good 
specimens  of  the  kind  of  writing  that  was 
popular  in  the  times  of  the  "  Tatler," 
"  Guardian"  and  " Spectator?"*  It  did 
not  succeed,  however,  according  to  his 
wishes,  and  he  soon  retired  from  the 
concern,  and  in  1733  it  fell  into  the  hands 
of  Thomas  Fleet,  who  had  for  some  time 
been  the  printer,  and  was  interested  in  the 
publication.  He  now  became  sole  proprie- 
tor. The  "  Rehearsal "  was  continued  by 
him  till  August,  1735,  when  its  publication 
was  brought  to  a  close — to  be  succeeded 
by  "  The  Boston  Evening  Post"  of  which 
Mr.  Fleet  was  sole  editor  and  proprietor 
as  well  as  printer  and  publisher.  The 
Evening  Post  soon  became  the  most  popu- 
lar of  the  Boston  newspapers,  and  was 
conducted  in  an  able  and  independent 

Mr.  Fleet  was  a  man  of  more  than  ordi- 
nary talent,  well  versed  in  the  ways  of  the 
world,  and  of  great  wit  and  humor ;  of 
these  he  frequently  furnished  specimens  in 
editorial  paragraphs  and  advertisements. 
He  was  also  well  able  to  defend  himself  in 
any  controversy  in  which  he  was  engaged, 
whether  secular  or  religious,  as  the  co- 
lumns of  his  paper  abundantly  testify. 

He  died  in  July,  1758,  in  the  seventy- 
third  year  of  his  age.  The  Evening  Post 
was  continued  by  his  sons,  Thomas  and 
John  Fleet,  and  conducted  with  equal 
ability  till  April,  1775,  when  it  was  discon- 
tinued by  order  of  General  Howe.  As  all 
insignia  of  royalty  had  become  unpopular 
at  this  time,  the  Crown  was  stricken  from 
their  sign  and  the  Bible  put  in  its  place ; 
and  the  "  Bible  and  Heart "  soon  became 
equally  as  well  known  as  the  "  Heart  and 
Crown"  previously  had  been.  The  printing 
business  generally  was  also  carried  on  by 
them,  and  of  which  they  had  always  enjoyed 
a  large  share.  For  more  than  twenty 
years,  from  1779  to  1801,  "Fleet's  Pocket 
Almanac  and  Register" — a  very  useful 
manual  of  nearly  two  hundred  pages — was 
compiled  and  published  by  them,  and  met 
with  extensive  sales.  It  afterwards  passed 
into  the  hands  of  Manning  and  Loring,  and 
John  West. 

Thomas  Fleet,  the  son,  died  in  1797, 

aged  65  years.  He  was  never  married. 
John  Fleet  died  in  1806,  aged  72,  leaving 
several  children;  one  of  them,  Thomas 
Fleet,  a  printer,  was  connected  in  business 
with  his  father,  but  relinquished  it  soon 
after  his  father's  death,  or  in  1809,  when 
the  family  vacated  the  premises  and  re- 
moved to  another  location.  Thus,  for  a 
period  of  seventy-eight  years,  the  Fleets, 
father,  sons  and  grandson,  conducted  the 
printing  business  in  this  same  venerable 
building,  well  known  in  times  past  as  the 
"  Heart  and  Crown"  and  the  "  Bible  and 
Heart F  in  Cornhill,  but  now  known  simply 
as  the  corner  of  Water  and  Washington 
streets.  The  estate  is  still  in  possession  of 
the  family. 

Until  a  few  years,  comparatively,  it 
continued  to  be  used  as  a  dwelling  by 
many  families,  and  for  various  kinds  of 
business  down  to  the  present  time ;  but  no 
one  person  has  occupied  the  premises  so 
long  as  to  have  become  identified  with  the 
building,  or  the  building  with  them. 
Although  it  has  stood  so  many  years,  it 
seems  to  have  undergone  no  material 
alteration  in  its  outward  appearance,  and 
may  therefore  be  considered  a  fair  speci- 
men of  the  style  of  building  a  century  and 
a  half  ago.  The  walls  appear  frail,  and  in 
danger  of  falling,  and  have  more  than  once 
been  complained  of  to  the  city  govern- 
ment,— but  examination  by  competent 
persons  appointed  for  the  purpose  has 
resulted  each  time  in  the  opinion  that  they 
were  as  firm  as  when  first  built ;  the  proof 
of  this,  however,  will  be  ascertained  in  a 
few  days. 

A  new  structure  will  soon  rise  upon  the 
site,  and  being  from  plans  drawn  and  under 
the  superintendence  of  B.  F.  Dwight,  Esq., 
the  well  known  architect,  is  a  sufficient 
guaranty  that  it  will  be  worthy  the  location, 
an  ornament  to  the  city,  and  an  honor  to 
all  parties  concerned. — Boston  Transcript. 

How  Tecumseh  was  Killed.— The 
Western  Christian  Advocate  recently  con- 
tained an  obituary  notice  of  Isaac  Ham- 
blin,  Sen.,  who  died  at  his  residence,  near 
Bloomfield,  Ind.,  a  few  months  since,  aged 
about  eighty-six  years.     Mr.  Hamblin  was 




a  man  of  deep  piety  and  unquestionable 
veracity.  He  was  in  the  battle  of  the 
Thames,  and  the  writer  gives  the  following 
as  his  statement  in  regard  to  the  manner 
in  which  Tecumseh  was  killed : 

He  says  he  was  standing  but  a  few  feet 
from  Colonel  Johnson  when  he  fell,  and  in 
full  view,  and  saw  the  whole  of  that  part 
of  the  battle.  He  was  well  acquainted 
with  Tecumseh,  having  seen  him  before 
the  war,  and  having  been  a  prisoner  seven- 
teen days,  and  received  many  a  cursing 
from  him.  He  thinks  that  Tecumseh 
thought  Johnson  was  Harrison,  as  he  often 
heard  the  chief  swear  he  would  have 
Harrison's  scalp,  and  seemed  to  have  a 
special  hatred  towards  him.  Johnson's 
horse  fell  under  him,  himself  being  also 
deeply  wounded;  in  the  fall  he  lost  his 
sword,  his  large  pistols  were  empty,  and 
he  was  entangled  with  his  horse  on  the 
ground.  Tecumseh  had  fired  his  rifle  at 
him,  and  when  he  saw  him  fall,  he  threw 
down  his  gun  and  bounded  forward  like  a 
tiger,  sure  of  his  prey.  Johnson  had  only 
a  side  pistol  ready  for  use.  He  aimed  at 
the  chief  over  the  head  of  the  horse,  and 
shot  him  near  the  centre  of  his  forehead. 
When  the  ball  struck  it  seemed  to  him 
that  the  Indian  jumped  with  his  head  full 
fifteen  feet  into  the  air.  As  soon  as  he 
struck  the  ground  a  little  Frenchman  ran 
his  bayonet  into  him,  and  pinned  him  fast 
to  the  ground. 

An  Eaely  Canal  (vol.  viii.  p.  114). — 
Worthington,  in  his  History  of  Dedham, 
p.  12,  gives  the  following  account  of  a 
canal  constructed  soon  after  the  settlement 
of  the  Massachusetts  Colony.  If  his  state- 
ments are  to  be  relied  upon,  this  canal  was 
dusj   about  a  century  before  that  in  the 

County  of   Orange,  N.  Y.,  mentioned  in 
your  March  number. 

"  About  a  quarter  of  a  mile  north  of  the 
new  Court-House  in  Dedham,  Mother 
Brook  starts  out  of  Charles  River  and 
runs  in  a  proper  and  direct  course  round 
the  highlands  near  the  village,  and  then,  at 
the  only  place  where  it  could  find  a  pass- 
age, goes  easterly  and  joins  the  Nepouset 
River,  forming  in  its  course  between  the 

two  rivers  five  mill  seats  of  great  value. 
This  stream,  thus  leaving  its  principal  bed 
and  running  off  to  join  a  neighboring 
stream,  has  been  represented  as  a  natural 
curiosity  ;  at  least  the  inhabitants  have  no 
knowledge  of  its  having  been  caused  by 
them.  When  I  discovered  the  record  of 
its  being  an  artificial  work,  a  natural  but 
groundless  fear  was  excited  that  it  would 
do  harm  to  publish  the  truth  concerning  it. 
Abraham  Shaw  had  been  encouraged  to 
build  a  water  mill  in  the  first  year  of  the 
settlement,  and  a  committee  was  appointed 
to  designate  the  place.  Shaw  soon  after 
died,  but  the  committee  suggested  the 
measure  of  forming  this  new  stream,  which 
is  recorded  in  these  words : 

'28th  day,  1st  month,  1639.  Ordered 
that  a  ditch  shall  be  dug  at  common 
charge,  through  upper  Charles  Meadow 
into  East  Brook,  that  it  may  both  be  a 
partition  fence  in  the  same,  and  also  may 
form  a  suitable  course  into  a  water  mill, 
that  it  shall  be  found  fitting  to  set  a  mill 
upon  in  the  opinion  of  a  workman  to  be 
employed  for  that  purpose.' 

"  The  water-mill  was  soon  after  built,  as 
we  shall  see  hereafter.  The  source  of  East 
Brook  was  more  than  one  hundred  yards 
east  of  the  Norfolk  and  Bristol  Turnpike, 
where  it  crosses  the  stream.  At  this  point 
a  curious  observer  may  "see  the  truth  of 
this  account  in  the  original  state  of  the 
ground ;  he  will  in  vain  seek  for  any  natu- 
ral bed  of  this  stream.  In  addition  to  this 
evidence,  the  tradition  of  cutting  the  canal 
for  this  stream  has  been  preserved  in  one 
family,  which,  from  fear  of  consequences, 
has  refrained  from  divulging  the  fact." 

I  remember  hearing,  several  years  ago,  a 
gentleman  well  versed  in  the  history  of 
Dedham,  Mass.,  express  strong  doubts  of 
Mother  Brook  being  an  artificial  work,  but 
do  not  recollect  his  reasons.  The  subject 
is  certainly  worth  investigating. 


House  where  Hamilton  died. — "The 
house  in  which  General  Alexander  Hamil- 




ton  breathed  his  last  is  still  standing  on 
the  north-west  corner  of  Eighth  Avenue 
and  Eighteenth  street." — Evening  Post, 
March  25th. 

Is  not  this  an  error  ? 

A  large  modern  edifice  now  occupies 
the  whole  of  that  corner.  On  the  north- 
east corner  is  a  house  with  modern  brick 
front,  while  the  main  body  of  the  building 
is  evidently  of  a  much  more  ancient  con- 
struction. But  it  has  been  generally 
understood  that  Hamilton  was  taken  from 
the  boat  which  bore  him  from  Weehawken, 
to  the  house  of  his  friend,  William  Bayard, 
where  he  died.  Did  not  Mr.  Bayard  live 
at  or  near  the  foot  of  the  present  Thirteenth 
street  ? 

Alsop,  Boerum,  Haring,  Low. — Can 
any  reader  give  me  information  respecting 
the  living  descendants  of  the  late  John 
Alsop,  Simon  Boerum,  John  Haring,  or 
Isaac  Low,  who  represented  this  State  in 
the  Continental  Congress — their  names, 
present  addresses,  &c. 


Mayor  John  Whistler. — Where  can 
I  find  a  fuller  account  of  this  officer  than 
the  necessarily  brief  statements  of  facts 
given  by  Gardiner  in  his  dictionary  of  the 
army  ?  h.  j.  r. 


Henry  Francisco. — (vol.  viii.  p.  78.) 
His.  Mag.,  Feb.  1864.— An  intelligent 
resident  of  this  city  states,  that  one 
"  Francisco"  held  the  plough  at  one  of 
the  first  agricultural  fairs  in  Washington 
County,  N.  Y.,  about  the  year  1820,  and 
was  there  spoken  of  as  "  the  oldest  man  in 

The  same  informant  adds,  that  in 
November,  1824,  he  became  slightly  ac- 
quainted with  a  Mr.  Francisco  Tyler,  of 
one  of  the  Masonic  Lodges  in  Cincinnati, 
Ohio,  who,  during  a  brief  conversation, 
informed  him  that  he  was  the  youngest 
son  of  Henry  Francisco,  of  or  near  White- 
hall, N.  Y.,  and  that  his  father  was  then 

HIST.  MAG.      VOL.  VIII.  24' 

The  records  of  the  agricultural  fair  re- 
ferred to,  as  also  inquiries  at  Cincinnati, 
Ohio,  may  throw  some  light  upon  the 
American  patriarch  of  the  nineteenth 


A  Statue  on  the  Battery,  New 
York. — (vol.  viii.  p.  154). — I  recollect 
having  seen  an  equestrian  statue  of  Wash- 
ington or  Jackson  on  the  Battery  about 
twenty-five  years  ago,  but  if  memory  serves, 
it  was  a  plaster  model.  It  remained  there 
some  time,  until  sharpshooting  youth  be- 
came too  daring  or  expert  for  its  safety.  I 
think  one  knocked  off"  the  index  finger  point- 
ing to  victory  or  in  a  better  direction. 


Sumtm  Ritir  tljeir  |rjrcnMngf« 


The  Massachusetts  Historical  Society. — 
Boston,  April  14. — The  annual  meeting  of  the 
Massachusetts  Historical  Society  was  held  on  the 
14th,  the  President,  Hon.  Eobert  C.  Winthrop, 
in  the  chair.  The  attendance  was  uncommonly 
large.  The  President,  at  the  conclusion  of  the 
usual  monthly  business,  thus  referred  to  the  pro- 
posed Shakspeare  commemoration ; 

You  will  hardly  need  to  be  reminded,  gentle- 
men, that  you  are  now  wTithin  a  few  days  of  the 
great  Tercentenary  Commemoration  of  the  birth- 
day of  Shakspeare  ;  and  though  our  society  has 
made  no  arrangements  for  any  formal  observance 
of  the  day,  we  can  none  of  us  be  insensible  to 
the  interest  of  the  occasion. 

It  is  eminently  appropriate  that  the  principal 
celebration  of  the  event  should  take  place  in  the 
land  and  on  the  spot  where  it  occurred ;  and  we 
shall  look  eagerly  for  the  reports  of  what  shall  be 
said  and  done  at  Stratford-upon-Avon  on  the 
successive  days  which  have  been  designated  for 
the  commemoration.  Our  own  land  is,  unhap- 
pily, hardly  in  a  condition  for  engaging  in  the 
festivities  of  such  an  anniversary  with  all  the  zeal 
and  heartiness  it  is  so  well  calculated  to  excite. 
Yet  we  all  feel  that  it  might  well  become  us  to 
take  a  part  in  the  jubilee.  We  all  feel  that,  as 
the  descendants  of  English  ancestors  who  were 




cotemporary  with  Shakspeare,  we  have  a  full 
share  both  in  the  large  inheritance  of  his  fame, 
and  in  the  world's  great  debt  to  his  memory. 

We  do  not  forget  that  he  had  finished  his  mar- 
vellous work,  and  gone  to  his  rest  four  years 
before  the  Pilgrim  Fathers  landed  at  Plymouth 
Rock ;  fourteen  years  before  the  Massachusetts 
Company  embarked  at  Southampton. 

We  do  not  forget  that  it  was  the  wreck  of  Sir 
George  Somers  in  the  Bermudas  in  1609,  when 
on  his  way  to  Virginia  for  the  settlement  of  an 
American  Colony,  which  suggested  the  scene  and 
some  of  the  most  striking  incidents  for  that  one 
of  his  dramas  which  stands  first  in  his  printed 
volumes,  and  which,  for  the  sublimity  of  its  con- 
ceptions and  the  exquisite  beauty  of  its  language, 
is  second  to  nothing  which  he  ever  wrote. 

It  is  interesting  to  us  to  remember,  too,'  that 
the  son  of  the  same  Earl  of  Southampton,  who 
was  Shakspeare's  earliest  patron  and  especial 
friend,  and  to  whom  he  dedicated  his  first  poem, 
was  among  the  best  friends  of  some  of  our  own 
New  England  colonies. 

But,  above  all,  we  cannot  forget  the  inexhaust- 
ible wealth  which  Shakspeare  has  contributed 
to  that  English  Literature,  which,  down  to  the 
period  of  our  National  Independence,  certainly, 
we  have  a  right  to  speak  of  as  our  literature,  and 
to  that  English  language,  which,  thank  Heaven, 
is  ours,  and  will  be  ours  for  ever. 

Nor  can  we  fail,  as  an  Historical  Society,  toj 
remember  Shakspeare  as  an  historian  as  well; 
as  a  dramatist  and  poet.  The  original  title  of 
his  collected  works,  as  published  successively  in 
1623,  1632,  1664,  and  1685,  was  "Mr.  WiUiam 
Shakspeare's  Comedies,  Histories,  and  Tra- 
gedies." And  what  historian  has  ever  done  so 
much  as  he  to  give  life  and  individuality  to  the 
great  characters  which  he  portrays,  or  to  make 
the  events  which  he  describes  familiar  as  house- 
hold words  for  ever?  It  may  be  that  he  was  not 
always  exact  in  following  the  old  chronicles  of 
Hollinshed,  or  that  he  may  have  sometimes  in- 
dulged a  poetic  license  in  dressing  his  figures  for 
the  stage.  Yet  no  one  will  doubt  that  the 
common  mind  of  the  last  two  centuries  has  owed 
its  most  vivid  impressions — I  had  almost  said  its 
only  impressions — of  the  Richards  and  the 
Henries,  of  Macbeth  and  Hamlet,  of  King  Lear 
and  King  John — to  say  nothing  of  Julius  Caesar 
and  Mark  Antony — to  the  historical  dramas  ol 

Unhappily  he  that  has  given  us  so  many  grand 
delineations  of  others  has  left  but  few  records  oi 
himself.  Even  the  day  of  his  birth,  which  is 
about  to  be  celebrated,  is  but  a  matter  of  infer- 
ence ;  it  is  only  known,  certainly,  as  the  day  of 
his  death.     We  know  the  date  of  his  baptism 

born  and  where  he  was  buried.  We  know  that 
he  married  Anne  Hathaway,  and  had  three 
children.  We  know  that  he  went  to  London, 
wrote  plays,  and  helped  to  perform  them  at  the 
Globe  and  the  Blackfryers.  We  know  that  he 
returned  to  Stratford-upon-Avon,  made  a  will, 
"  commending  his  soul  into  the  hands  of  God  his 
creator,  hoping  and  assuredly  believing,  through 
the  only  merits  of  Jesus  Christ  his  Saviour,  to  be 
made  partaker  of  life  everlasting,"  and  soon 
afterwards  died  at  fifty-two  years  of  age. 

Almost  every  thing  else  is  inference,  conjecture, 
uncertain  tradition.  And  so  it  happens  that  we 
know  least  of  him  of  whom  we  should  all  desire 
to  know  most.  Not  one  familiar  letter,  not  one 
authentic  conversation,  hardly  a  domestic  inci- 
dent. Only  three  or  four  known  autographs, 
and  those  but  signatures.  Not  a  scrap  of  his 
original  manuscript,  a  single  line  of  which  would 
outsell  the  collected  autographs  of  all  the  mon- 
archs  of  the  world ;  not  a  scrap  of  those  priceless 
manuscripts,  though  the  players  must  have  had 
them  all  when  they  said,  in  their  preface  to  the 
first  edition  of  his  works,  that  °  his  mind  and 
hand  went  together ;  and  that  what  he  thought 
he  uttered  with  that  easiness  that  we  have  scarce 
received  from  him  a  blot  in  his  papers." 

And  this  brings  before  us  a  fact  most  import- 
ant to  his  character.  We  know  that  so  insensible 
was  he  to  the  worth  of  his  own  writings,  or  so 
indifferent  to  their  fate,  that  he  never  collected 
or  revised  them  for  publication,  and  that  it  was 
seven  years  after  his  death  before  they  entered 
upon  that  world-wide  career  of  immortality 
which  the  press  and  the  stage,  the  art  and  the 
literature  of  almost  every  land  beneath  the  sun, 
have  since  united  to  secure  for  them,  and  which 
they  seem  destined  to  enjoy,  generation  after 
generation,  age  after  age,  above  all  other  writings 
except  the  Holy  Scriptures. 

Nor  would  we  willingly  forget  that  the  only 
epithets  coupled  with  his  name  by  his  cotem- 
poraries  and  friends  were,  "  Our  gentle  Shak- 
speare " — "  Our  worthy  Shakspeare  " — "  Our 
beloved  Shakspeare." 

But  it  is  not  my  purpose,  gentlemen — even 
were  it  in  my  power — to  forestall  the  eloquent 
eulogies  which  will  be  pronounced  on  the  great 
English  Dramatist,  at  home  and  abroad,  during 
the  approaching  Commemoration  Week.  I  only 
designed  by  these  few  remarks  to  prepare  the 
way  for  the  following  resolution,  which  your 
Standing  Committee  have  authorized  me  to  sub- 
mit for  your  adoption : 

Resolved,  By  the  Massachusetts  Historical 
Society,  that  in  view  of  the  near  approach  of  the 
Tercentenary  Commemoration  of  the  birthday 
of  Shakspeare,  we  gladly  avail  ourselves  of  the 

and  of  his  funeral.    We  know  where  he  was  opportunity  afforded  us  by  this,  our  Seventy- 




third  Annual  Meeting,  to  enter  upon  our  records  We  have,  happily,  changed  all  that.  People 
an  expression  of  profound  reverence  for  the  j  who  reside  here  begin  to  own  Brooklyn,  feel 
genius  of  that  marvellous  man;  of  our  gratitude  proud  of  it,  and  try  to  improve  it.     One  of  the 

to  God  for  the  matchless  gifts  with  which  he 
was  endowed  for  the  instruction  and  delight  of 
mankind  ;  of  our  deep  sense  of  the  inexhaustible 
riches  which  his  writings  have  added  to  the 
literature  and  the  language  which  were  the  birth- 
right of  our  fathers,  and  which  are  ours  by  in- 
heritance ;  and  of  our  hearty  sympathy  with  all 
those,  whether  in  Old  England,  in  our  own 
country,  or  in  any  other  part  of  the  world,  who 
shall  unite  in  celebrating  so  memorable  a  nativity. 
The  resolution  was  unanimously  adopted. 
The  reports  of  the  Standing  Committee,  the 
Librarian,  and  the  Treasurer  were  read. 

After  the  transaction  of  some  private  business 
the  following  gentlemen  were  elected  officers  for 
the  ensuing  year: — 

President,  Hon.  Robert  C.  Winthrop,  LL.D.  ; 
Vice-Presidents,  Jared  Sparks,  LL.D.,  Colonel 
Thomas  Aspinwall,  A.M. ;  Recording  Secretary, 
Charles  Deane,  A.M.  (in  place  of  Rev.  Chandler 
Robbins)  ;  Corresponding  Secretary,  Rev.  Chan- 
dler Robbins,  D.D.  (in  place  of  Joseph  Willard 
who  declined  a  re-election) ;  Treasurer,  Hon 
Richard  Frothingham,  A.M. ;  Librarian,  Thomas 
C.  Amory,  jr.,  A.M.  (in  place  of  Dr.  Nathaniel 
B.  Shurtleff,  who  declined  a  re-election)  ;  Cabinet 
Keeper,  Samuel  A.  Green,  M.D. ;  Standing  Com- 
mittee, William  G.  Brooks,  esq.,  Rev.  George  E. 
Ellis,  D.D.,  Horace  Gray,  jr.,  A.M.,  Charles  E. 
Norton,  A.M.,  Rev.  Edward  E.  Hale,  A.M. 


Long  Island  Historical  Society. — A  Sketch 
of  its  Origin,  Progress,  and  Position.  Ten  years 
ago  it  was  justly  said  of  Brooklyn  that  it  was 
merely  a  dormitory  for  New  York  business  men. 
Thousands  of  residents  of  Brooklyn  —  citizens 
of  Brooklyn  they  could  not  be  called,  for 
they  exercised  none  of  the  most  cherished  pri- 
vileges of  citizenship  here — knew  and  cared 
nothing  about  our  local  affairs,  took  no  in- 
terest in  local  institutions,  except  their  own 
churches.  Brooklyn  was  called  the  City  01 
Churches  probably  because  it  had  no  other  insti- 
tutions. Something  had  been  done  for  the  cause 
of  education,  but  that  had  its  origin  in  a  charita- 
ble bequest,  and  was  not  an  evidence  of  public 
spirit.  We  had  a  few  scattered  literary  socie- 
ties, which  lingered  along  in  a  feeble  condition  ,, 
no  place  of  public  amusement ;  a  lecture-room,  ( 
and  a  second  rate  ball-room  or  two,  limited  our 
facilities  for  providing  anything  else  in  the  shape 
of  a  public  entertainment. 

consequences  of  this  change  has  been  the  esta- 
blishment of  various  institutions  which  enhance 
the  attractions  of  our  city  as  a  place  of  residence 
for  persons  of  taste  and  culture.  Our  present 
object  is  to  sketch  the  most  recent  of  these  insti- 
tutions, the  Long  Island  Historical  Society.  The 
growth  of  this  Society  has  been  remarkable ;  any 
person  stepping  into  its  well  furnished  rooms, 
looking  through  the  amply  stocked  library  and 
museum,  not  acquainted  with  the  facts,  would 
scarcely  believe  that  this  Society  is  hardly  a  year 

The  first  movement  towards  the  formation  of 
this  Society  was  the  issuing  of  a  circular  dated 
Feb.  14,  1863,  which  says:  "The  time  has  ar- 
rived when  the  city  of  Brooklyn  should  found 
and  foster  institutions — religious,  historical,  lite- 
rary, scientific,  educational,  and  humanitarian — 
beyond  the  scope  of  former  undertakings.  As 
one  of  these,  a  Historical  Society,  associated  with 
our  peculiar  geographical  position,  naturally  sug- 
gests itself."  The  details  of  the  proposed  Soci- 
ety are  more  fully  set  forth  as  follows :  To  call 
out  the  recollections  of  the  living,  who  will  soon 
pass  away,  drawing  public  records  and  private 
writings  from  their  concealment,  having  a  fit 
place  for  the  collection  and  deposit  of  trophies, 
medals,  and  historic  materials,  and  also  for  con- 
versations and  lectures  upon  historic  subjects,  it 
cannot  be  doubted  that  much  valuable  know- 
ledge will  be  saved  and  communicated  which 
would  otherwise  be  lost. 

This  call  was  signed  by  representatives  of  the 
three  counties  on  the  Island,  gentlemen  whose 
names  had  been  long  identified  with  our  public 
institutions  and.  had  contributed  to  their  success. 
The  first  meeting  was  held  in  the  Hamilton 
Buildings,  corner  of  Court  and  Joralemon  streets; 
it  was  well  attended,  and  there  was  a  deep  inter- 
est manifested  in  the  movement. 

A  resolution  offered  by  Mr.  A.  J.  Spooner  was 
unanimously  adopted,  "  declaring  that  the  time 
had  arrived  when  Brooklyn  should  found  and 
establish,  and  this  meeting  does  found  and  esta- 
blish the  'Long Island  Historical  Society,'  whose 
objects  shall  be  to  discover,  procure,  and  preserve 
whatever  may  relate  to  general  history,  to  the 
national,  civil,  ecclesiastical,  and  literary  history 
of  the  United  States,  the  State  of  New  York, 
and,  more  particularly,  of  the  counties,  cities, 
towns,  and  villages  of  Lc«g  Island." 

A  committee  on  by-laws  was  then  appointed, 
which  in  one  week  from  that  date  drew  up  and 
presented  a  constitution  and  by-laws  which  were 
adopted,  the  Society  duly  formed,  and  thirty- 
one  members  enrolled  that  evening  (March  10). 




The  memberships  rapidly  increased;  a  suite  of 
rooms  was  engaged  in  the  Hamilton  Buildings ; 
a  library  speedily  accumulated;  and  on  the  7th 
of  May  last  the  Society  made  its  public  debut  at 
the  Academy  of  Music,  when  the  Rev.  R.  S. 
Storrs,  D.D.,  read  his  address  on  the  "  Life,  Cha- 
racter, and  Services  of  the  late  General  0.  M. 

Since  that  date,  the  progress  of  the  Society  in 
the  acquisition  of  literary  treasures,  as  well  as  in 
the  increase  of  its  membership  and  its  consequent 
influence,  has  been  rapid  and  brilliant  to  a  degree 
hitherto  unequalled  in  the  history  of  similar  in- 
stitutions. Its  roll  of  members,  already  number- 
ing more  than  500,  is  rapidly  increasing  by  the 
addition  of  a  class  of  citizens  whose  character, 
social  position,  and  high  cultivation,  form  a  sure 
guarantee  of  the  future  prosperity  and  perma- 
nence of  the  Society.  Its  library  now  comprises 
(principally  by  donation)  more  than  10,000  dis- 
tinct works,  of  which  over  6,500  are  bound  vo- 
lumes— the  whole  forming  a  collection  of  rare  in- 
terest and  value,  and,  in  some  departments,  al- 
ready superior  to  any  other  collection  in  the 
State.  The  liberality  of  several  of  our  well 
known  citizens  has  further  secured  the  founda- 
tion, on  a  broad  and  liberal  basis,  of  certain  spe- 
cial departments  of  historical  research,  and  has 
also  adorned  the  walls  with  the  attractions  of 
several  fine  portraits,  paintings,  etc. 

In  addition  to  the  library  there  is  a  collection 
of  curiosities  and  relics,  embracing  over  three 
hundred  specimens,  many  of  rare  interest,  and 
nearly  all  pertaining  to  Long  Island.  Nearly  all 
these  articles  were  donated  to  the  Society.  They 
were  in  possession  of  descendants  of  the  oldest 
settlers  on  the  Island,  and  the  Society  has  been 
looked  upon  with  great  favor  by  the  old  families, 
who  have  cheerfully  contributed  these  relics  to 
enrich  its  collection. 

Government  of  the  Society.- — The  Society  has 
a  set  of  officers  similar  to  all  other  organizations 
— a  President,  Vice-President,  Secretary,  etc., 
also  a  Board  of  three  councillors  from  each 
county  on  the  Island ;  likewise  a  Board  of 
twenty-five  directors,  and  the  necessary  com- 

The  following  are  the  present  officers  of  the 
Society : 

President — J.  Carson  Brevoort. 

First  Vice-President — John  Greenwood. 

Second  Vice-President — Charles  E.  West. 

Foreign  Corresp.  Sec'y — Henry  C.  Murphy. 

Home  Corresp.  Sec'y — John  Winslow. 

Recording  Secretary — A.  Cooke  Hull, 

Treasurer — Charles  Congdon. 

Librarian — Henry  R.  Stiles. 

Counsellors — King's  County — Hon.  John  A. 
Lott,  Francis  Vinton,  D.D.,  Teunis  G.  Bergen,  Esq. 

Queens  County — Wm.  Cullen  Bryant,  Esq.,  Hon. 
John  A.  King,  Rich.  C.  McCormick,  Esq.  Suf- 
folk County  —  Hon.  Selah  B.  Strong,  Hon.  J. 
Lawrence  Smith,  Wm.  S.  Pelletreau,  Esq. 

The  Society  comprises  Resident,  Correspond- 
ing, and  Honorary  Members,  the  first  being  resi- 
dents on  Long  Island,  the  second  and  third  resi- 
dents elsewhere.  The  initiation  fee  is  $5,  with 
$3  per  annum  for  dues,  or  the  payment  of  $25 
secures  a  life-membership. 

The  rooms  of  the  Society,  situated  on  the  se- 
cond floor  of  the  Hamilton  Building,  on  the  cor- 
ner of  Court  and  Joralemon  streets,  are  five  in 
number.  First,  the  lecture-room,  a  very  com- 
fortably furnished  apartment,  with  desk  and  plat- 
form for  lecture,  will  seat  175  persons,  and  by 
throwing  open  the  back  room,  250  can  be  seated 
so  as  to  see  and  hear  all  that  is  going  on. 

The  second  room  serves  as  an  office  for  the 
librarian,  and  students1  room.  The  third  room 
is  devoted  to  curiosities  and  relics,  books  of  gen- 
eral literature,  and  European  history.  The  fourth 
room  contains  the  collection  of  works  on  United 
States  political  history.  The  fifth  is  a  reading- 
room,  where  may  be  found  the  local  newspapers 
and  current  publications  on  file. 

The  library  contains  many  works  of  great 
merit,  and  the  most  complete  historical  collection 
to  be  found  anywhere.  The  library  has  been 
very  handsomely  endowed  by  several  of  our  libe- 
ral and  public-spirited  citizens.  Mr.  Charles 
Storrs  has  contributed  a  fund  of  $500  for  the 
purchase  of  English  County  and  Local  Histories, 
and  works  of  Topography  illustrative  of  the  early 
colonization  of  America,  which  have  already  been 
purchased  and  are  on  their  way  from  England. 
Mr.  S.  B.  Caldwell  has  since  added  $100  to  this 

Mr.  Franklin  B.  Woodruff  has  given  $500  for 
the  purchase  of  works  on  Voyages  of  Discovery, 
illustrative  of  the  discovery  of  America  and  the 
extension  of  commerce. 

Mr.  Henry  Sheldon  has  donated  $1,250,  to  be 
applied,  $750  for  historic  paintings  and  portraits, 
$500  for  books  of  art. 

Another  gentleman,  too  modest  to  see  his  name 
in  print,  has  commenced  a  fund  for  the  purchase 
of  works  on  Heraldry. 

Still  another  gentleman,  reticent  of  fame,  is 
now  purchasing  in  Paris  for  the  Society  a  valu- 
able collection  of  French  historical  works  on 

Mr.  S.  B.  Chittenden,  whose  public-spirited 
generosity  embraces  all  things,  gave,  in  October 
last,  a  valuable  set  of  Congressional  documents, 
embracing  800  volumes,  collected  by  the  late 
Hon.  Ashbury  Dickens,  of  Washington. 

The  library  contains  also  a  collection  of  works 
on  American   genealogy,  and  is  very  rich  in 




American  local  history;  some  four  hundred  vo- 
lumes of  newspapers,  bound  and  unbound,  and 
a  collection  of  pamphlets  and  other  publications 
on  the  Rebellion.  But  for  fuller  particulars  we 
must  refer  our  readers  to  the  catalogue,  or  to  the 
courteous  librarian,  Dr.  Stiles,  who  is  an  enthu- 
siast in  his  vocation,  and  takes  a  pleasure  in  im- 
parting information  to  visitors. 

Curiosities  and  Relics. — As  we  have  before 
mentioned,  nearly  all  the  curiosities  and  relics 
belong  to  Long  Island,  and  they  have  been  judi- 
ciously selected.  There  is  no  accumulation  of 
rubbish ;  every  specimen  possesses  an  individual 
interest.  The  recent  Sanitary  Fair  collected  to- 
gether many  rare  and  curious  things,  many  of 
which  were  purchased  and  presented  to  the  His- 
torical Society  by  its  members. 

There  is  a  fine  collection  of  autographs,  and  a 
beginning  has  been  made  towards  a  numismatic 
collection ;  and  the  Society  already  possesses 
several  hundred  coins  and  medals  of  great  va- 

Zoology  has  not  been  entirely  neglected ;  over 
the  librarian's  desk  we  notice,  as  we  enter,  a 
fine  specimen  of  the  grey  or  white  owl,  a  native 
of  Queens  county,  now  a  very  rare  bird  on  the 

We  can  notice  but  a  few  of  the  more  import- 
ant specimens  in  the  museum  department,  which, 
better  than  anything  that  could  be  written,  illus- 
trates the  "olden  times"  of  Long  Island.  Here 
are  specimens  of  the  old  Dutch  tiles  in  blue,  pur- 
ple, and  white,  with  Scriptural  illustration,  Hol- 
land landscapes,  etc. ;  the  pewter  platters,  old- 
fashioned  chair  and  spinning-wheel,  bed-hang- 
ings, and  other  domestic  articles.  There  are  also 
many  Indian  relics,  a  copper  axe-head,  the  stone 
apparatus  for  grinding  corn,  etc.,  all  found  on 
Long  Island. 

A  specimen  of  early  Brooklyn  manufactures 
is  given  by  a  glass  bottle,  the  first  one  manufac- 
tured at  a  glass  works  started  in  1754  near  the 
site  of  the  present  glass  works  in  State  street. 
This  enterprise,  we  are  informed,  was  brought  to 
an  untimely  end  for  want  of  sand — that  is,  the 
right  kind  of  sand. 

There  is  a  wooden  gun  rack,  used  in  the  first 
meeting-house  on  Long  Island.  This  is  a  rather 
curious  piece  of  furniture  for  a  church,  but  it  was 
necessary  in  those  times.  The  rascally  Indians 
were  no  respecters  of  the  Sabbath,  and,  learning 
the  devout  character  of  our  ancestors,  often  at- 
tempted to  surprise  them  at  their  devotions.  So 
the  male  members  of  the  congregation  took  their 
guns  to  church  with  them,  and  put  them  up  in 
these  racks,  as  we  hang  up  our  hats  and  over- 
coats; and  it  was  no  uncommon  thing  for  the 
dominie  to  be  cut  short  in  the  middle  of  his  ser- 
mon by  a  rush  for  the  gun  rack  and  a  stampede 

of  the  brethren  to  get  a  shot  at  the  Red  Skins. 
Let  our  church  folks  be  thankful  that  their  lot 
has  fallen  in  more  peaceful  times. 

Next  of  interest  in  the  martial  line,  though 
not  a  relic  of  the  past,  but  a  painful  reminder  of 
the  present  unhappy  condition  of  our  country, 
we  find  the  battle-flags  of  the  First  Long  Island 
Regiment.  Borne  on  many  a  hard  contested 
field  ever  in  van,  they  are  mementoes  of  the  va- 
lor of  Long  Island's  sons — an  evidence  that  they 
are  worthy  descendants  of  the  brave  old  settlers 
who  first  disputed  with  the  Indians  the  posses- 
sion of  the  soil,  and  then  consecrated  it  with  their 
blood  to  freedom  in  the  revolutionary  struggle. 

A  more  pleasing  relic  of  revolutionary  times 
is  a  set  of  bed-hangings  embroidered  by  a  lady 
of  Bridgehampton,  Long  Island.  This  lady  had  a 
patriotic  disgust  of  the  Britishers,  and  she  cari- 
catured their  army  in  embroidery  for  her  own 
entertainment.  The  figures  are  exceedingly  gro- 
tesque, and  afford  much  amusement  to  the  visitor 
of  the  museum. 

An  iron  "back-plate"  of  a  fireplace,  bearing 
the  royal  arms  and  the  date  of  casting,  1704,  ta- 
ken from  one  of  our  old  mansions ;  and  a  brass 
pepper-box  of  ample  dimensions,  brought  from 
Zivol,  in  the  province  of  Overyssel,  Holland,  by 
Garret  Cornelius  Van  Duyn,  who  emigrated  in 
1649,  are  among  the  most  curious  of  the  domes- 
tic relics. 

The  Communion  cup  used  in  the  Old  Dutch 
Church  in  Bushwick,  in  1708,  is  presented  here. 
Engraved  on  it  are  some  wise  axioms :  "  Speak 
what  is  true — eat  what  is  well  done — drink  what 
is  pure." 

The  most  interesting  natural  curiosity  is  a 
large  stone  bearing  the  distinct  imprint  of  a  hu- 
man foot.  This  was  found  at  Fort  Pond,  near 
Montauk  Point.  It  attracted  the  notice  of  some 
of  the  earliest  settlers  of  that  part  of  the  Island. 
The  Indians  regarded  it  with  veneration,  and  had 
a  legend  about  it  to  the  effect  that  on  tins  spot 
the  Evil  Spirit  and  the  Good  Spirit  had  a  despe- 
rate struggle,  in  which,  as  in  all  proper  works  of 
fiction,  the  Evil  One  got  the  worst  of  it,  and  in 
despair  he  jumped  from  this  stone  into  the  pool 
below  and  disappeared,  and  was  never  seen  in 
body  or  spirit  again,  but  left  the  measure  of  his 
foot  indelibly  impressed  on  this  boulder  that  he 
might  live  in  the  memory  of  future  generations. 

A  piece  of  the  genuine  Plymouth  Rock  is  also 
embraced  in  the  collection. 

One  of  our  religious  sects  will  be  particularly 
interested  in  a  curious  memento  of  their  cele- 
brated preacher,  the  Rev.  George  Whitfield.  It  is 
a  simple  pane  of  glass,  with  four  words  scratched 
upon  its  surface,  the  history»of  which  is  given  as 
follows:  During  his  visit  to  tins  country  in  1765, 
Whitfield  visited  Southold,  Long  Island,  and  was 




lodged  at  the  house  of  one  Thomas  Fanning,  who 
was  well  provided  with  worldly  treasures,  but 
lacked  what  his  worthy  guest  preferred  to  all 
besides,  an  "  upright  heart  and  pure."  Whitfield 
wrote  with  a  diamond  upon  a  pane  of  glass  in 
his  bedroom  window  these  words :  "  One  thing 
is  needful."  The  house  passed  through  many 
hands,  was  altered  and  repaired ;  every  other 
pane  of  glass  in  the  house  was  broken  and  re- 
placed at  some  time  or  another,  but  this  one  re- 
mained intact,  and  was  recently  presented  to  the 
Historical  Society,  who  have  it  framed  and  will 
preserve  it  for  the  edification  of  future  genera- 
tions of  the  followers  of  the  great  apostle  of 

By  way  of  variety  there  is  a  collection  of  small 
Egyptian  curiosities. 

Portraits. — The  Society  has  a  few  valuable 
historical  portraits,  the  commencement  of  a  col- 

The  walls  of  the  lecture-room  are  ornamented 
with  the  principal  pictures.  First,  a  portrait  of 
General  Warren,  who  fell  at  Bunker  Hill,  painted 
by  Copley,  father  of  the  late  Lord  Lyndhurst. 
A  portrait  of  De  Witt  Clinton,  by  Ingham.  A 
portrait  of  Commodore  Truxton,  of  Long  Island, 
by  Otis,  1817.  These  three  paintings  were  pur- 
chased from  the  Sheldon  fund.  Two  others  have 
been  purchased  and  will  be  shortly  added  to  the 

Opposite  are  fine  portraits  of  G-enerals  Banks 
and  Meade,  presented  to  the  Society  by  Mr.  H. 
B.  Cromwell. 

Near  the  door  is  a  portrait  of  Judge  Egbert 
Benson,  of  Long  Island,  painted  by  Gilbert  Stu- 
art, and  presented  to  the  Society  by  Mr.  G-eorge 
S.  Stephenson. 

There  is  a  smaller  picture  of  the  Rev.  Samuel 
Buck,  who  was  pastor  of  the  church  at  East- 
hampton,  Long  Island,  from  1746  to  1798,  pre- 
sented by  Mr.  J.  B.  Woolworth. 

In  the  museum  is  a  fac-simile  of  the  bust  of 
Shakspeare  over  his  tomb  at  Stratford  on  the 
Avon.     Only  four  copies  were  ever  taken. 

There  are  also  fine  and  costly  bronze  portraits 
(in  relievo)  of  Washington  and  Franklin  by  H. 
K.  Browne,  the  sculptor,  donated  by  Mr.  A.  S. 

Entertainments. — The  Society  has  not  only 
furnished  all  these  means  for  its  members  to  en- 
tertain and  instruct  themselves,  but  has  given 
semi-monthly  entertainments  of  a  literary  and 
scientific  character,  in  which  learning  and  talent 
of  a  high  order  have  been  engaged. 

Since  the  opening  of  its  rooms  the  following 
addresses  and  original  papers  have  been  read  be- 
fore the  Society :     « 

June  11.  In  the  chapel  of  the  Packer  Institute, 
an  oration  on  "  The  Annals  of  Rhode  Island  and 

the  Providence  Plantations,"  by  Rev.  Francis 
Vinton,  D.D. ;  accompanied  by  a  poem  by  George 
W.  Curtis,  Esq. 

July  4.  In  the  Academy  of  Music,  an  oration, 
by  Grenville  Tudor  Jenks,  Esq. 

Sept.  4.  At  a  county  meeting  held  at  Hemp- 
stead, Long  Island,  a  paper  on  "  Experience  in 
Charleston,  South  Carolina,  in  the  earlier  Part  of 
the  Rebellion,  and  as  United  States  Consul  at 
the  Bahamas  during  the  first  two  Years  of  the 
War,"  by  Captain  Samuel  Whiting;  also,  a  "Me- 
moir of  Timothy  Clowes,  LL.D.,  of  Hempstead, 
Long  Island,"  by  Alden  J.  Spooner,  Esq. 

Sept.  24.  At  a  special  meeting  of  the  Society, 
a  paper  entitled  "Personal  Recollections  of  Aaron 
Burr,  and  some  of  his  Contemporaries  of  the  New 
York  Bar,"  by  the  Hon  John  Greenwood. 

Oct.  9.  A  conversational  meeting.  Subject, 
"  The  Indian  History  of  Long  Island." 

Nov.  2.  At  a  regular  meeting  of  the  Society, 
a  paper  on  "  Long  Island,"  by  Wm.  Alfred  Jones, 
Esq.,  Librarian  of  Columbia  College,  New  York. 

Nov.  10.  In  the  chapel  of  the  Packer  Insti- 
tute, the  first  of  a  series  of  six  lectures,  to  be 
delivered  on  successive  Tuesday  evenings,  on 
"  The  Fall  of  Rome,"  by  the  Rev.  John  Lord. 

Dec.  3.  At  a  regular  meeting  of  the  Society] 
in  the  chapel  of  the  Packer  Institute,  a  paper